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Heyer E.,CNRS Eco-anthropology and Ethnobiology | Brandenburg J.-T.,CNRS Eco-anthropology and Ethnobiology | Brandenburg J.-T.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Leonardi M.,CNRS Eco-anthropology and Ethnobiology | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2015

Objective: The extent to which social organization of human societies impacts the patterns of genetic diversity remains an open question. Here, we investigate the transmission of reproductive success in patrilineal and cognatic populations from Central Asia using a coalescent approach. Methods: We performed a study on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y chromosome polymorphism of patrilineal and cognatic populations from Central Asia. We reconstructed the gene genealogies in each population for both kind of markers and inferred the imbalance level of these genealogies, a parameter directly related to the level of transmission of reproductive success. Results: This imbalance level appeared much stronger for the Y chromosome in patrilineal populations than in cognatic populations, while no difference was found for mtDNA. Furthermore, we showed that this imbalance level correlates negatively with Y-chromosomal, mtDNA, and autosomal genetic diversity. Conclusions: This shows that patrilineality might be one of the factors explaining the male transmission of reproductive success, which, in turn, lead to a reduction of genetic diversity. Thus, notwithstanding the fact that our population genetic approach clearly shows that there is a strong male-biased transmission of reproductive success in patrilineal societies, it also highlights the fact that a social process such as cultural transmission of reproductive success could play an important role in shaping human genetic diversity, although we cannot formally exclude that this transmission has also a genetic component. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Landgraf A.,University of Potsdam | Dzhumabaeva A.,National Academy of Science of Kyrgyzstan | Abdrakhmatov K.E.,National Academy of Science of Kyrgyzstan | Strecker M.R.,University of Potsdam | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth | Year: 2016

The northern Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan has been affected by a series of major earthquakes in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. To assess the significance of such a pulse of strain release in a continental interior, it is important to analyze and quantify strain release over multiple time scales. We have undertaken paleoseismological investigations at two geomorphically distinct sites (Panfilovkoe and Rot Front) near the Kyrgyz capital Bishkek. Although located near the historic epicenters, both sites were not affected by these earthquakes. Trenching was accompanied by dating stratigraphy and offset surfaces using luminescence, radiocarbon, and 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide methods. At Rot Front, trenching of a small scarp did not reveal evidence for surface rupture during the last 5000 years. The scarp rather resembles an extensive debris-flow lobe. At Panfilovkoe, we estimate a Late Pleistocene minimum slip rate of 0.2 ± 0.1 mm/a, averaged over at least two, probably three earthquake cycles. Dip-slip reverse motion along segmented, moderately steep faults resulted in hanging wall collapse scarps during different events. The most recent earthquake occurred around 3.6 ± 1.3 kyr ago (1σ), with dip-slip offsets between 1.2 and 1.4 m. We calculate a probabilistic paleomagnitude to be between 6.7 and 7.2, which is in agreement with regional data from the Kyrgyz range. The morphotectonic signals in the northern Tien Shan are a prime example of deformation in a tectonically active intracontinental mountain belt and as such can help understand the longer-term coevolution of topography and seismogenic processes in similar structural settings worldwide. ©2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Ismanzhanov A.I.,Kyrgyz Uzbek University | Murzakulov N.A.,Osh Technological University | Ismanzhanova A.K.,National Academy of science of Kyrgyzstan
Applied Solar Energy (English translation of Geliotekhnika) | Year: 2014

The optical-energy and thermal-insulation properties of a two-layer clear coat for solar green-houses based on flat glass and plastic film have been investigated. The coat has good light-transmission and high thermal-insulation properties compared to single transparent coatings, viz., glass and polyethylene. © 2014 Allerton Press, Inc.


Korjenkov A.M.,National Academy of science of Kyrgyzstan | Bobrovskii A.V.,National Academy of science of Kyrgyzstan | Mamyrov E.M.,National Academy of science of Kyrgyzstan
Geotectonics | Year: 2010

Paleoseismological study along the Talas-Fergana Fault near the Kök-Bel Pass in the central Western Tien Shan allows us to estimate the rate of late Holocene horizontal offset at 13-14 mm/yr, as well as the radiocarbon age of the strong earthquakes that occurred here about 300, 2400, and 5000 yr ago. © 2010 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Yakovlev V.Yu.,Tomsk Polytechnic University | Moiseeva A.V.,Tomsk Polytechnic University | Denisov G.S.,National Academy of science of Kyrgyzstan
Optics and Spectroscopy (English translation of Optika i Spektroskopiya) | Year: 2012

Characteristics of color and luminescent centers produced in LiF:U6 + (0.01M%) crystals by pulses of accelerated electrons (0.25 MeV, 15 ns, 8-200 mJ/cm 2) at 77-350 K are studied using time-resolved optical spectroscopy. It is found that the time constant of the exponential rise of the cathodoluminescence intensity in the visual spectral range after completion of the irradiation pulse coincides with the decay time of a group of lines in the UV region at T = 77-280 K and with the decay time of the number of V k-centers induced by the pulse of irradiation at T > 280 K. The mechanisms of population of the ground radiative level of the emission center and the structure of its electronic and nuclear subsystems are discussed. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2012.


Abdullaeva Z.,Kumamoto University | Omurzak E.,Kumamoto University | Iwamoto C.,Kumamoto University | Ihara H.,Kumamoto University | And 4 more authors.
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2013

Fe and Ni magnetic nanoparticles coated by carbon were synthesized between the Fe-Fe and Ni-Ni metal electrodes, submerged in ethanol using pulsed plasma in a liquid method. Iron coated carbon (Fe@C) nanoparticles have an average size of 32 nm, and Ni@C nanoparticles are 40 nm. Obtained samples exhibit a well-defined crystalline structure of the inner Fe and Ni cores, encapsulated in the graphitic carbon coatings. Cytotoxicity studies performed on the MCF-7 (breast cancer) cell line showed small toxicity about 88-74% at 50 μg/mL of Fe@C and Ni@C nanoparticles, which can be significant criteria for use them in medical cancer treatment. In addition, appropriate sizes, good magnetic properties and well-organized graphitic carbon coatings are highlight merits of Fe@C and Ni@C nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed plasma. © 2013 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.


Mirkin E.L.,International University of Kyrgyzstan | Sharshenaliev Zh.Sh.,National Academy of science of Kyrgyzstan
Automation and Remote Control | Year: 2010

A new reference model adaptive control scheme is proposed for plants with input delays where the control is formed only from the information about the input and output of the plant. The design procedure is based on the concept of reference model prediction by using the augmented error. The controller contains only filters of minimal complexity and blocks with lumped delay, which is in contrast to the known configurations with distributed delays. A numerical example is presented. © 2010 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Omurzak E.,Kumamoto University | Shimokawa W.,Kumamoto University | Taniguchi K.,Kumamoto University | Chen L.,Kumamoto University | And 6 more authors.
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2011

Wurtzite-type ZnMgS (w-ZnMgS) nanoparticles were synthesized using the pulsed plasma in liquid method. By the pulsed plasma generated between two electrodes made of ZnMg alloy in liquid sulfur, we produced w-ZnMgS nanocrystals mixed with Zn2Mg and MgS. Higher purity w-ZnMgS sample was achieved by annealing at 773 K. The synthesized ZnMgS nanoparticles were of spherical shape and contained of many crystal defects (stacking faults). Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy analysis of the synthesized w-ZnMgS showed absorption edge broadening and appearance of a small absorption band at around 400nm even without doping. © 2011 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

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