National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center

Cleveland, OH, United States

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center

Cleveland, OH, United States
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Wojtecki R.J.,Case Western Reserve University | Meador M.A.,National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center | Rowan S.J.,Case Western Reserve University
Nature Materials | Year: 2011

New materials that have the ability to reversibly adapt to their environment and possess a wide range of responses ranging from self-healing to mechanical work are continually emerging. These adaptive systems have the potential to revolutionize technologies such as sensors and actuators, as well as numerous biomedical applications. We will describe the emergence of a new trend in the design of adaptive materials that involves the use of reversible chemistry (both non-covalent and covalent) to programme a response that originates at the most fundamental (molecular) level. Materials that make use of this approach - structurally dynamic polymers - produce macroscopic responses from a change in the material's molecular architecture (that is, the rearrangement or reorganization of the polymer components, or polymeric aggregates). This design approach requires careful selection of the reversible/dynamic bond used in the construction of the material to control its environmental responsiveness. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Katar S.L.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan | Labiosa A.B.,National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center | Plaud A.E.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan | Mosquera-Vargas E.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan | And 3 more authors.
Nanoscale Research Letters | Year: 2010

Abstract: A dual stage process of depositing bamboo-like carbon nanotubes (BCNTs) by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) and coating Si using Radio frequency sputtering (RFS) technique. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron field emission studies (EFE). SEM results suggest a dense network of homogeneous silicon-coated BCNTs. From the comprehensive analysis of the results provided by these techniques emerges the picture of Si encapsulated BCNTs. © 2009 to the authors.


Huff D.L.,National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center
Journal of Aerospace Engineering | Year: 2013

This paper reviews all engine noise research conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center over the last 70 years. The review includes a historical perspective of the center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major NASA noise research programs are highlighted, showing their impact on the industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Results show that, since the 1960s, the average perceived noise level has been reduced by about 20 dB. Studies show that, depending on the size of the airport, the aircraft fleet mix, and the actual growth in air travel, another 15-17 dB is required to achieve NASA's long-term goal of providing technologies to limit objectionable noise to the boundaries of an average airport. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Matus L.G.,National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center
Journal of Aerospace Engineering | Year: 2013

Throughout the 70-year history of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC), instrumentation engineers have provided measurement methods and devices necessary to support ongoing and future aeropropulsion research and development efforts. On occasion, routine instrumentation approaches are perfectly suited for the task at hand. However, as propulsion components and systems become more complex through the incorporation of new materials and higher temperature operation, modifications to traditional instrumentation methods or entirely new methods are necessary. This paper provides a glimpse of the core electronic-based instrumentation methods developed throughout the years to measure temperature, strain, pressure, heat flux, and chemical gas species and describes how these methods are evolving to meet the instrumentation challenges of high-performance propulsion systems. It is clear that future aeropropulsion systems will operate at higher temperatures and require more onboard electronics for health monitoring and control functions. For this reason, a significant effort in high-temperature electronics based on the wide-bandgap semiconductor silicon carbide was initiated and has demonstrated several world's first electronic sensors and devices operating at 600 C. It is concluded that electronic-based sensors and devices will continuously be pushed to meet the needs of increasingly harsher environment measurements. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Reddy D.R.,National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center
Journal of Aerospace Engineering | Year: 2013

This paper presents a brief overview of air-breathing propulsion research conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) over the last 70 years. It includes a historical perspective of the center and its various stages of propulsion research in response to the country's different periods of crises and growth opportunities. The GRC's research and technology development covered a broad spectrum, from a short-term focus on improving the energy efficiency of aircraft engines to advancing the frontier technologies of high-speed aviation in the supersonic and hypersonic speed regimes. This paper highlights major research programs, showing their impact on industry and aircraft propulsion, and briefly discusses current research programs and future aeropropulsion technology trends in related areas. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Dever J.A.,National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center | Nathal M.V.,National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center | Dicarlo J.A.,National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center
Journal of Aerospace Engineering | Year: 2013

