National Agricultural and Food Center

Food, Slovakia

National Agricultural and Food Center

Food, Slovakia
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Laukova A.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Simonova M.P.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Chrastinova L'.,National Agricultural and Food Center | Kandricakova A.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Czech Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2017

From the aspect of probiotic properties and bacteriocins, Enterococcus faecium belongs to the most frequently studied species among enterococci. This study deals with testing the strain of the species Enterococcus durans ED 26E/7 in broiler rabbits. The strain ED 26E/7 isolated from ewes lump cheese produces an antimicrobial substance durancin. Forty-eight post-weaned rabbits (aged 5 weeks) of both sexes were divided into experimental group (EG) and control group (CG) per 24 animals each, and kept in standard cages, two animals per cage. EG group rabbits were additionally administered the ED 26E/7 strain (500 μl/animal/day) into water for 21 days. CG group rabbits were fed a commercial feed. The experiment lasted 42 days. Faeces and blood samples were taken on days 0-1 (experiment onset), 21 (after a 3-week application), and 42 (3 weeks after ED 26E/7 strain cessation). On days 21 and 42, rabbits were slaughtered and caeca and appendix were sampled. The rabbits' digestive tract was found to be sufficiently colonized by the strain ED 26E/7; the antimicrobial effect was demonstrated in caecum and appendix (e.g. decrease in coliforms). Reduction of Eimeria sp. oocysts in EG compared to CG rabbits was detected on day 21, when also a significant (P < 0.05) increase of phagocytic activity in EG was registered. Values of glutathione-peroxidase were lower in EG than in CG rabbits on day 21 implying that the ED 26E/7 application had not evoked oxidative stress. Biochemical blood parameters and quality of meat were not negatively influenced. First time tested in animals, E. durans ED 26E/7 seems to be a new candidate for use in rabbits husbandry.

Sistkova M.,University of South Bohemia | Psenka M.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Celjak I.,University of South Bohemia | Bartos P.,University of South Bohemia | And 3 more authors.
Acta Technologica Agriculturae | Year: 2016

Mechanical devices in parlours are a source of noise, and this noise has an effect not only on the operators of the parlour but also on dairy cows. They have more sensitive hearing than humans. The aim of this article was to analyse the sound pressure level and determine the noise exposure of dairy cows at different technological solutions of milking parlours, during their day routine. In the experiment, tandem, herringbone and rotary milking parlours were used. Noise exposure was measured during the milking process. After evaluation of noise pressure levels of different types of milking parlours, it can be concluded that in this experiment, the equivalent noise pressure level was lowest in the tandem milking parlour. Equivalent sound pressure levels in the rotary and herringbone milking parlour were almost about the same values. These values are higher than values in the tandem milking parlour, about 10 decibels. The differences within mean LAFeq values between the herringbone milking parlour and tandem milking parlour were highly statistically significant (P <0.001∗∗∗).

Mendelova A.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Mendel L.,National Agricultural and Food Center | Fikselova M.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Marecek J.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Vollmannova A.,Slovak University of Agriculture
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences | Year: 2017

To one of the most valuable pumpkin fruit belongs winter squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch). The aim of this work was to assess the quality of C. moschata fruit and to assess the dynamics of compositional changes after the heat treatment of the pulp. We used six varieties Liscia, Orange, Hannah, UG 201 F1, Waltham, Serpentine. In the samples were analyzed carbohydrate content (glucose, fructose and sucrose), total polyphenols, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity. The fresh pulp and pulp after the heat treatment were observed. Content of carbohydrates was determined by FTIR infrared spectroscopy. Content of total carotenoids, polyphenols and antioxidant activity was determined by spectrophotometry. As the dominant sugar was found to be sucrose. The lowest content of all carbohydrates was found in the variety Serpentine. Fructose content ranged from 7.59 to 12.32 g.100 g-1 dry matter, glucose content from 7.23 to 9.79 g.100 g-1 dry matter and sucrose content 38.67 to 55.94 g.100 g-1 dry matter. After processing there was found a decrease in the sucrose and the slight increase in glucose and fructose content. Total carotenoid content in fruits ranged from 39.01 to 97.67 g mg.100 g-1 dry matter, the content of total polyphenols from 443.98 to 565.44 mg GAE.100 g-1 dry matter and antioxidant activity from 680.18 to 851.87 mg AA.100 g-1 dry matter. After the heat treatment, there was found some decrease in total carotenoids, polyphenols and antioxidant activity as well. © 2017 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences.

