National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute

Mohali, India

National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute

Mohali, India

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Singh S.P.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute | Vogel-Mikus K.,University of Ljubljana | Arcon I.,University of Nova Gorica | Arcon I.,Jozef Stefan Institute | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2013

Iron insufficiency is a worldwide problem in human diets. In cereals like wheat, the bran layer of the grains is an important source of iron. However, the dietary availability of iron in wheat flour is limited due to the loss of the iron-rich bran during milling and processing and the presence of anti-nutrients like phytic acid that keep iron strongly chelated in the grain. The present study investigated the localization of iron and phosphorus in grain tissues of wheat genotypes with contrasting grain iron content using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was employed to determine the proportion of divalent and trivalent forms of Fe in the grains. It revealed the abundance of oxygen, phosphorus, and sulphur in the local chemical environment of Fe in grains, as Fe-O-P-R and Fe-O-S-R coordination. Contrasting differences were noticed in tissue-specific relative localization of Fe, P, and S among the different genotypes, suggesting a possible effect of localization pattern on iron bioavailability. The current study reports the shift in iron distribution from maternal to filial tissues of grains during the evolution of wheat from its wild relatives to the present-day cultivated varieties, and thus suggests the value of detailed physical localization studies in varietal improvement programmes for food crops. © The Author [2013].

Singh S.P.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute | Vogel-Mikus K.,University of Ljubljana | Vavpetic P.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Jeromel L.,Jozef Stefan Institute | And 3 more authors.
Planta | Year: 2014

Main conclusion: Wheat and its related genotypes show distinct distribution patterns for mineral nutrients in maternal and filial tissues in grains. X-ray-based imaging techniques are very informative to identify genotypes with contrasting tissue-specific localization of different elements. This can help in the selection of suitable genotypes for nutritional improvement of food grain crops. Understanding mineral localization in cereal grains is important for their nutritional improvement. Spatial distribution of mineral nutrients (Mg, P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) was investigated between and within the maternal and filial tissues in grains of two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum Cv. WH291 and WL711), a landrace (T. aestivum L. IITR26) and a related wild species Aegilops kotschyi, using micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) and micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF). Aleurone and scutellum were major storage tissues for macro (P, K, Ca and Mg) as well as micro (Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) nutrients. Distinct elemental distribution patterns were observed in each of the four genotypes. A. kotschyi, the wild relative of wheat and the landrace, T. aestivum L. IITR26, accumulated more Zn and Fe in scutellum and aleurone than the cultivated wheat varieties, WH291 and WL711. The landrace IITR26, accumulated far more S in grains, Mn in scutellum, aleurone and embryo region, Ca and Cu in aleurone and scutellum, and Mg, K and P in scutellum than the other genotypes. Unlike wheat, lower Mn and higher Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were noticed in the pigment strand of A. kotschyi. Multivariate statistical analysis, performed on mineral distribution in major grain tissues (aleurone, scutellum, endosperm and embryo region) resolved the four genotypes into distinct clusters. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Kumar J.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute | Gunapati S.,Devi Ahilya University | Kumari A.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute | Kumar A.,Devi Ahilya University | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Virology | Year: 2014

Betasatellites are geminivirus-associated single-stranded DNA molecules that play an important role in symptom modulation. A VIGS vector was developed by modifying cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). CLCuMB DNA was modified by replacing the βC1 gene with a multiple cloning site. The silencing ability of the modified CLCuMB was investigated by cloning a fragment of a host gene (Su) or a reporter transgene (uidA) into the modified CLCuMB and co-agroinoculation with cotton leaf curl Multan virus, cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus, and ageratum enation virus, separately. The inoculated Nicotiana tabacum, N. benthamiana, Solanum lycopersicum, Arabidopsis thaliana and Gossypium hirsutum plants showed efficient silencing of the cognate genes. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Wien.

Kumar J.,National Botanical Research Institute | Kumar A.,National Botanical Research Institute | Roy J.K.,National Botanical Research Institute | Tuli R.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute | Khan J.A.,National Botanical Research Institute
Virus Genes | Year: 2010

