Jones A.,Georgetown University |
Cremin I.,Imperial College London |
Abdullah F.,South Africa National AIDS Council SANAC |
Idoko J.,Georgetown University |
And 14 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2014
Large declines in HIV incidence have been reported since 2001, and scientific advances in HIV prevention provide strong hope to reduce incidence further. Now is the time to replace the quest for so-called silver bullets with a public health approach to combination prevention that understands that risk is not evenly distributed and that effective interventions can vary by risk profile. Different countries have different microepidemics, with very different levels of transmission and risk groups, changing over time. Therefore, focus should be on high-transmission geographies, people at highest risk for HIV, and the package of interventions that are most likely to have the largest effect in each different microepidemic. Building on the backbone of behaviour change, condom use, and medical male circumcision, as well as expanded use of antiretroviral drugs for infected people and pre-exposure prophylaxis for uninfected people at high risk of infection, it is now possible to consider the prospect of what would be one of the most remarkable achievements in the history of public health: reduction of HIV transmission from a pandemic to low-level endemicity.
PubMed | Monitoring and Evaluation Unit, Macaulay Institute, Joint United Nations Program on HIV AIDS and National Agency for the Control of AIDS
Type: | Journal: AIDS and behavior | Year: 2016
Nigeria accounts for 9% of the global HIV burden and is a signatory to Millennium Development Goals as well as the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. This paper reviews maturation of her HIV M&E system and preparedness for monitoring of the post-2015 agenda.Using the UNAIDS criteria for assessing a functional M&E system, a mixed-methods approach of desk review and expert consultations, was employed.Following adoption of a multi-sectoral M&E system, Nigeria experienced improved HIV coordination at the National and State levels, capacity building for epidemic appraisals, spectrum estimation and routine data quality assessments. National data and systems audit processes were instituted which informed harmonization of tools and indicators. The M&E achievements of the HIV response enhanced performance of the National Health Management Information System (NHMIS) using DHIS2 platform following its re-introduction by the Federal Ministry of Health, and also enabled decentralization of data management to the periphery.A decade of implementing National HIV M&E framework in Nigeria and the recent adoption of the DHIS2 provides a strong base for monitoring the Post 2015 agenda. There is however a need to strengthen inter-sectoral data linkages and reduce the rising burden of data collection at the global level.
Merrigan M.,AED Botswana |
Azeez A.,Federal Ministry of Health |
Afolabi B.,University of Ibadan |
Chabikuli O.N.,Family Health International |
And 6 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Infections | Year: 2011
Objective: To evaluate HIV and syphilis prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria, and assess their HIV-related risk behaviours and exposure to HIV prevention interventions. Methods: Cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling conducted in Lagos, Kano and Cross River states, Nigeria, between July and September 2007. Results: A total of 879 MSM participated, 293 from each state. Eight participants (1.1%, CI 0.1% to 2.2%) in Cross River, 27 (9.3%, CI 5.7% to 15.4%) in Kano and 74 (17.4%, CI 12.3% to 23.2%) in Lagos tested positive for HIV. No syphilis was detected. The median age was 22 years. MSM reported an average of 4.2 male anal sex partners in the past 6 months. Between 24.4% (Lagos) and 36.0% (Kano) of MSM reported selling sex to other men. Up to 49.7% of MSM reported sex with a girlfriend and ≤6.5% purchased sex from female sex workers. Consistent condom use in commercial sex with other men over the past 6 months ranged from 28.0% (Cross River) to 34.3% (Kano), in contrast to between 23.9% (Kano) and 45.8% (Lagos) for non-commercial sex. Associations with HIV positivity included age in the three states, having been the receptive partner in anal sex in the past 6 months in Lagos and in Lagos and Kano feeling at risk of HIV. Conclusion: Large differentials in HIV prevalence between states together with high mobility, inconsistent condom use and behavioural links with female sex partners, have the potential for further HIV transmission within MSM networks, and between MSM and the general population.