Zbynovska K.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Halenar M.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Chrastinova L.,National Agricultural and Food Center | Ondruska L.,National Agricultural and Food Center | And 7 more authors.
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences | Year: 2017

Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside initially obtained from the seeds of bitter almonds. It is composed of one molecule of benzaldehyde, two molecules of glucose and one molecule of hydrocyanic acid. Various ways of amygdalin application play a different role in recipient organism. Intravenous infusion of amygdalin produced neither cyanidemia nor signs of toxicity, but oral administration resulted in significant blood cyanide levels. The present in vivo study was designed to reveal whether amygdalin is able to cause changes in the haematological profile and thus alter the physiological functions, using rabbits as a biological model. Adult male rabbits (n = 20) were randomly divided into five groups: the control group without any amygdalin administration, two experimental groups received a daily intramuscular injection of amygdalin at a dose 0.6 and 3.0 b.w. and other two groups were fed by crushed apricot seeds at dose 60 and 300 mg. kg-1 b.w., mixed with commercial feed over the period of 14 days. After two weeks, haematological parameters in whole blood were analysed (WBC - total white blood cell count, LYM - lymphocytes count, MID - medium size cell count, GRA - granulocytes count, RBC - red blood cell count, HGB - haemoglobin, HCT - haematocrit, MCV - mean corpuscular volume, MCH - mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCHC - mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, RDWc - red cell distribution width, PLT - platelet count, PCT - platelet percentage, MPV - mean platelet volume, PDWc - platelet distribution width) using haematology analyser Abacus junior VET. Our findings indicate that intramuscular and oral application of amygdalin for two weeks did not significantly affect the haematology parameters in experimental animals. In this study, no obvious beneficial or negative effects of amygdalin administration on the blood of male rabbits were observed. © 2017 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences.

Ducsay L.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Lozek O.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Marcek M.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Varenyiova M.,Slovak University of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2016

The effect of foliar application of selenium (Se) fertilizers (sodium selenite and selenate) in two different Se doses (10 and 20 g/ha) on grain yield, Se content and mechanical and technological parameters of winter wheat grain was investigated in the field fertilization experiment. Foliar spray application of Se was applied at the growth stage of the 2nd node on the main stem (32 BBCH). Selenate foliar applications in dose 10 g Se per ha showed a significant increase of grain yield in comparison to control treatment without Se application. The mechanical and technological parameters of wheat grain were not significantly affected by both selenite and selenate foliar application. The average Se concentration was significantly lower in 2007/2008 (grain yield 8.72 t/ha) than 2006/2007 (yield 6.35 t/ha) growing season (0.133 versus 0.189 mg Se/kg dry matter). The grain Se absorption efficiency at foliar application of 10 and 20 g Se/ha of selenite and selenate were 1.35–1.45% and 13.24–15.14%, respectively. © 2016 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

Simonova M.P.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Laukova A.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Zitnan R.,National Agricultural and Food Center | Chrastinova L.,National Agricultural and Food Center
Czech Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2015

The interactions between probiotic bacteria and the immune system in animals are known, but particularly in rabbits have not been sufficiently documented. Therefore the present study deals with the effect of the enterocin-producing probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium CCM7420 on the growth performance and jejunal morphometry in rabbits. Forty-eight weaned rabbits of male sex (NZB breed) at 5 weeks of age were randomly divided into experimental (EF) and control group (CG) with 24 rabbits in each group. Each day of the treatment period (21 days), the rabbits in the EF group were administered a fresh culture of the E. faecium CCM7420 strain (5.0 × 108 CFU/animal/day in their drinking water); for the next 21 days after probiotic cessation the rabbits had untreated drinking water (the whole experiment lasted for 42 days). All animals had access to water ad libitum. Three animals from each group were randomly selected for slaughter at days 21 and 42 of the experiment to measure morphological parameters (villus height (VH), crypt depth (CD), VH: CD ratio) of the intestinal tissue in the proximal jejunum. The average daily gain was higher in EF group (39.49 g) than in CG (39.04 g). The jejunum VH, surface area, and VH: CD ratio increased, while CD decreased in EF group compared to CG. Inferring from these results, we conclude that administration of E. faecium CCM7420 strain to rabbits may improve weight gain due to better utilization of feed and larger absorption surface in the gut and also may positively influence the health status via enhancing the gut health in rabbits.