Abstract Within the Structures and Materials Division at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center (GRC), research is being conducted to develop durable high-temperature materials for the most challenging aerospace applications. Research is advancing material and coating technologies for applications including turbine engine hot section components, rocket engine combustion chamber liners, high-temperature components of advanced space power systems, and atmospheric reentry vehicle surfaces. As part of the volume of papers recognizing 70 years of research at the GRC, this paper summarizes key research contributions that GRC has made to the field of high-temperature aerospace materials. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Borowski S.K.,National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center
Journal of Aerospace Engineering | Year: 2013

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been actively involved in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology development, mission, engine, and vehicle design dating back to the Rover and Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications programs. This technology was successfully developed in over 20 rocket/reactor tests, which demonstrated a wide range of thrust levels, high-temperature fuel, sustained engine operation, accumulated time at full power, and restart capability - everything required for a human mission to Mars. Furthermore, NTP requires no large technology scale-up. The smallest engine tested during the Rover program - the Pewee Engine - is sufficient for this when used in a clustered engine arrangement. The GRC has led every major study involving NTP since the late 1980s and has helped quantify the evolution and growth potential of the nuclear thermal rocket (NTR), which includes the bimodal and liquid-oxygen- (LOX-) augmented NTR concepts. In NASA's recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) study, NTP reduced total mission mass over 400 t compared with chemical propulsion. Human missions to the Moon and near-Earth asteroids are also enhanced using NTP. In 2011, NASA restarted an NTP technology demonstration effort that is continuing under the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage project, which began in 2012. Ground demonstrations of a small, scalable NTR by 2020 are envisioned, with a flight demonstration shortly thereafter. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Nathal M.V.,National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center | Stefko G.L.,National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center
Journal of Aerospace Engineering | Year: 2013

Research in smart materials and active structures has grown significantly at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in the last 10 years. The GRC has achieved several promising results in both new material development and component applications for concepts using both shape memory alloys and piezoelectric ceramics. Progress in understanding and modeling of shape memory alloys has allowed for improved design and control methodologies. New high-temperature alloys with attractive work output have extended the capability from room temperature to ∼350 C. Finally, the list of successful prototype demonstrations continues to grow for both commercially available alloys and the newer high-temperature alloys. Analytical and experimental methods on piezoelectric blade vibration damping have produced the first successful demonstration of vibration damping on a rotating component. The damping levels achieved lead to reduced dynamic stresses, hence increased engine life and enhanced damage tolerance. In addition, new compositions have been developed to extend the temperature capability of high-performance piezoelectrics to near 400 C. These new materials are just now showing laboratory-scale feasibility and are targeted for continued development. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Liou M.-S.,National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center | Povinelli L.A.,National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center
Journal of Aerospace Engineering | Year: 2013

Development and contributions to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) during the period from 1947 to the present are reviewed in five categories: numerical methods, physical modeling, CFD codes development, CFD validation and engineering applications, and multidisciplinary design optimization. Some representative results in applications to aero and propulsion systems are included to illustrate the developed capabilities. GRC has a long history of investing resources to develop these key subject matters, with an interest in a wide range of applications, primarily focusing on propulsion-related technologies and concepts. The evolved CFD capabilities have enabled simulations of complex three-dimensional flow fields for engine components and integrated configurations, as illustrated in this article. This article is intended to give a useful, albeit noncomplete, overview into GRC's work in CFD. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Lyons V.J.,National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center
Journal of Aerospace Engineering | Year: 2013

Propulsion and power have long been core competencies of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC). At the dawn of the space era, the center brought key propulsion and power technology to support spacecraft development. This paper serves as an introduction to a series of papers describing the highlights of the GRC's power and propulsion research and development efforts. The power papers cover solar and nuclear power generation and energy conversion, energy storage (focusing on batteries, flywheels, and fuel cells), power systems, and power management and distribution. The propulsion papers cover chemical propulsion, cryogenic propellant systems, electric propulsion, and nuclear thermal rocket propulsion. Each paper addresses some history, current efforts, and future plans for each of the technology areas. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

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