National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA

Gyeonggi, South Korea

National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA

Gyeonggi, South Korea
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Lee H.,Kyungpook National University | Hwang J.-S.,National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA | Lee D.G.,Kyungpook National University
Apoptosis | Year: 2016

Centipedes, a kind of arthropod, have been reported to produce antimicrobial peptides as part of an innate immune response. Scolopendin 2 (AGLQFPVGRIGRLLRK) is a novel antimicrobial peptide derived from the body of the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans by using RNA sequencing. To investigate the intracellular responses induced by scolopendin 2, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione accumulation and lipid peroxidation were monitored over sublethal and lethal doses. Intracellular ROS and antioxidant molecule levels were elevated and lipids were peroxidized at sublethal concentrations. Moreover, the Ca2+ released from the endoplasmic reticulum accumulated in the cytosol and mitochondria. These stress responses were considered to be associated with yeast apoptosis. Candida albicans cells exposed to scolopendin 2 were identified using diagnostic markers of apoptotic response. Various responses such as phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation were exhibited. Scolopendin 2 disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential and activated metacaspase, which was mediated by cytochrome c release. In conclusion, treatment of C. albicans with scolopendin 2 induced the apoptotic response at sublethal doses, which in turn led to mitochondrial dysfunction, metacaspase activation, and cell death. The cationic antimicrobial peptide scolopendin 2 from the centipede is a potential antifungal peptide, triggering the apoptotic response. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Kim M.J.,Chonnam National University | Wan X.,Chonnam National University | Kim K.-G.,National Institute of Biological Resources | Hwang J.S.,National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA | Kim I.,Chonnam National University
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Eumenis autonoe, a member of the lepidopteran family, Nymphalidae (superfamily Papilionoidea) is an endangered species and is found only on one isolated remote island Jeju in South Korea, on Halla Mt, at altitudes higher than 1,400 m. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of E. autonoe was reported. The 15,489-bp long E. autonoe genome evidenced the typical gene content found in animal mitogenomes, and harbors the gene arrangement identical to all other sequenced lepidopteran insects, which differs from the most common type found in insects, due to the movement of tRNA Met to a position 5′-upstream of tRNAIle. As has been observed in many other lepidopteran insects, no typical ATN codon for the COI gene is available. Thus, we also designated the CGA (arginine) found at the beginning of the COI gene as a lepidopteran COI starter, in accordance with previous suggestions. The 678 bp long A + T-rich region, which is second longest in sequenced lepidopteran insects, harbored 10 identical 27 bp long tandem repeats plus one 13 - bp long incomplete final repeat. Such a repeat sequence has been, thus far, only rarely detected in lepidopteran mitogenomes. The E. autonoe A + T-rich region harbored a poly-T stretch of 19 bp and a conserved ATAGA motif located at the end of the region, which have been suggested to function as structural signals for minor-strand mtDNA replication. Phylogenetic reconstruction using the concatenated 13 amino acid and nucleotide sequences of the protein-coding genes (PCGs) consistently supported a close relationship between Bombycoidea and Geometroidea among six available lepidopteran superfamilies (Tortricoidea, Pyraloidea, Papilionoidea, Bombycoidea, Geometroidea and Noctuoidea). Among the true butterflies (Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae and Papilionidae), a closer relationship between Lycaenidae and Pieridae, excluding Nymphalidae was consistently concluded to exist, although this result deviated from the traditional view. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Yeo H.,Dong - A University | Youn K.,Dong - A University | Kim M.,Dong - A University | Yun E.-Y.,National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science | Year: 2013

A total of 48 different volatile oils were identified form P. brevitarsis larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acids (48.67%) were detected as the major group in P. brevitarsis larvae comprising the largest proportion of the volatile compounds, followed by esters (19.84%), hydrocarbons (18.90%), alcohols (8.37%), miscellaneous (1.71%), aldehydes (1.35%) and terpenes (1.16%). The major volatile constituents were 9-hexadecenoic acid (16.75%), 6-octadecenoic acid (14.88%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (11.06%). The composition of fatty acid was also determined by GC analysis and 16 fatty acids were identified. The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (C18:1, 64.24%) followed by palmitic acid (C16:0, 15.89%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 10.43%) and linoleic acid (C18:2, 4.69%) constituting more than 95% of total fatty acids. The distinguished characteristic of the fatty acid profile of P. brevitarsis larvae was the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (80.54% of total fatty acids) versus saturated fatty acids (19.46% of total fatty acids). Furthermore, small but significant amounts of linoleic, linolenic and γ-linolenic acids bestow P. brevitarsis larvae with considerable nutritional value. The novel findings of the present study provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of the insect as a nutritionally promising food source and a possibility for more effective utilization. Copyright © 2013 by The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights Reserved.

