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News Article | March 28, 2017
Site: www.techtimes.com

A High Court judge in Lagos, Nigeria has declared that Coca-Cola products Sprite and Fanta contain ingredients that could be poisonous. Fanta and Sprite bottles in Nigeria may soon come with warning labels as Justice Adedayo Oyebanji ordered Nigerian Bottling Company, which manufactures the beverages, to place written warnings on the beverages to inform consumers against drinking them with vitamin C. The court held that high levels of food additives and benzoic acid present in the soft drinks may pose health risks when these are mixed with ascorbic acid, also known as vitamin C. The judge also awarded costs equivalent to about $6,350 against the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, citing the agency's failure to uphold health standards by certifying the safety of the beverages despite that these can become poisonous when mixed with ascorbic acid. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the carcinogen benzene can form when benzoic acid and ascorbic acid are combined. An unnamed scientist in Nigeria who has dealings with NAFDAC confirmed this, telling BBC that some human toxicity studies showed benzoic acid may react with ascorbic acid in soft drinks and form benzene, which is linked to potentially fatal health conditions. "While benzoic acid itself is relatively non-toxic, when benzene is formed in the presence of ascorbic acid in foods it is particularly dangerous, as benzene is widely known to be toxic and linked to many forms of cancer. These include leukemia and other cancers of the blood," the scientist said. The brouhaha over the safety of the Nigerian Sprite and Fanta started with a lawsuit filed by businessman Emmanuel Fijabi Adebo. Adebo's company, Fijabi Adebo Holdings Limited, attempted to export the beverages to the UK. Unfortunately, authorities there seized and eventually destroyed the shipment because tests found that the drinks were not fit for human consumption. The levels of benzoic acid and the food coloring sunset yellow present in the beverages were so high UK health authorities said they pose potential health risks when mixed with ascorbic acid. NBC lawyers argued that the products were not intended for export but the judge rejected this defense. "Soft drinks manufactured by Nigeria Bottling Company ought to be fit for human consumption irrespective of color or creed," the judge said. Coca-Cola refuted the claims that Fanta and Sprite beverages are not fit for consumption when combined with vitamin C, saying that this is inaccurate and not supported by science. The company assured consumers of the safety of its products, explaining that they strictly adhere to regulations in countries where they are sold. "While local guideline levels of these ingredients may vary by national standards in each and every case, our beverages comply within the range defined by CODEX Alimentarius, a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines and other recommendations related to food production and food safety," the company said. NBC and NAFDAC are appealing against the ruling. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.

PubMed | University of Ibadan, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control and North West University South Africa
Type: | Journal: International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

To assess the influence of marital status and other correlates on HIV infection among women in Nigeria.Data were extracted from the 2012 Nigerian population-based HIV/AIDS and reproductive health survey. The survey determined the HIV status of consenting women using standard procedures. Data were weighted and analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression at the 5% significance level.HIV prevalence among currently married and never married women was 3.4%, but was 5.9% among formerly married women. The odds of HIV infection were found to be 1.8 times higher among formerly married women compared with currently married women (odds ratio (OR) 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-2.5) and never married women (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.6). Also, the odds of HIV infection were 1.5 times higher among women who had made their sexual debut before the age of 15 years (adjusted OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1) compared with women who delayed it. The odds of HIV infection were 1.4 times higher among women who had recently had transactional sex (adjusted OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-2.0) compared with others.Being formerly married, under 15 years of age at first sex, and having engaged in transactional sex were found to be the strongest HIV risk factors among women. Besides empowering formerly married women and providing better social security, these women should be targeted in HIV programming and policies.

PubMed | b Uppsala Monitoring Center, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control and University of Nottingham
Type: | Journal: Paediatrics and international child health | Year: 2016

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in children recorded in national pharmacovigilance databases in high-income countries have been analysed. Nigeria has a population of 31 million children and became a member of the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring in 2004 since when it has been submitting reports of suspected ADRs to the WHO Global Individual Case Safety Report database, VigiBase.To gain information on reported ADRs in Nigerian children aged 0-17 years in VigiBase from 2005 to 2012.The data were analysed for annual reports, age and sex of patients, type of reporters, suspected drugs and adverse reactions. The most commonly reported ADRs and suspected drugs were ranked, and drugs associated with the fatalities were evaluated.A total of 297 reports of 473 ADRs in 297 children were received from doctors, pharmacists, other health-care professionals and consumers during the period. ADRs were most frequently reported for anti-retrovirals (74, 24%), antibiotics (71, 23%) and anti-malarials (60, 20%). The most frequently reported ADRs were rash (15.2%), fever (10.3%) and pruritus (6.8%). Anti-infective agents were responsible for more than half of the reports. Twenty-one children (7%) died, eight from acute renal failure. Seven of the cases of acute renal failure were associated with contaminated paracetamol/diphenhydramine hydrochloride and herbal medicines used for teething problems. In the majority of cases, the products were contaminated with diethylene glycol. There were 14 cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, three of which were fatal.Anti-infective agents (antibiotics, anti-malarials and anti-retrovirals) were associated with a majority of the ADRs. Stevens-Johnson syndrome was the most frequent severe ADR. Some of the fatalities were associated with sub-standard and herbal medications.