Agbaji O.,University of Jos |
Thio C.L.,Johns Hopkins University |
Meloni S.,Harvard University |
Graham C.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2013
The effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) response in patients in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. We studied 1431 HIV-infected ART initiators in Jos, Nigeria, of whom 6% were HCV coinfected. A similar proportion of HIV/HCV-coinfected and HIV-monoinfected patients achieved HIV RNA <400 copies per milliliter after 24 and 48 weeks of ART (P > 0.05). Hepatotoxicity was uncommon (0.8% and 0.33% at 24 and 48 weeks, respectively) but was more common in the HIV/HCV-coinfected group at 24 (adjusted odds ratio = 19.3; 95% confidence interval: 4.41 to 84.4) and 48 weeks (adjusted odds ratio = 56.7; 95% confidence interval: 5.03 to 636.92). HCV did not significantly impact ART response in this Nigerian cohort. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
PubMed | University Of Abuja and National Agency for the Control of AIDS
Type: | Journal: The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2016
Less than 10% of HIV positive children are enrolled into antiretroviral treatment program in the country. Provider-initiated testing and counseling was introduced to increasing uptake of HIV testing. The aim of this study is to determine the acceptability and factors undermining the acceptance of this laudable initiative by parents/caregivers of children attending paediatric out patient clinical services in our health institution.A cross sectional study of children aged 18 months to 18 years and their parents/caregivers attending paediatric outpatient clinic of the hospital was undertaken for the above objectives.There were statistically more female parents/caregivers (82.5%, p=0.00), more male patients (52.9 %, p= 0.02), and 11.9% adolescents in this study. While 91.7% of parents/caregivers admitted not having knowledge of provider-initiated testing and counseling, 95.6% knew what HIV was. Acceptance of the program was high (98.7%), majority (89.7%) wanting to know the HIV status of their children/wards. Non-acceptance was small (1.2%), there main reason being prior knowledge of their HIV status. Prevalence of HIV among tested children was 1.7%. There was a strong relationship between having willingness to test for HIV and many of the study variables with religion of the parents/caregivers having the strongest relationship [OR: 13.94, (CI 1.82, 55.34)], and tribe having list association, [OR: 3.60, (CI 1.85, 17.14)].There was general wiliness to accept HIV test for children by their parents/caregiver in this study, and HIV prevalence in children is on a downward trend; its sustenance to be continued and adolescent clinics need to be created.
Idoko J.,National Agency for the Control of AIDS
Health Affairs | Year: 2012
Prior to the start of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), Nigeria struggled to fight HIV/AIDS. PEPFAR changed everything. I witnessed this change firsthand by directing the response to AIDS, first in my hospital in Jos, in central Nigeria, and now as Nigeria's HIV/AIDS coordinator. When the first AIDS case was diagnosed in Nigeria in 1986, my country had one of the world's poorest health systems, and as the pandemic spread, most Nigerians with AIDS died. Eventually, effective new drugs were developed, but they were too costly for all but a few Nigerians. Then there was a miracle: PEPFAR gave us resources, direction, and expertise to treat hundreds of thousands of people around the country. Today, Nigeria is providing treatment to 500,000 people with AIDS, and 80 percent of them receive treatment supported by PEPFAR. The US effort did more than help us treat people with HIV/AIDS; it also enabled Nigeria to strengthen its health system, improve care for pregnant women and infants, increase the provision of vaccinations, build modern laboratories, and train thousands of new health care workers and technicians. © 2012 Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Folayan M.O.,Obafemi Awolowo University |
Adebajo S.,Population Council |
Adeyemi A.,MEASURE |
Ogungbemi K.M.,National Agency for the Control of AIDS
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015
Introduction: We aimed to determine differences in sexual practices, HIV sexual risk behaviors, and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons' in rural and urban Nigeria. Methodology: We recruited 772 participants 15 to 24 years old from urban and rural townships in Nigeria through a household survey. Information on participants' socio-demographic profile (age sex, residential area, number of meals taken per day), sexual practices (vagina, oral and anal sex; heterosexual and homosexual sex; sex with spouse, casual acquaintances, boy/girlfriend and commercial sex workers), sexual behavior (age of sexual debut, use of condom, multiple sex partners, transactional sex and age of sexual partner), and other HIV risk factors (use of alcohol and psychoactive substances, reason for sexual debut, knowledge of HIV prevention and HIV transmission, report of STI symptoms) were collected through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Differences in sexual behavior and sexual practices of adolescents and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons resident in urban and rural areas were determined. Results: More than half (53.5%) of the respondents were sexually active, with more residing in the rural than urban areas (64.9% vs 44.1%; p<0.001) and more resident in the rural area reporting having more than one sexual partner (29.5% vs 20.4%; p = 0.04). Also, 97.3% of sexually active respondents reported having vaginal sex, 8.7% reported oral sex and 1.9% reported anal sex. More male than female respondents in the urban area used condoms during the last vaginal sexual intercourse (69.