Monopartite begomoviruses comprise DNA-A as the main genome and associated satellite DNAs. Viral DNA extracted from guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) showing leaf curl symptoms exhibited positive amplification of coat protein (CP) gene of DNA-A component, suggesting the presence of begomovirus. Full length DNA-A was amplified by primer pair re-designed from CP gene nucleotide sequence. The associated alphasatellite and betasatellite DNA molecules were amplified and sequenced, confirming the presence of monopartite begomovirus. Sequence comparisons showed 89% identity with other begomoviruses. The Neighbor-Joining tree based on full length DNA-A nucleotide sequence showed that the guar infecting begomovirus clustered separately from other known begomoviruses. The betasatellite shared a high (96%) nucleotide identity to Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellites. The alphasatellite showed 91% nucleotide identity to alphasatellite associated with begomovirus infecting Okra. Recombination analyses showed three recombinant fragments in DNA-A, two in betasatellite, and four in alphasatellite. The results suggest that the begomovirus identified in this study was a new recombinant virus. Its name was proposed as Cyamopsis tetragonoloba leaf curl virus (CyTLCuV). © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Thakur N.,National Botanical Research Institute | Thakur N.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research | Upadhyay S.K.,National Botanical Research Institute | Upadhyay S.K.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Expression of double strand RNA (dsRNA) designed against important insect genes in transgenic plants have been shown to give protection against pests through RNA interference (RNAi), thus opening the way for a new generation of insect-resistant crops. We have earlier compared the efficacy of dsRNAs/siRNAs, against a number of target genes, for interference in growth of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) upon oral feeding. The v-ATPase subunit A (v-ATPaseA) coding gene was identified as a crucial target. We now report the effectiveness of transgenic tobacco plants expressing siRNA to silence v- ATPaseA gene expression for the control of whitefly infestation. Methodology/Principal Findings: Transgenic tobacco lines were developed for the expression of long dsRNA precursor to make siRNA and knock down the v-ATPaseA mRNA in whitefly. Molecular analysis and insecticidal properties of the transgenic plants established the formation of siRNA targeting the whitefly v-ATPaseA, in the leaves. The transcript level of v-ATPaseA in whiteflies was reduced up to 62% after feeding on the transgenic plants. Heavy infestation of whiteflies on the control plants caused significant loss of sugar content which led to the drooping of leaves. The transgenic plants did not show drooping effect. Conclusions/Significance: Host plant derived pest resistance was achieved against whiteflies by genetic transformation of tobacco which generated siRNA against the whitefly v-ATPaseA gene. Transgenic tobacco lines expressing dsRNA of v-ATPaseA, delivered sufficient siRNA to whiteflies feeding on them, mounting a significant silencing response, leading to their mortality. The transcript level of the target gene was reduced in whiteflies feeding on transgenic plants. The strategy can be taken up for genetic engineering of plants to control whiteflies in field crops. © 2014 Thakur et al.

Singh K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Singh K.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University | Singh B.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Tuli R.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2013

Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) has been identified as a biodiesel plant globally. Efforts are underway to domesticate JCL for high seed yield. The plant has potential to grow on marginal/degraded/substandard lands to avoid competition with food crops, but little is known about its potential to reclaim degraded lands. At this study, several accessions of JCL were planted in 2005 on sodic soil to assess soil amelioration potential of the plant. After six years (2011) of plant growth, seed yield was not economically viable; however, soil properties improved significantly when compared to initial (0-year plantation) soil properties at 0-15cm soil depth. Random soil samples were collected from 0 to 15cm soil depth beneath and outside canopies of JCL with high, medium and poor growth in the year 2008 (3-year plantation) and 2011 (6-year plantation). Soil bulk density, pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) decreased and soil organic carbon (SOC), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), microbial biomass (MB-C, MB-N and MB-P) and enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase and protease) increased significantly with effect of JCL plantation. Significant decrease in soil pH, EC and ESP has been noticed from 8.6 to 7.6, 1.29 to 0.98dSm-1 and 20.7% to 13.8%, respectively. Similarly, soil fertility parameters like SOC, MB-C, dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase and protease increased significantly from 4.55 to 8.41gkg-1, 98 to 352μgg-1, 16.3 to 51.2μgTPFg-1h-1, 75.8 to 338.2μgPNPg-1h-1 and 43.7 to 163.2μgTyrosineg-1h-1, respectively after 6 years of JCL cultivation on sodic soil. Changes in soil properties were significantly higher beneath the canopy than outside canopy. Soil sodicity parameters (bulk density, pH, EC and ESP) and fertility attributes (SOC, N, P, MB and enzymes) were significantly negatively and positively correlated with the height, biomass and litter fall of JCL, respectively. Furthermore, to test whether changes in soil properties are induced by test crop, changes were compared with Prosopis juliflora plantation of same age, which is generally planted for amelioration of sodic soils. The significant decrease in soil sodicity and increase in soil fertility conclude that JCL is equally good to reclaim the sodic soils. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Tyagi A.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Bag S.K.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Shukla V.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Roy S.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Tuli R.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: DNA barcoding refers to the use of short DNA sequences for rapid identification of species. Genetic distance or character attributes of a particular barcode locus discriminate the species. We report an efficient approach to analyze short sequence data for discrimination between species. Methodology and Principal Findings: A new approach, Oligonucleotide Frequency Range (OFR) of barcode loci for species discrimination is proposed. OFR of the loci that discriminates between species was characteristic of a species, i.e., the maxima and minima within a species did not overlap with that of other species. We compared the species resolution ability of different barcode loci using p-distance, Euclidean distance of oligonucleotide frequencies, nucleotide-character based approach and OFR method. The species resolution by OFR was either higher or comparable to the other methods. A short fragment of 126 bp of internal transcribed spacer region in ribosomal RNA gene was sufficient to discriminate a majority of the species using OFR. Conclusions/Significance: Oligonucleotide frequency range of a barcode locus can discriminate between species. Ability to discriminate species using very short DNA fragments may have wider applications in forensic and conservation studies. © 2010 Tyagi et al.

