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News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Washington, D.C., April 12, 2017 -- Particle physicist Don Lincoln is the winner of the 2017 Andrew Gemant Award, an annual prize recognizing significant contributions to the cultural, artistic or humanistic dimension of physics, the American Institute of Physics (AIP) announced today. Lincoln is currently a senior scientist at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Chicago, where, in addition to conducting research, he also hosts dozens of particle physics videos for Fermilab's YouTube channel, the most popular of which has almost three million views. But Lincoln's efforts in the ways of public outreach and science communication go far beyond his Sagan-esque mini documentaries. His distinguished research career, which has led to over 1,000 publications and includes major contributions to the discoveries of the top quark and the Higgs boson, is paralleled by an extensive resume of science communication work. "We are delighted to award this year's prize to Dr. Lincoln, who has done so much for the field of particle physics, both in fundamental research and in the public eye," said Catherine O'Riordan, chief operating officer of AIP. "His accomplishments in making the world of subatomic particles accessible to so many continue to inspire the scientific community." Lincoln earned his doctorate in experimental particle physics from Rice University in 1994. Though neither of his parents had academic backgrounds or a particular interest in science, Lincoln found his passion for physics thanks to the very efforts of others, which he now emulates. "It turned out that it was the science popularizers of the '70s that helped me get so interested in science -- people like Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan," Lincoln said. "So to a certain degree, this is simply payback. I figure there's some kid somewhere in Tennessee, Oklahoma, or wherever, who might be in a similar situation, and I'm hoping that by communicating the excitement of science, I might open their eyes to a life that they otherwise could never have imagined." In addition to the weekly Fermilab Today columns he wrote for over a decade, Lincoln has written countless articles appearing in magazines, like Scientific American and The Physics Teacher, and online publications, including the Huffington Post, CNN and the NOVA website's blog. He has authored three books for the public about particle physics and the universe, developed a Theory of Everything course for the Great Courses series, and given hundreds of lectures to a spectrum of audiences, including a TED talk. "I would like to change the culture among the scientific community," Lincoln said. "There is a long history of scientists being hesitant to do science communication because they think their colleagues won't take them seriously as being a real scientist -- and that I think is wrong-minded." Lincoln pointed out that most scientists are publicly funded and said he feels it's incumbent on them to communicate with the public because, "the public is, after all, the core support behind an awful lot of science research." "There are so many scientifically-based topics that will affect our society. Stem cells, vaccinations, climate change [...] and certainly the enormous advances in genetics, which will have a huge impact on our society over the next century. I strongly believe that scientists need to be in the forefront to try and explain what is possible and what is not possible," said Lincoln. "That's doesn't mean the scientists should say what we should do, that's a conversation for the entire country -- or world for that matter -- but the conversation should be based on scientific facts and not the clutter that we often see." The Gemant Award committee selected Lincoln for "over 20 years of enthusiastic and tireless communication of particle and cosmological physics to diverse audiences through public lectures, book, videos and articles, especially those aimed at physics educators." With more than 20 years of communication experience, Lincoln offered sage advice to those just starting in science communication. "I would like to tell the young people trying to do that who are scientists, in the beginning it's a very tough slog," Lincoln said. "It took me a couple of years to sell the first book, with lots of rejections. You just have to be aware that's part of the process. On the other hand, once you've done that, then you're in the club. And when you're in the club it becomes much, much easier. And that's when you can start having an impact." Lincoln will be presented with the award in conjunction with an invited public lecture which will be scheduled for later this year. The award includes a cash prize of $5,000 and a grant of $3,000 to further the public communication of physics at an institution of Lincoln's choice. More information about the award, which will be updated with the details of this year's award presentation, can be found here: https:/ . You can find out more about Don Lincoln and read some of his work on his website here: http://drdonlincoln. and Facebook page here: http://www. . The Andrew Gemant Award recognizes the accomplishments of a person who has made significant contributions to the cultural, artistic, or humanistic dimension of physics given annually. The award is made possible by a bequest of Andrew Gemant to the American Institute of Physics. The awardee receives a $5,000 cash award, designates an academic institution to receive a grant of $3,000 to further the public communication of physics, and is invited to deliver a public lecture in a suitable forum. ABOUT THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS The American Institute of Physics is a federation of scientific societies in the physical sciences, representing scientists, engineers, educators, and students. AIP offers authoritative information, services, and expertise in physics education and student programs, science communication, government relations, career services, statistical research in physics employment and education, industrial outreach, and history of the physical sciences. AIP publishes Physics Today, the most closely followed magazine of the physical sciences community, and is also home to the Society of Physics Students and the Niels Bohr Library and Archives. AIP owns AIP Publishing LLC, a scholarly publisher in the physical and related sciences. http://www.


Kronfeld A.S.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science | Year: 2012

Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) reduces the strong interactions, in all their variety, to a simple nonabelian gauge theory. It clearly and elegantly explains hadrons at short distances, which has led to its universal acceptance. Since its advent, however, many of its long-distance, emergent properties have been believed to be true without having been demonstrated to be true. This article reviews various results in this regime that have been established with lattice gauge theory, directly from the QCD Lagrangian. This research sheds light on the origin of hadron masses, its interplay with dynamical symmetry breaking, and other intriguing features such as the phase structure of QCD. Also, nonperturbative QCD is quantitatively important to many aspects of particle physics (especially the quark flavor sector), nuclear physics, and astrophysics. This review also surveys some of the most interesting connections to those subjects. © 2012 by Annual Reviews.


