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Amundson R.,University of California at Berkeley | Berhe A.A.,University of California at Merced | Hopmans J.W.,Land | Olson C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Science | Year: 2015

Human security has and will continue to rely on Earth's diverse soil resources. Yet we have now exploited the planet's most productive soils. Soil erosion greatly exceeds rates of production in many agricultural regions. Nitrogen produced by fossil fuel and geological reservoirs of other fertilizers are headed toward possible scarcity, increased cost, and/or geopolitical conflict. Climate change is accelerating the microbial release of greenhouse gases from soil organic matter and will likely play a large role in our near-term climate future. In this Review, we highlight challenges facing Earth's soil resources in the coming century. The direct and indirect response of soils to past and future human activities will play a major role in human prosperity and survival. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved. Source


Ouslander J.G.,Florida Atlantic University | Maslow K.,National Academy of science
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society | Year: 2012

Reducing preventable hospitalizations is fundamental to the "triple aim" of improving care, improving health, and reducing costs. New federal government initiatives that create strong pressure to reduce such hospitalizations are being or will soon be implemented. These initiatives use quality measures to define which hospitalizations are preventable. Reducing hospitalizations could greatly benefit frail and chronically ill adults and older people who receive long-term care (LTC) because they often experience negative effects of hospitalization, including hospital-acquired conditions, morbidity, and loss of functional abilities. Conversely, reducing hospitalizations could mean that some people will not receive hospital care they need, especially if the selected measures do not adequately define hospitalizations that can be prevented without jeopardizing the person's health and safety. An extensive literature search identified 250 measures of preventable hospitalizations, but the measures have not been validated in the LTC population and generally do not account for comorbidity or the capacity of various LTC settings to provide the required care without hospitalization. Additional efforts are needed to develop measures that accurately differentiate preventable from necessary hospitalizations for the LTC population, are transparent and fair to providers, and minimize the potential for gaming and unintended consequences. As the new initiatives take effect, it is critical to monitor their effect and to develop and disseminate training and resources to support the many community- and institution-based healthcare professionals and emergency department staff involved in decisions about hospitalization for this population. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society. Source


Fuller S.H.,Analog Devices Inc. | Millett L.I.,National Academy of science
Computer | Year: 2011

The end of dramatic exponential growth in single-processor performance marks the end of the dominance of the single microproessor in computing. The era of sequential computing must give way to an era in which parallelism holds the forefront. Although important scientific and engineering challenges lie ahead, this is an opportune time for innovation in programming systems and computing architectures. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: EFRI RESEARCH PROJECTS | Award Amount: 110.00K | Year: 2015

The Frontiers of Engineering (FOE) Symposia, organized by the National Academy of Engineering, provide emerging engineering leaders from academia, industry, and government laboratories the opportunity to share research insights to facilitate an interdisciplinary transfer of knowledge and research methodologies. The nature of emerging technologies and how they fit together to create products and processes that drive economic growth in an increasingly competitive environment have heightened the need for engineers to understand each others disciplines and enhance the value in that interaction, particularly among those developing and using these new technologies. The symposia serve as a catalyst to spur engineering innovation and foster collaborative networks of researchers within the United States and between engineers from the United States and partnering countries.

This award provides partial support for three Frontiers of Engineering (FOE) symposia, to be held in 2015: German-American Frontiers of Engineering (April 16-18, in Potsdam, Germany), China-America Frontiers of Engineering (June 1-3, in Irvine, California), and U.S. Frontiers of Engineering (September 9-11, in Irvine, California). Each FOE symposium will focus on four topical areas. The four topics for the 2015 German-American FOE are nano-to-micro robotics, synthetic membranes and their applications, particle accelerators and their applications, and protecting user privacy in the age of big data. The four topics for the 2015 China-America FOE are advanced manufacturing, clean water, devices for health care, and big data. Finally, the four topics for the U.S. symposium are metamaterials and compliant mechanisms, cybersecurity, engineering the search for earth-like exoplanets, and forecasting natural disasters. About 100 outstanding young engineers for the U.S. symposium and 30 from each country for the bilateral symposia will participate. Each two and one-half day symposium will include four formal sessions, technical tours, break-out sessions, and opportunities for developing collaborative research partnerships. Sessions will consist of presentations on cutting-edge research, innovations, and emerging research opportunities in engineering fields relevant to the symposium. Papers from the U.S. FOE symposium will be published in a volume available on the National Academies Press website at http://www.nap.edu.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING | Award Amount: 50.00K | Year: 2016

1606627
Herrmann

In March 2014, an unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus disease began in Western Africa. The Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response requested that the Institute of Medicine establish a rapid and agile process for convening subject matter experts to address adverse health effects of medical and public health emergencies and disasters when they occur. The goal of the process is to prioritize scientific research needs in the immediate aftermath of a disaster. This will culminate in a summary report of the strategic science questions most relevant to promote a better response, recovery, or enhanced resilience in the affected community. Environmental engineers and scientists play an important role in disaster response as noted is several recent situations such as the Elk River (Charleston, West Virginia) chemical spill, the Dan River (North Carolina) coal ash spill, and the lead and microbiological contaminated drinking water in the Flint River (Flint, Michigan).

The Institute of Medicine will convene an ad-hoc committee whose composition would vary based on the nature of the emergency/disaster. The committee could include experts in public health, epidemiology, environmental health, first responders, emergency medicine, infectious diseases, nursing, emergency management, bioethics, medical countermeasures, state and local government, operations research national civic organizations, and risk communication. The process convened by the Institute of Medicine would also provide a connection to the local communities affected by the disaster by including important stakeholders such as non-government funders or other organizations. The committee will identify fast track-activities required to assist with evolving public health emergencies and disasters. The process will provide a venue for on-going communication among the medical and public health communities, as well as other relevant stakeholders involved in planning and response activities. The Institute of Medicine would assist in the planning and development of related ad hoc activities undertaken by separately appointed committees as appropriate. The process would be triggered by a large scale disaster event, at the request of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, and may be initiated in the affected locality. In addition, the committee will formulate a strategic report of scientific priorities, gaps, recommended prospective studies, or recommended or required administrative infrastructural support of such science. Further, as needed, the standing committee will be involved in the planning, development, and oversight of related fast-track ad hoc activities undertaken by separately appointed committees operating under its auspices that will be able to help prioritize scientific research needs during a public health event or in the immediate aftermath of a disaster. The Standing Committee on Medical and Public Health Research During Large-Scale Emergency Events will coordinate with units across the National Academies to provide a venue for discussion of issues related to short- and long-term strategic planning. The committee will provide a venue for a dialog between the federal, state, and local governments, the private sector, academic community, other research funders, as well as other relevant stakeholders involved in emergency preparedness and emergency response services.

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