Sandhir R.,Panjab University | Yadav A.,Panjab University | Sunkaria A.,Panjab University | Singhal N.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute
Neurochemistry International | Year: 2015

Oxidative stress has for long been linked to the neuronal cell death in many neurodegenerative conditions. Conventional antioxidant therapies have been less effective in preventing neuronal damage caused by oxidative stress due to their inability to cross the blood brain barrier. Nanoparticle antioxidants constitute a new wave of antioxidant therapies for prevention and treatment of diseases involving oxidative stress. It is believed that nanoparticle antioxidants have strong and persistent interactions with biomolecules and would be more effective against free radical induced damage. Nanoantioxidants include inorganic nanoparticles possessing intrinsic antioxidant properties, nanoparticles functionalized with antioxidants or antioxidant enzymes to function as an antioxidant delivery system. Nanoparticles containing antioxidants have shown promise as high-performance therapeutic nanomedicine in attenuating oxidative stress with potential applications in treating and preventing neurodegenerative conditions. However, to realize the full potential of nanoantioxidants, negative aspects associated with the use of nanoparticles need to be overcome to validate their long term applications. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chitale V.S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Tripathi P.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Behera M.D.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Behera S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Tuli R.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2012

The relationships among diversity, productivity and climate are complex, especially in tropical ecosystems; and are less studied. We studied here the bi- and tri-partite relationships between and among the plant diversity, productivity and climate variables (i.e., temperature, precipitation and moisture) in a tropical ecosystem in India by analyzing three forest types for the year 2010. Comparison of productivity (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach model derived-net primary productivity, NPP) and climate condition with respect to 2001 showed significant increase in NPP and temperature and overall decrease in precipitation and moisture condition in last decade. The NPP for sal forest ranged from 579.4 to 1,142 for the year 2001 and 557.2 to 1231.6 g Cm -2year -1 for the year 2010. The mean monthly temperature varied from 18 to 21.8°C and 26 to 27°C; and the annual precipitation varied from 15 to 45 and 32 to 76 cm/year for the year 2001 and 2010 respectively. Strong correlation was observed between monthly mean temperature and productivity during 2001, while a decrease was observed during the year 2010. The ecosystem has shown a trend of rapid drying in last decade, triggering more detail studies for understanding of the eco-climatology. In general, sal forest, a natural forest sowed higher diversity and productivity followed by mixed deciduous (MD) forest and teak plantation. Though, areas with higher NPP are well correlated with higher temperature, precipitation and moisture; they seem to be related to species density rather than diversity. However, there is a need to have year-on-year assessments in order to ascertain if this difference represents a real phenomenon rather than an artefact of sampling. The pilot study helps in understanding the complex relationships and is very useful in the fast changing climate. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Kumar J.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute | Singh S.P.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute | Tuli R.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute
Archives of Virology | Year: 2014

βC1 proteins, encoded by betasatellites, are known to be pathogenicity determinants, and they are responsible for symptom expression in many devastating diseases caused by begomoviruses. We report the involvement of βC1 in pathogenicity determination of a mastrevirus. Analysis of field samples of wheat plants containing wheat dwarf India virus (WDIV) revealed the presence of a full-length and several defective betasatellite molecules. The detected betasatellite was identified as ageratum yellow leaf curl betasatellite (AYLCB). No begomovirus was detected in any of the samples. The full-length AYLCB contained an intact βC1 gene, whereas the defective molecules contained complete or partial deletions of βC1. Agroinoculation of wheat with the full-length AYLCB and WDIV or of tobacco with ageratum enation virus enhanced the pathogenicity and accumulation of the respective viruses, whereas the defective molecules could not. This study indicates that βC1 is a pathogenicity determinant for WDIV and can interact functionally not only with begomoviruses but also with a mastrevirus. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Wien.

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