Buckley M.R.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

Several direct detection experiments have reported positive signals consistent with a dark matter particle with a mass of approximately 7-9 GeV and a spin-independent scattering cross section of 2.5-4.8×10-41 cm2. These results do not rise to the level of discovery, but assuming that they are due to dark matter, some questions about the underlying physics can already be addressed. In this paper, I apply the effective operator formalism for dark matter Standard Model interactions to the results of the CoGeNT and CDMS silicon target experiments. I demonstrate that only one set of flavor-blind effective operators between dark matter and quarks can be consistent with the reported results in all energy regimes of interest, namely thermal freeze-out, nuclear scattering, indirect detection, and TeV-scale colliders. This set of operators implies large couplings of dark matter with heavy quarks. The alternative implies either that the new physics has nontrivial flavor structure, that the effective formalism is not applicable and so contains new states in the spectrum accessible at the LHC, or has large annihilation channels (possibly via effective operators) into noncolored Standard Model particles. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Bhat P.C.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science | Year: 2011

Each generation of high-energy physics experiments is grander in scale than the previousmore powerful, more complex, and more demanding in terms of data handling and analysis. The spectacular performance of the Tevatron and the beginning of operations at the Large Hadron Collider have placed us at the threshold of a new era in particle physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson, or another agent of electroweak symmetry breaking, and evidence of new physics may be just around the corner. The greatest challenge in these pursuits is to extract the extremely rare signals, if any, from the huge backgrounds that arise from known physics processes. The use of advanced analysis techniques is crucial in achieving this goal. In this review, I discuss the concepts of optimal analysis, some important advanced analysis methods, and a few examples. The judicious use of these advanced methods should enable new discoveries and produce results with better precision, robustness, and clarity. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Bernstein R.H.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory | Cooper P.S.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Physics Reports | Year: 2013

Charged lepton flavor violation (CLFV) is a clear signal of new physics; it directly addresses the physics of flavor and of generations. The search for CLFV has continued from the early 1940s, when the muon was identified as a separate particle, until today. Certainly in the LHC era the motivations for continued searches are clear and have been covered in many reviews. This review is focused on the experimental history with a view toward how these searches might progress. We examine the status of searches for charged lepton flavor violation in the muon, tau, and other channels, and then examine the prospects for new efforts over the next decade. Finally, we examine what paths might be taken after the conclusion of upcoming experiments and what facilities might be required. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Hill C.T.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

The Higgs mechanism may be a quantum phenomenon, i.e., a Coleman-Weinberg potential generated by the explicit breaking of scale symmetry in Feynman loops. We review the relationship of scale symmetry and trace anomalies, and we show that the Coleman-Weinberg potential can be defined as the solution to a differential renormalization group equation that follows from the trace of the improved stress tensor. We propose a simple phenomenological model with "maximal visibility" at the LHC containing a "dormant" Higgs doublet [no VEV, coupled to standard model gauge interactions SU(2)×U(1)] with a mass of ∼380GeV. We discuss the LHC phenomenology and UV challenges of such a model. We also give a schematic model in which new heavy fermions, with masses ∼230GeV, can drive a Coleman-Weinberg potential at two loops. The role of the "improved stress tensor" is emphasized, and we propose a nongravitational term, analogous to the θ term in QCD, which generates it from a scalar action. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Buckley M.R.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2011

In order to annihilate in the early Universe to levels well below the measured dark matter density, asymmetric dark matter must possess large couplings to the standard model. In this paper, we consider effective operators which allow asymmetric dark matter to annihilate into quarks. In addition to a bound from requiring sufficient annihilation, the energy scale of such operators can be constrained by limits from direct detection and monojet searches at colliders. We show that the allowed parameter space for these operators is highly constrained, leading to nontrivial requirements that any model of asymmetric dark matter must satisfy. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Formaggio J.A.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Zeller G.P.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2012

Since its original postulation by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930, the neutrino has played a prominent role in our understanding of nuclear and particle physics. In the intervening 80 years, scientists have detected and measured neutrinos from a variety of sources, both man made and natural. Underlying all of these observations, and any inferences we may have made from them, is an understanding of how neutrinos interact with matter. Knowledge of neutrino interaction cross sections is an important and necessary ingredient in any neutrino measurement. With the advent of new precision experiments, the demands on our understanding of neutrino interactions is becoming even greater. The purpose of this article is to survey our current knowledge of neutrino cross sections across all known energy scales: from the very lowest energies to the highest that we hope to observe. The article covers a wide range of neutrino interactions including coherent scattering, neutrino capture, inverse beta decay, low-energy nuclear interactions, quasielastic scattering, resonant pion production, kaon production, deep inelastic scattering, and ultrahigh energy interactions. Strong emphasis is placed on experimental data whenever such measurements are available. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Quigg C.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science | Year: 2015

The discovery of the Higgs boson is a major milestone in our progress toward understanding the natural world. A particular aim of this review is to show how diverse ideas came together in the conception of electroweak symmetry breaking that led up to the discovery. I also survey what we know now that we did not know before, what properties of the Higgs boson remain to be established, and what new questions we may now hope to address. Copyright ©2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2016

A novel pressurized gasfilled multiRFcavity beam profile monitor has been studied that is simple and robust in highradiation environments. Charged particles passing through each RFcavity in the monitor produce intensitydependent ionized plasma, which changes the gas permittivity. Standard RF techniques to measure the change in quality factor (Q) and frequency (f) as a function of time are then used to determine the change in permittivity and corresponding beam intensity in each cavity in the profile monitor. The sensitivity to beam intensity is adjustable using gas pressure and RF gradient. The performance of the gasfilled beam profile monitor has been numerically simulated to evaluate the sensitivity of permittivity measurements and the effectiveness of calibration strategies. An entire multiRFcavity system has been designed and a demonstration test has been prepared.

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