National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute

Mohali, India

National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute

Mohali, India
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Sharma B.B.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Kalia P.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Singh D.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Sharma T.R.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2017

Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv.campestris (Xcc)is a very important disease of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis group)resulting into 10–50% yield losses every year.Since there is a dearth of availability of resistance to black rot disease in B.oleracea (C genome), therefore exploration of A and B genomes was inevitable as they have been reported to be potential reservoirs of gene(s)for resistance to black rot.To utilize these sources, interspecific hybrid and backcross progeny (B1)were generated between cauliflower “Pusa Sharad” and Ethiopian mustard “NPC-9” employing in vitro embryo rescue technique.Direct ovule culture method was better than siliqua culture under different temperature regime periods.Hybridity testing of F1 inter-specific plants was carried out using co-dominant SSR marker and Brassica B and C genome-specific (DB and DC)primers.Meiosis in the di-genomic (BCC)interspecific hybrid of B.oleracea botrytis group (2n =18, CC)×B.carinata (2n =4x =34, BBCC)was higly disorganized and cytological analysis of pollen mother cells revealed chromosomes 2n = 26 at metaphase-I.Fertile giant pollen grain formation was observed frequently in interspecific F1 hybrid and BC1 plants.The F1 inter-specific plants were found to be resistant to Xcc race 1.Segregation distortion was observed in BC1 generation for black rot resistance and different morphological traits.The At1g70610 marker analysis confirmed successful introgression of black rot resistance in interspecific BC1 population.This effort will go a long way in pyramiding gene(s)for resistance against black rot in Cole crops, especially cauliflower and cabbage for developing durable resistance, thus minimize dependency on bactericides. © 2017 Sharma, Kalia, Singh and Sharma.

Singh D.P.,University Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Singh D.P.,National Agri food Biotechnology Institute | Chopra K.,University Institute of Pharmaceutical science
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Various potential molecules with putative positive role in stroke pathology have failed to confer neuro-protection in animal models due to their insufficient bioavailability in brain. Efflux of these molecules by P-glycoprotein (P-gp), on blood brain barrier (BBB) is one of the reasons of their poor bioavailability. Berberine, have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic properties, but also having low oral bioavailabilty. Verapamil, which increased the central nervous system uptake of few drugs, when concomitantly administered with berberine was evaluated in this animal model. Wistar rats were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce acute cerebral ischemia for 15 min followed by reperfusion resulting in transient global cerebral ischemia. For 19 days berberine (5, 10, 20 mg/kg, p.o.) alone and in similar doses concomitantly with verapamil (2 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated employing various neuro-behavioral test, biochemical parameters and molecular estimations. The adjunction of berberine with verapamil improved the neurological outcome in a battery of behavioral paradigms, improved spatial memory in Morris water maze task, ameliorated the oxidative-nitrosative stress, increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, as well as improved mitochondrial complex (I, II, and IV) activity, reducing tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta and caspase-3 levels in brain tissues as compared to berberine alone group in ischemic rats. There is a strong possibility of improved brain bioavailabity of berberine when combined with verapamil. The findings suggested that the combination of berberine with verapamil, which could enhance its brain uptake, will surely provide a greater impact in neroprotection drug discovery for search of such combination. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kaur I.P.,Panjab University | Deol P.K.,Panjab University | Kondepudi K.K.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute | Bishnoi M.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2016

Background: Multifaceted pathologies like cancers involve multiple targets. Failure of current treatment options modulating specific tumor target, evokes need for alternate approach of either combining several smart drugs or design a dirty drug that may simultaneously influence multiple targets to trigger a cascade of protective events complementing one another. Methods: Present review tends to unravel the mechanism of anticancer action of ginger and also address issues, which may limit its realization as a biotherapeutic. Results: Ginger exhibits a pleiotropy of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, anticancer, and antimutagenic effects. In vivo and in vitro studies have established that phenolic components of ginger, particularly 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol induce apoptosis and autophagy and inhibit metastasis. The poor biological profile of ginger extract or its actives is due to its restricted biopharmaceutical properties. The gap in manifesting the curative/therapeutic effects of these agents can be plugged by assigning them with a suitable pharmaceutical couture. Conclusion: Hence, amalgamating the rational formulation design with observational folklore data available on herbal drugs/agents, complemented with scientific and precise in vitro and in vivo findings can bring out a class of safe, cheap, and effective curatives which can address multitarget diseases like cancers. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers.