PubMed | Skylark Pharmacy, Federal Medical Center, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Lafes Pharmacy Ltd and 15 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal | Year: 2016

The study was designed with the broad objective of determining the safety profile of artemisinin-based combination therapies amongst Nigerian population.This was a cohort event monitoring (CEM) programme involving monitoring adverse events (AEs) in malaria patients treated with either artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or artesunate-amodiaquine (AA) in healthcare facilities in Nigeria. The study involved continuous enrolment of patients with malaria and treated with either AL or AA at the various sites until a total cohort of 600 patients were enrolled at each site. Patients were monitored from the onset of therapy, and on days 3 and 7 from the first day of treatment to identify AEs that may occur.A total of 6102 AEs were recorded in 10,259 patients monitored during the programme. Of 4896 patients who received AA, 4233 (86.5%) patients reported at least one AE while 1869 (34.8%) AEs out of 5363 patients who received AL were reported (P = 0.010). The predominant incidence of each specific AE reported in each group among the patients who received AA and AL includes body weakness 30.8%/7.5%, dizziness 10.3%/3.9%, restlessness 5.02/1.12%, vomiting 3.5/1.03% and drowsiness 3.1/1.5% for AA and AL, respectively. There were more AEs among patients with co-morbid conditions and patients in the younger age groups (9-<15 years), P = 0.000.Various types of AEs were seen and documented during the CEM programme. The findings suggested that the AA/AL monitored during this programme was generally safe and remarkably well tolerated among the Nigerian populations.

Adebayo S.B.,Society for Family Health | Adebayo S.B.,National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control | Gayawan E.,Redeemer's University | Ujuju C.,Society for Family Health | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biosocial Science | Year: 2013

Understanding the level, trend, geographical variations and determinants of use of modern family planning (FP) plays a major role in designing effective interventions leading to increased usage. This study assessed these characteristics of FP use in Nigeria using data from the 2003, 2005 and 2007 National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey, a national population-based household survey. A Bayesian geo-additive procedure was used, which provides flexible modelling of non-linear and spatial effects at a highly disaggregated level of states. The findings reveal considerable geographical variation in the use of modern FP in Nigeria, with a distinct north-south divide. Furthermore, a significant trend in the use of modern FP was evident, with an increase between 2003 and 2005 followed by a decline between 2005 and 2007. The effect of respondent's age was non-linear, and use of modern FP was found to differ significantly between never-married and currently/formerly married respondents. Awareness of FP methods and knowledge of where to get/buy FP services/methods were found to be significantly associated with usage. The findings provide policymakers with tools to prioritize the use of scarce resources for implementing FP and reproductive health interventions. Copyright © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

Gayawan E.,Redeemer's University | Arogundade E.D.,PLAN Health Project | Adebayo S.B.,National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014

Background: Children in developing countries continue to suffer mortality and morbidity from a number of illnesses, among which are malaria and non-malarial febrile illnesses, which epidemiologically overlap. We examined the spatial pattern and risk factors of co-morbidity of malaria and non-malarial febrile illness among children aged 6-59 months in Nigeria. Method: Using data from the 2010 Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey, we considered the co-morbidity of malaria and non-malarial febrile illness among the children as multicategorical and selected a mixed multinomial logit model capable of incorporating covariates of different types. Inference was Bayesian, based on multicategorical linear mixed-model representation. Results: We found that the risk of co-morbidity of malaria and non-malarial febrile illness increases as a child advances in age while the risk of non-malarial fever reduces after about 32 months of age. Area of residence (urban or rural), wealth index and type of roofing material used in the dwelling are other important risk factors for the co-morbidity found in this study. Further, children from four of Nigeria's 37 states are at high risk of malaria. Conclusions: Disease preventive measures need to be intensified, with more focus on rural areas and the poor. Campaigns for use of insecticide-treated bed nets need be more aggressive in all Nigerian states. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved.

