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Meier W.N.,National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center | Peng G.,North Carolina State University | Peng G.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Scott D.J.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Savoie M.H.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Polar Research

A new satellite-based passive microwave sea-ice concentration product developed for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Data Record (CDR) programme is evaluated via comparison with other passive microwave-derived estimates. The new product leverages two well-established concentration algorithms, known as the NASA Team and Bootstrap, both developed at and produced by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The seaice estimates compare well with similar GSFC products while also fulfilling all NOAA CDR initial operation capability (IOC) requirements, including (1) selfdescribing file format, (2) ISO 19115-2 compliant collection-level metadata, (3) Climate and Forecast (CF) compliant file-level metadata, (4) grid-cell level metadata (data quality fields), (5) fully automated and reproducible processing and (6) open online access to full documentation with version control, including source code and an algorithm theoretical basic document. The primary limitations of the GSFC products are lack of metadata and use of untracked manual corrections to the output fields. Smaller differences occur from minor variations in processing methods by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (for the CDR fields) and NASA (for the GSFC fields). The CDR concentrations do have some differences from the constituent GSFC concentrations, but trends and variability are not substantially different. © 2014 W.N. Meier et al. Source

Garry W.B.,Smithsonian Institution | Bleacher J.E.,National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center
Special Paper of the Geological Society of America

The volcanic processes that formed Vallis Schröteri are not well understood. Vallis Schröteri, located on the Aristarchus Plateau, is the largest rille on the Moon, and it displays three key morphologic components: the Cobra Head, the 155-km-long primary rille, and the 240-km-long inner rille. Observations of terrestrial eruptions are applied here to help explain the morphologic relationships observed for Vallis Schröteri. The Cobra Head, a 10-km-wide source vent surrounded by a 35-kmdiameter and 900-m-high low shield, might have been constructed from flows, spatter, and pyroclastic deposits erupted during lava fountain events, similar to the early stages of the vent at Pu'u 'Ō'ō in Hawaii and the fi nal morphology of Bandera crater, a cinder cone in New Mexico. The vent fed an initial sheet flow controlled by preeruption topography. A channel formed within this sheet flow was the foundation for the primary rille, which deepened through construction and thermomechanical erosion by lava. The inner rille is confi ned to the fl at fl oor of the primary rille and is characterized by tight gooseneck meanders. This rille crosscuts the distal scarp of the primary rille and extends toward Oceanus Procellarum. This enigmatic relationship can be explained through backup, overflow, and diversion of the lava into a new rille that eroded into the margin of the primary rille. Similar backup, overflow, and redirection of the lava flow were observed during the 1984 Mauna Loa eruption in Hawaii. Analysis of the fi nal morphology of lunar rilles provides key information about lunar volcanic processes and insight into the local stratigraphy. © 2011 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved. Source

Petro N.E.,NASA | Mest S.C.,Planetary Science Institute | Mest S.C.,National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center | Teich Y.,Walter Johnson High School
Special Paper of the Geological Society of America

The interior of the enigmatic South Pole-Aitken basin has long been recognized as being compositionally distinct from its exterior. However, the source of the compositional anomaly has been subject to some debate. Is the source of the ironenhancement due to lower-crustal/upper-mantle material being exposed at the surface, or was there some volume of ancient volcanism that covered portions of the basin interior? While several obvious mare basalt units are found within the basin and regions that appear to represent the original basin interior, there are several regions that appear to have an uncertain origin. Using a combination of Clementine and Lunar Orbiter images, several morphologic units are defi ned based on albedo, crater density, and surface roughness. An extensive unit of ancient mare basalt (cryptomare) is defined and, based on the number of superimposed craters, potentially represents the oldest volcanic materials within the basin. Thus, the overall iron-rich interior of the basin is not solely due to deeply derived crustal material, but is, in part due to the presence of ancient volcanic units. © 2011 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved. Source

Callahan M.P.,National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center | Callahan M.P.,Goddard Center for Astrobiology | Gerakines P.A.,National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center | Gerakines P.A.,Goddard Center for Astrobiology | And 6 more authors.

Aromatic hydrocarbons account for a significant portion of the organic matter in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, as a component of both the low molecular weight, solvent-extractable compounds and the insoluble organic macromolecular material. Previous work has suggested that the aromatic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites may have originated in the radiation-processed icy mantles of interstellar dust grains. Here we report new studies of the organic residue made from benzene irradiated at 19. K by 0.8. MeV protons. Polyphenyls with up to four rings were unambiguously identified in the residue by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry was used to determine molecular composition, and accurate mass measurements suggested the presence of polyphenyls, partially hydrogenated polyphenyls, and other complex aromatic compounds. The profile of low molecular weight compounds in the residue compared well with extracts from the Murchison and Orgueil meteorites. These results are consistent with the possibility that solid phase radiation chemistry of benzene produced some of the complex aromatics found in meteorites. © 2013. Source

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