PubMed | Slovak Academy of Sciences and National Agricultural and Food Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Folia microbiologica | Year: 2016

This study presents the effects of the probiotic and enterocin M-producing strain Enterococcus faecium AL41 on microbiota, phagocytic activity (PA), oxidative stress, performance and biochemical parameters when applied individually or in combination with Eleutherococcus senticosus in rabbits. The novelty of the study lies in the use of our non-rabbit-derived strain (AL41 = CCM8558) which produces new enterocin M. Ninety-six post-weaned rabbits (Hyplus breed) aged 5 weeks were divided into three experimental groups, 24 in each: E. senticosus (ES, 30 g/100 kg) in feed, E. faecium AL41 (10(9) CFU/mL marked by rifampicin to differentiate it from other enterococci) in water, and ES + AL. AL41 colonized sufficiently in rabbits to reduce coliforms, staphylococci, pseudomonads and clostridia. Slight decrease in bacteria was also found in the caecum and appendix. Phagocytic activity was significantly increased in the experimental groups compared to the control group (CG) (p < 0.001; p < 0.05). Applications did not evoke oxidative stress. Biochemical parameters in blood and caecal organic acids were slightly influenced. Average daily weight gain was slightly higher in ES and AL + ES. Combinative application of E. faecium with E. senticosus can be beneficial in rabbits. AL41 strain alone and in combination with ES produced reduction in spoilage bacteria; the highest stimulation of PA was in the AL41+ ES group.

Mihina S.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Mihina S.,National Agricultural and Food Center | Bodo S.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Galik R.,Slovak University of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2015

The main aim of the paper is to assess an alternative way of disposal of pollutants from housing area, where the air is sucked from spaces below the animals. Measurements were taken in experimental conditions of enriched cage for 10 hens. Pipe for suction was located under the floor of the cage. Gas concentration was determined by the device 1412 Photo acoustic Multi-gas Monitor. Air samples were collected at the animal's head level. Air temperature was continuously registered and air velocity was measured. Measurements were conducted for six consecutive days in each season of the year (spring, summer, autumn and winter). The obtained results were compared with the concentration of harmful gases obtained without the use of the exhausting device. Average values of harmful gases concentrations obtained with utilisation of air suction device placed under the floor of the cage were almost in all cases lower. According to season of the year they varied without air suction device in CO2 832.06 to 1000.75 mg/m3 versus 813.405 to 957.59 mg/m3 with the device exhausting air from the space under the floor. In N2O it was 0.951 to 1.076 mg/m-3 compared with 0.972 to 1.055 mg/m3, in NH3 from 0.013 to 0.092 mg/m3 compared with 0.007 to 0.069 mg/m3, in H2S from 0.171 to 0.579 mg/m3 compared with 0.17 to 0.436 mg/m3 and in CH4 2.076 to 7.211 mg/m3 compared with 1.516 to 5.018 mg/m3. Changing the way of housing ventilation significantly reduced the air flow rate at the level of laying hens’ heads, too. In winter, it was on average 0.6 m/s in traditional with a fan placed in the wall compared to 0.11 m/s in ventilation by tubes located beneath the floor of the cage. In summer it was much higher 1.2 m/s compared to 0.15 m/s. While the temperature at the level of birds’ heads was in winter season higher at the alternative way of ventilation (23.90°C compare to 18.10°C), it had slightly opposite effect during the other seasons in this experiment. This finding needs additional research. © 2015, Int. Comm. of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering. All rights reserved.

Karandusovska I.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Mihina S.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Mihina S.,National Agricultural and Food Center | Bosansky M.,Slovak University of Agriculture
Research in Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2015

The aim of this experiment was to analyze the changes of ammonia production and greenhouse gases in frequent type of stables for dairy cows in winter. Two analyzed stables were situated side by side, one of which is after reconstruction of housing and ventilation technology and the second stable remained in original state. Variances of the mass concentration of gases differed significantly (P < 0.05), and the production of all gases monitored in winter was higher in the original stable. The average ammonia production was 2.45 ± 1.9 mg/m3 in the reconstructed stable, while in the original stable it was 5.1 ± 2.7 mg/m3. Average CO2 production was nearly twice higher in the unreconstructed building, namely 2,045.5 ± 862.3 mg/m3, while in the renovated facility it was 1,254.2 ± 416.2 mg/m3 (P < 0.05). The described type of reconstruction provides increased comfort for animals, which gives rise to a significant increase in production parameters, but also allows up to twice the reduction of hazardous pollutants such as CO2 and ammonia.

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