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Prior to the start of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), Nigeria struggled to fight HIV/AIDS. PEPFAR changed everything. I witnessed this change firsthand by directing the response to AIDS, first in my hospital in Jos, in central Nigeria, and now as Nigeria's HIV/AIDS coordinator. When the first AIDS case was diagnosed in Nigeria in 1986, my country had one of the world's poorest health systems, and as the pandemic spread, most Nigerians with AIDS died. Eventually, effective new drugs were developed, but they were too costly for all but a few Nigerians. Then there was a miracle: PEPFAR gave us resources, direction, and expertise to treat hundreds of thousands of people around the country. Today, Nigeria is providing treatment to 500,000 people with AIDS, and 80 percent of them receive treatment supported by PEPFAR. The US effort did more than help us treat people with HIV/AIDS; it also enabled Nigeria to strengthen its health system, improve care for pregnant women and infants, increase the provision of vaccinations, build modern laboratories, and train thousands of new health care workers and technicians. © 2012 Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc. Source

Ogbo F.A.,University of Western Sydney | Page A.,University of Western Sydney | Idoko J.,National Agency for the Control of AIDS | Claudio F.,University of Queensland | Agho K.E.,University of Western Sydney
BMJ Open | Year: 2015

Objective: The study aimed to examine secular trends and determinants of changes in complementary feeding indicators in Nigeria. Design, setting and participants: Data on 79 953 children aged 6-23 months were obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) for the period spanning 2003-2013. The surveys used a stratified two-stage cluster sample of eligible mothers aged 15-49 years from the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Trends in complementary feeding indicators and socioeconomic, health service and individual characteristics including factors associated with complementary feeding indicators were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results: Minimum dietary diversity for children aged 6-23 months worsened from 26% in 2003 to 16% in 2013. Minimum meal frequency improved from 43% in 2003 to 56% in 2013 and minimum acceptable diet worsened from 11% to 9%. Among educated mothers, there was a decreasing prevalence of the introduction of solid, semisolid and soft foods in infants aged 6-8 months (67% in 2003 to 57% in 2013); minimum dietary diversity (33% in 2003 to 24% in 2013) and minimum acceptable diet (13% in 2003 to 8% in 2013). Mothers with a higher education level and mothers who reported more health service contacts were more likely to meet the minimum dietary diversity. Similarly, the odds for minimum acceptable diet were higher among mothers from higher socioeconomic status groups and mothers who reported frequent health services use. Conclusions: Complementary feeding practices in Nigeria declined over the study period and are below the expected levels required to ensure adequate growth and development of Nigerian children. National policies and programmes that ensure sustainability of projects post-MDGs and higher health service coverage for mothers, including community-based education initiatives, are proposed to improve complementary feeding practices among Nigerian mothers. Source

Ogbo F.A.,University of Western Sydney | Page A.,University of Western Sydney | Idoko J.,National Agency for the Control of AIDS | Claudio F.,University of Queensland | Agho K.E.,University of Western Sydney
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology | Year: 2016

Background: Globally, Nigeria has the largest burden of infectious diseases (including diarrhoea). Optimal feeding practices have been well-documented to protect against diarrhoea in other contexts; but this benefit has not been broadly studied in Nigeria. The study aimed to examine the association between diarrhoea and childhood feeding practices to provide country-specific evidence. Method: Data from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey for the period spanning 1999–2013 were used. Prevalence of diarrhoea by infant and young child feeding indicators was estimated, and the association between diarrhoea and childhood feeding indicators was examined using multilevel regression analyses. Results: Prevalence of diarrhoea was higher among children whose mothers did not initiate breast feeding within the first hour of birth, infants who were not exclusively breastfed, and infants who were prematurely introduced to complementary foods. Early initiation of breast feeding was significantly associated with lower risk of diarrhoea (RR 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63, 0.74). Exclusively breastfed infants were less likely to develop diarrhoea compared to non-exclusively breastfed infants (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.44, 0.86). Predominant breast feeding was significantly associated with a lower risk of diarrhoea (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.54, 0.80). Bottle feeding and introduction of complementary foods were associated with a higher risk of diarrhoea. Conclusion: Early initiation of breast feeding as well as exclusive and predominant breast feeding protect against diarrhoea in Nigeria, while bottle feeding and introduction of complementary foods were risk factors for diarrhoea. Community- and facility-based initiatives are needed to improve feeding practices, and to reduce diarrhoea prevalence in Nigeria. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Source

Merrigan M.,AED Botswana | Azeez A.,Federal Ministry of Health | Afolabi B.,University of Ibadan | Chabikuli O.N.,Family Health International | And 6 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Infections | Year: 2011

Objective: To evaluate HIV and syphilis prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria, and assess their HIV-related risk behaviours and exposure to HIV prevention interventions. Methods: Cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling conducted in Lagos, Kano and Cross River states, Nigeria, between July and September 2007. Results: A total of 879 MSM participated, 293 from each state. Eight participants (1.1%, CI 0.1% to 2.2%) in Cross River, 27 (9.3%, CI 5.7% to 15.4%) in Kano and 74 (17.4%, CI 12.3% to 23.2%) in Lagos tested positive for HIV. No syphilis was detected. The median age was 22 years. MSM reported an average of 4.2 male anal sex partners in the past 6 months. Between 24.4% (Lagos) and 36.0% (Kano) of MSM reported selling sex to other men. Up to 49.7% of MSM reported sex with a girlfriend and ≤6.5% purchased sex from female sex workers. Consistent condom use in commercial sex with other men over the past 6 months ranged from 28.0% (Cross River) to 34.3% (Kano), in contrast to between 23.9% (Kano) and 45.8% (Lagos) for non-commercial sex. Associations with HIV positivity included age in the three states, having been the receptive partner in anal sex in the past 6 months in Lagos and in Lagos and Kano feeling at risk of HIV. Conclusion: Large differentials in HIV prevalence between states together with high mobility, inconsistent condom use and behavioural links with female sex partners, have the potential for further HIV transmission within MSM networks, and between MSM and the general population. Source

Agbaji O.,University of Jos | Thio C.L.,Johns Hopkins University | Meloni S.,Harvard University | Graham C.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2013

The effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) response in patients in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. We studied 1431 HIV-infected ART initiators in Jos, Nigeria, of whom 6% were HCV coinfected. A similar proportion of HIV/HCV-coinfected and HIV-monoinfected patients achieved HIV RNA <400 copies per milliliter after 24 and 48 weeks of ART (P > 0.05). Hepatotoxicity was uncommon (0.8% and 0.33% at 24 and 48 weeks, respectively) but was more common in the HIV/HCV-coinfected group at 24 (adjusted odds ratio = 19.3; 95% confidence interval: 4.41 to 84.4) and 48 weeks (adjusted odds ratio = 56.7; 95% confidence interval: 5.03 to 636.92). HCV did not significantly impact ART response in this Nigerian cohort. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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