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.02), and reported sex with casual partners (7.0% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007). More female than male respondents residing in the rural area engaged in transactional sex (1.0% vs 6.7%; p = 0.005). More females than males in both rural (3.6% vs 10.2%; p = 0.04) and urban (4.7% vs 26.6%; p<0.001) areas self-reported a history of discharge. More females than males in both rural (1.4% vs 17.0%; p = 0.04) and urban (15.0% vs 29.1%; p<0.001) areas self-reported a history of itching. Conclusion: There are differences in the sexual behavior and practices of adolescents and young persons' residing in the urban and rural area with implication for HIV prevention programming. © 2015 Folayan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Gwamzhi Ladep N.,Imperial College London |
Aladi Agaba P.,University of Jos |
Agbaji O.,University of Jos |
Muazu A.,University of Jos |
And 8 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013
AIM: To determine the rates and impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections on response to long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in a large human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population in Nigeria. METHODS: HBV and HCV as well as HIV infections are endemic in sub Saharan Africa. This was a retrospective cohort study of 19 408 adults who were recruited between June 2004 and December 2010 in the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria in Nigeria programme at Jos University Teaching Hospital. Serological assays, including HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C antibody were used to categorise hepatitis status of the patients. HBsAg was determined using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Monolisa HBsAg Ultra3; Bio-Rad). HCV antibody was tested using third generation EIA (DIA.PRO Diagnostic, Bioprobes srl, Milan, Italy). HIV RNA levels were measured using Roche COBAS Amplicor HIV-1 monitor test version 1.5 (Roche Diagnostics, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) with a detection limit of 400 copies/mL. Flow cytometry was used to determine CD4+ cell count (Partec, GmbH Munster, Germany). Comparison of categorical and continuous variables were achieved using Pearson's χ 2 and Kruskal Wallis tests respectively, on MedCalc for Windows, version 126.96.36.199 (MedCalc Software, Mariakerke, Belgium). RESULTS: With an overall hepatitis screening rate of over 90% for each virus; HBV, HCV and HBV/HCV were detected in 3162 (17.8%), 1983 (11.3%) and 453 (2.5%) HIV infected adults respectively. The rate of liver disease was low, but highest among HIV monoinfected patients (29, 0.11%), followed by HBV coinfected patients (15, 0.08%). Patients with HBV coinfection and triple infection had higher log10 HIV RNA loads (HBV: 4.6 copies/mL vs HIV only: 4.5 copies/mL, P < 0.0001) and more severe immune suppression (HBV: 645, 55.4%; HBV/HCV: 97, 56.7%) prior to initiation of HAART compared to HIV mono-infected patients (1852, 48.6%) (P < 0.0001). Of 3025 patients who were 4.4 years on HAART and whose CD4 cell counts results at baseline and end of follow up were available for analyses, CD4 increase was significantly lower in those with HBV co-infection (HBV: 144 cells/ mm3; HBV/HCV: 105 cells/mm3) than in those with HCV co-infection (165 cells/mm3) and HIV mono-infection (150 cells/mm3) (P = 0.0008). CONCLUSION: High rates of HBV and HCV infections were found in this HIV cohort. CD4 recovery was significantly diminished in patients with HBV co-infection. © 2013 Baishideng. All rights reserved.
PubMed | University of South Africa and National Agency for the Control of AIDS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2016
Agriculture in the Lower Benue River Basin faces several challenges which threaten the future of agricultural development. This study was an assessment of potential impacts of climate change on agricultural development in the Lower Benue River Basin. Through analysis of physical and socioeconomic parameters, the study adapted an impact assessment model to rank potential impacts on agricultural development in the study area. Rainfall intensity seemed to be increasing with a gradual reduction in the number of rainy days. The average discharge at Makurdi hydrological station was 3468.24 cubic metres per second (m
PubMed | National Agency for the Control of AIDS
Type: | Journal: Journal of public health policy | Year: 2016
In 2012, the World Health Organization recommended Option B+ (lifelong antiretroviral treatment for HIV-infected pregnant women regardless of their CD4 count or WHO clinical stage) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-based on its operational and clinical advantages. By 2015, 21 out of the 22 Global Plan priority countries had adopted the Option B+ approach. Despite its huge HIV burden, Nigeria is the only country yet to adopt Option B+. We analyse the policymaking process on Option B+ in Nigeria from 2012-2015, highlighting how factors related to the content (uncertainty about Option B+, lack of local evidence), actors (interest and power) and context (low domestic funding and poor retention in care) affected the policymaking process and present the implications of this decision for improving HIV response in Nigeria.