Youn K.,Dong - A University | Lee J.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Lee J.,Korean University of Science and Technology | Yun E.-Y.,National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2014

Sequential proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase (BACE1) is a crucial process in β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) generation, which further forms into neurotoxic amyloid plaques that are considered to be a pivotal hallmark in the development and progress of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, the inhibition of BACE1 has emerged as a credible target for the prevention and/or treatment of AD. In this study, γ-linolenic acid (GLA) was discovered as a novel BACE1 specific inhibitor. GLA non-competitively suppressed BACE1 activity with an IC50 value of 7.6×10-5M and Ki value of 3.5×10-5M. In addition, we demonstrated the calculated docking poses of GLA to human BACE1 and revealed the interactions of GLA with the allosteric site of the enzyme bound with the OH group of CYS359. Our findings provide a novel possibility of GLA to be efficacious for the prevention of AD and provide scaffolds to explore more potent natural BACE1 inhibitors. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Kim H.,Dong - A University | Youn K.,Dong - A University | Yun E.-Y.,National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA | Hwang J.-S.,National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2015

Beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) damage is one of major potential causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its modulation has emerged as a promising approach to control the onset of AD. In the present study, the effects of oleic acid (OA) against Aβ25-35-stimulated neurotoxicity, inflammatory responses, and further molecular mechanism underlying the neuroprotective properties of OA in PC12 cells were investigated. Pre-treatment of OA significantly decreased Aβ25-35-mediated cytotoxicity by increasing cell viability through the attenuation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and downregulation of pro-apoptotic activated caspase-3, thereby mitigating apoptotic morphological alterations. Improper up-regulation of both cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by Aβ25-35 was significantly suppressed by preconditioning of OA through repression of the inhibitory unit I-κB degradation, which impedes subsequent nuclear translocation of the functionally active subunit of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). OA noticeably attenuated Aβ25-35-stimulated phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Taken together, these findings suggest that the mechanisms responsible for anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties of OA in Aβ25-35-mediated neuronal damage is associated with COX-2 and iNOS downregulation through activation of NF-κB mediated by upstream kinases including JNK, ERK and p38 MAPK. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Kim M.,Dong - A University | Youn K.,Dong - A University | Yun E.-Y.,National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA | Hwang J.-S.,National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA | And 3 more authors.
Entomological Research | Year: 2014

Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) generation initiated by β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 BACE1 is a critical cause of Alzheimer's disease. In the course of our ongoing investigation of natural anti-dementia resources, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction exerted strong BACE1-specific inhibition with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 9.2 × 10-5μg/mL. Furthermore, Aβ(25-35)-induced cell death was predominantly prevented by the EtOAc fraction of Allomyrinadichotoma larvae through diminishing of cellular oxidative stress and attenuating apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-3 activity. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that A.dichotoma larvae possess novel neuroprotective properties not only via the selective and specific inhibition of BACE1 activity but also through the alleviation of Aβ(25-35)-induced toxicity, which may raise the possibility of therapeutic application of A.dichotoma larvae for preventing and/or treating dementia. © 2014 Entomological Society of Korea and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

PubMed | Toxicity Evaluation Center, Korea Food Research Institute, National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA and Seoul National University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicological research | Year: 2016

Crickets have been attracting considerable interest in the field of nutrition and toxicology due to the global exhaustion of food resulting from a growing population. The cricket is normally eaten in several countries after roasting, similar to the grasshopper; however, safety evaluation data on cricket powder is limited. Here, we performed general toxicity studies of cricket powder including a single, 2-week repeated dose range evaluation test, a 13-week repeated oral dose toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats, a single oral dose toxicity test in Beagle dogs, and a skin sensitization test in guinea pigs following the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guidelines 406 and 408 in addition to Good Laboratory Practice. To investigate the NOAEL and target organs of cricket powder, Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 4 groups: vehicle control, 1,250 mg/kg, 2,500 mg/kg, 5,000 mg/kg dose test groups and cricket powder was administered over 13 weeks after single dose and dose range finding studies in rats based on the results of the single oral administration toxicity study in rats and Beagle dogs. The results of the study showed that the NOAEL of cricket powder was over 5,000 mg/kg for both sexes of rats without adverse effects in a 13-week repeated oral toxicity study and there was no skin hypersensitivity reaction. Therefore, our results reveal that crickets can be widely used as a new substitute food or nutrient resource.