Gayawan E.,Regional Development Centre | Gayawan E.,Redeemer's University | Arogundade E.D.,PLAN Health Project | Adebayo S.B.,National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control
International Health | Year: 2014

Background: Anaemia is a global public health problem affecting both developing and developed countries with major consequences for human health and socioeconomic development. This paper examines the possible relationship between Hb concentration and severity of anaemia with individual and household characteristics of children aged 6-59 months in Nigeria; and explores possible geographical variations of these outcome variables. Methods: Data on Hb concentration and severity of anaemia in children aged 6-59 months that participated in the 2010 Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey were analysed. A semi-parametric model using a hierarchical Bayesian approach was adopted to examine the putative relationship of covariates of different types and possible spatial variation. Gaussian, binary and ordinal outcome variables were considered in modelling. Results: Spatial analyses reveal a distinct North-South divide in Hb concentration of the children analysed and that states in Northern Nigeria possess a higher risk of anaemia. Other important risk factors include the household wealth index, sex of the child, whether or not the child had fever or malaria in the 2 weeks preceding the survey, and children under 24 months of age. Conclusions: There is a need for state level implementation of specific programmes that target vulnerable children as this can help in reversing the existing patterns. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved.

Gayawan E.,Redeemer's University | Gayawan E.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Adebayo S.B.,National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control | Chitekwe S.,UNICEF
Maternal and Child Health Journal | Year: 2014

Despite the importance of breast milk, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in Nigeria is far lower than what has been recommended for developing countries. Worse still, the practise has been on downward trend in the country recently. This study was aimed at investigating the determinants and geographical variations of EBF in Nigeria. Any intervention programme would require a good knowledge of factors that enhance the practise. A pooled data set from Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 1999, 2003, and 2008 were analyzed using a Bayesian stepwise approach that involves simultaneous selection of variables and smoothing parameters. Further, the approach allows for geographical variations at a highly disaggregated level of states to be investigated. Within a Bayesian context, appropriate priors are assigned on all the parameters and functions. Findings reveal that education of women and their partners, place of delivery, mother's age at birth, and current age of child are associated with increasing prevalence of EBF. However, visits for antenatal care during pregnancy are not associated with EBF in Nigeria. Further, results reveal considerable geographical variations in the practise of EBF. The likelihood of exclusively breastfeeding children are significantly higher in Kwara, Kogi, Osun, and Oyo states but lower in Jigawa, Katsina, and Yobe. Intensive interventions that can lead to improved practise are required in all states in Nigeria. The importance of breastfeeding needs to be emphasized to women during antenatal visits as this can encourage and enhance the practise after delivery. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Eluwa G.I.,Population Council Nigeria | Strathdee S.A.,University of California at San Diego | Adebayo S.B.,National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control | Ahonsi B.,Population Council Nigeria | Adebajo S.B.,Population Council Nigeria
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2013

Objective: Injecting drug use is now recognized as a significant risk factor for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated prevalence and correlates of HIV among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional design using respondent driven sampling was conducted in six states in 2010. Weighted HIV prevalence and injecting risk behaviors calculated using RDS analytic tool. Logistic regression was used to determine correlates of HIV infection, stratified by state. Results: Total numbers of IDUs ranged from 197 in Lagos to 273 in Cross River and Oyo states. HIV prevalence was highest in Federal Capital Territory (FCT) at 9.3%, Kaduna 5.8%, Oyo 5.1%, Kano 4.9%, CR 3.3% and Lagos 3.0%. Although >90% of participants were male, females had higher HIV prevalence in all states surveyed except FCT (range: 7.4% in CR to 37.7% in Kano). Logistic regression showed that females were significantly more likely to be HIV positive in Kano [OR = 33.2, 95% CI: 6.8-160.4], Oyo [AOR = 15.9, 95% CI: 3.69-68.51], Lagos [OR = 15.5, 95% CI: 2.41-99.5] and Kaduna states [AOR = 19.6, 95% CI: 4.4-87.6]. For injecting risk behavior, only receptive sharing was associated with HIV [AOR = 7.6, 95% CI: 1.2-48.7] and [AOR = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.04-0.92] in Oyo and Kaduna states respectively. Conclusions: Considerable heterogeneity in the prevalence of HIV and associated risk behaviors exist among IDUs across Nigeria. Females had higher HIV prevalence among IDUs in five of six states, suggesting a need for targeted interventions for this hidden subgroup. Further research is needed to understand HIV transmission dynamics of IDUs in Nigeria. Community-based opioid substitution therapy and needle exchange programs should be implemented without delay. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Gayawan E.,Redeemer's University | Adebayo S.B.,National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control
Mathematical Population Studies | Year: 2014

Age at first marriage, after controlling for socio-economic and demographic variables, varies across regions and districts. A geo-additive hazard model allows for measuring spatial effects. The nonlinear and baseline effects are modeled by Bayesian penalized splines; spatial components are treated as correlated random effects following a Markov random field. Application is based on data from 1999, 2003, and 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys. Age at first marriage is positively associated with education and urbanization and depends on religion. It presents a north-south divide. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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