Gupta S.,Panjab University | Verma S.,Panjab University | Mantri S.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute | Berman N.E.,University of Kansas | Sandhir R.,Panjab University
Drug Development Research | Year: 2015

Preclinical Research microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that are key regulators of gene expression. They act on wide range of targets by binding to mRNA via imperfect complementarity at 3′ UTR. Evidence suggests that miRNAs regulate many biological processes including neuronal development, differentiation, and disease. Altered expression of several miRNAs has been reported in many neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs). Many miRNAs are altered in these diseases, but miRNA 15, miRNA 21, and miRNA 146a have been shown to play critical role in many neurodegenerative conditions. As these miRNAs regulate many genes, miRNA targeted approaches would allow concurrently targeting of multiple effectors of pathways that regulate disease progression. In this review, we describe the role of miRNAs in various NDDs and their potential as therapeutic tools in prevention and treatment of neurological conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Kumar J.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute | Singh S.P.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute | Tuli R.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute
Journal of Virology | Year: 2014

In contrast to begomoviruses, mastreviruses have not previously been shown to interact with satellites. This study reports the first identification of the association of satellites with a mastrevirus in field-grown plants. Two alphasatellite species were detected in different field samples of wheat infected with Wheat dwarf India virus (WDIV), a Cotton leaf curl Multan alphasatellite (CLCuMA) and a Guar leaf curl alphasatellite (GLCuA). In addition to the alphasatellites, a betasatellite, Ageratum yellow leaf curl betasatellite (AYLCB), was also identified in the wheat samples. No begomovirus was detected in the wheat samples, thus establishing association of the above-named satellites with WDIV. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of WDIV in wheat, in the presence of either of the alphasatellites or the betasatellite, resulted in infections inducing more severe symptoms. WDIV efficiently maintained each of the alphasatellites and the betasatellite in wheat. The satellites enhanced the level of WDIV DNA in wheat. Inoculation of the satellites isolated from wheat with various begomoviruses into Nicotiana tabacum demonstrated that these remain capable of interacting with the viruses with which they were first identified. Virus-specific small RNAs accumulated in wheat upon infection with WDIV but were lower in abundance in plants coinfected with the satellites, suggesting that both the alphasatellites and the betasatellite suppress RNA silencing. These results suggest that the selective advantage for the maintenance of the alphasatellites and the betasatellite by WDIV in the field is in overcoming RNA silencing-mediated host defense. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.

Singh S.P.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute | Vogel-Mikus K.,University of Ljubljana | Arcon I.,University of Nova Gorica | Arcon I.,Jozef Stefan Institute | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2013

Iron insufficiency is a worldwide problem in human diets. In cereals like wheat, the bran layer of the grains is an important source of iron. However, the dietary availability of iron in wheat flour is limited due to the loss of the iron-rich bran during milling and processing and the presence of anti-nutrients like phytic acid that keep iron strongly chelated in the grain. The present study investigated the localization of iron and phosphorus in grain tissues of wheat genotypes with contrasting grain iron content using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was employed to determine the proportion of divalent and trivalent forms of Fe in the grains. It revealed the abundance of oxygen, phosphorus, and sulphur in the local chemical environment of Fe in grains, as Fe-O-P-R and Fe-O-S-R coordination. Contrasting differences were noticed in tissue-specific relative localization of Fe, P, and S among the different genotypes, suggesting a possible effect of localization pattern on iron bioavailability. The current study reports the shift in iron distribution from maternal to filial tissues of grains during the evolution of wheat from its wild relatives to the present-day cultivated varieties, and thus suggests the value of detailed physical localization studies in varietal improvement programmes for food crops. © The Author [2013].

Singh K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Singh K.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University | Singh B.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Tuli R.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2013

Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) has been identified as a biodiesel plant globally. Efforts are underway to domesticate JCL for high seed yield. The plant has potential to grow on marginal/degraded/substandard lands to avoid competition with food crops, but little is known about its potential to reclaim degraded lands. At this study, several accessions of JCL were planted in 2005 on sodic soil to assess soil amelioration potential of the plant. After six years (2011) of plant growth, seed yield was not economically viable; however, soil properties improved significantly when compared to initial (0-year plantation) soil properties at 0-15cm soil depth. Random soil samples were collected from 0 to 15cm soil depth beneath and outside canopies of JCL with high, medium and poor growth in the year 2008 (3-year plantation) and 2011 (6-year plantation). Soil bulk density, pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) decreased and soil organic carbon (SOC), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), microbial biomass (MB-C, MB-N and MB-P) and enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase and protease) increased significantly with effect of JCL plantation. Significant decrease in soil pH, EC and ESP has been noticed from 8.6 to 7.6, 1.29 to 0.98dSm-1 and 20.7% to 13.8%, respectively. Similarly, soil fertility parameters like SOC, MB-C, dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase and protease increased significantly from 4.55 to 8.41gkg-1, 98 to 352μgg-1, 16.3 to 51.2μgTPFg-1h-1, 75.8 to 338.2μgPNPg-1h-1 and 43.7 to 163.2μgTyrosineg-1h-1, respectively after 6 years of JCL cultivation on sodic soil. Changes in soil properties were significantly higher beneath the canopy than outside canopy. Soil sodicity parameters (bulk density, pH, EC and ESP) and fertility attributes (SOC, N, P, MB and enzymes) were significantly negatively and positively correlated with the height, biomass and litter fall of JCL, respectively. Furthermore, to test whether changes in soil properties are induced by test crop, changes were compared with Prosopis juliflora plantation of same age, which is generally planted for amelioration of sodic soils. The significant decrease in soil sodicity and increase in soil fertility conclude that JCL is equally good to reclaim the sodic soils. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Tyagi A.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Bag S.K.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Shukla V.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Roy S.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Tuli R.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: DNA barcoding refers to the use of short DNA sequences for rapid identification of species. Genetic distance or character attributes of a particular barcode locus discriminate the species. We report an efficient approach to analyze short sequence data for discrimination between species. Methodology and Principal Findings: A new approach, Oligonucleotide Frequency Range (OFR) of barcode loci for species discrimination is proposed. OFR of the loci that discriminates between species was characteristic of a species, i.e., the maxima and minima within a species did not overlap with that of other species. We compared the species resolution ability of different barcode loci using p-distance, Euclidean distance of oligonucleotide frequencies, nucleotide-character based approach and OFR method. The species resolution by OFR was either higher or comparable to the other methods. A short fragment of 126 bp of internal transcribed spacer region in ribosomal RNA gene was sufficient to discriminate a majority of the species using OFR. Conclusions/Significance: Oligonucleotide frequency range of a barcode locus can discriminate between species. Ability to discriminate species using very short DNA fragments may have wider applications in forensic and conservation studies. © 2010 Tyagi et al.

Sandhir R.,Panjab University | Yadav A.,Panjab University | Sunkaria A.,Panjab University | Singhal N.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute
Neurochemistry International | Year: 2015

Oxidative stress has for long been linked to the neuronal cell death in many neurodegenerative conditions. Conventional antioxidant therapies have been less effective in preventing neuronal damage caused by oxidative stress due to their inability to cross the blood brain barrier. Nanoparticle antioxidants constitute a new wave of antioxidant therapies for prevention and treatment of diseases involving oxidative stress. It is believed that nanoparticle antioxidants have strong and persistent interactions with biomolecules and would be more effective against free radical induced damage. Nanoantioxidants include inorganic nanoparticles possessing intrinsic antioxidant properties, nanoparticles functionalized with antioxidants or antioxidant enzymes to function as an antioxidant delivery system. Nanoparticles containing antioxidants have shown promise as high-performance therapeutic nanomedicine in attenuating oxidative stress with potential applications in treating and preventing neurodegenerative conditions. However, to realize the full potential of nanoantioxidants, negative aspects associated with the use of nanoparticles need to be overcome to validate their long term applications. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kumar J.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute | Singh S.P.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute | Tuli R.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute
Archives of Virology | Year: 2014

βC1 proteins, encoded by betasatellites, are known to be pathogenicity determinants, and they are responsible for symptom expression in many devastating diseases caused by begomoviruses. We report the involvement of βC1 in pathogenicity determination of a mastrevirus. Analysis of field samples of wheat plants containing wheat dwarf India virus (WDIV) revealed the presence of a full-length and several defective betasatellite molecules. The detected betasatellite was identified as ageratum yellow leaf curl betasatellite (AYLCB). No begomovirus was detected in any of the samples. The full-length AYLCB contained an intact βC1 gene, whereas the defective molecules contained complete or partial deletions of βC1. Agroinoculation of wheat with the full-length AYLCB and WDIV or of tobacco with ageratum enation virus enhanced the pathogenicity and accumulation of the respective viruses, whereas the defective molecules could not. This study indicates that βC1 is a pathogenicity determinant for WDIV and can interact functionally not only with begomoviruses but also with a mastrevirus. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Wien.

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