Kim K.-R.,Han River Environment Research Center | Owens G.,University of South Australia | Ok Y.S.,Kangwon National University | Park W.-K.,National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA | And 2 more authors.
Waste Management | Year: 2012

A wide variety of antibiotics have been detected in natural water samples and this is of potential concern because of the adverse environmental effects of such antibiotic residues. One of the main sources of antibiotics effluence to the surrounding environment is livestock manures which often contain elevated concentrations of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) which survive digestion in the animal stomach following application in animal husbandry practices. In Korea, livestock manures are normally used for compost production indicating that there is potential for antibiotic release to the environment through compost application to agricultural lands. Therefore, reduction of the amount of VAs in composts is crucial. The purpose of this study was to understand the influence of the composting process and the components of the compost on the levels of three common classes of antibiotics (tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and macrolides). Composted materials at different stages of composting were collected from compost manufacturing plants and the variation in antibiotic concentrations was determined. Three different antibiotics, chlortetracycline (CTC), sulfamethazine (SMZ), and tylosin (TYL) at three different concentrations (2, 10, and 20mgkg -1) were also applied to a mixture of pig manure and sawdust and the mixtures incubated using a laboratory scale composting apparatus to monitor the changes in antibiotic concentrations during composting together with the physicochemical properties of the composts. During composting, in both field and lab-scale investigations, the concentrations of all three different antibiotics declined below the relevant Korean guideline values (0.8mgkg -1 for tetracyclines, 0.2mgkg -1 for sulfonamides and 1.0mgkg -1 for macrolides). The decline of tetracycline and sulfonamide concentrations was highly dependent on the presence of sawdust while there was no influence of sawdust on TYL decline. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Phat P.,Chonbuk National University | ur Rehman S.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Jung H.-I.,National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA | Ju H.-J.,Chonbuk National University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2015

Tissue culture could provide key insights into the development of transgenic plants, production of good cultivars and secondary metabolites, conservation of endangered plants, and safeguarding of germplasms. In this study, the effects of shoot induction media, explants, cultivars, and phytohormone concentrations on the regeneration efficiency of Korean soybean cultivars were evaluated. Restricted dormancy and poor germination may affect regeneration, depending on the type of germination medium or initiation of phytohormone treatment. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of different germination media containing plant growth regulators, i.e., 6-benzyladenine (BAP), gibberellic acid 3 (GA3), and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), prior to investigating the influences of explant types, media with or without vitamins, cultivars, and different phytohormones (BAP and GA3). A high frequency of germination was observed in Murashige and Skooge (MS) medium with vitamins supplemented with 1 mg L-1 BAP and 0.25 mg L-1 GA3. Cotyledonary node explants and Gamborg B5 with vitamins supplemented with 1 mg L-1 BAP and 0.17 mg L-1 GA3 in callus induction medium (CIM) and 1 mg L-1 BAP in shoot induction medium (SIM) were found to be the most efficient conditions for induction of soybean regeneration, both in callus development and shoot regeneration. Two Korean soybean cultivars, cv. Daepung and Nampung, showed similar development of shoot regeneration efficiency, but significantly different shoot induction times. Therefore, the protocol reported here may be used for further development of regeneration efficiency and can be employed for efficient transformation in soybeans. © 2015, Pakistan Botanical Society. All rights reserved.

Kim M.-K.,National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA | Jung G.-B.,National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA | Lee J.-S.,National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA | Jeon H.-J.,National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Environment and Pollution | Year: 2016

This study investigated the characteristic distributions of heavy metals in rainwater, and the relationship between the concentrations of heavy metals and other chemical properties of the rainwater was also evaluated. Chemical properties of the rainwater varied between different raining periods and years. The volume-weighted mean of rainwater pH ranged from 3.9 to 6.7, and the individual volume-weighted means followed the order Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Ni > Cd. There were positive correlations between the major ionic components, such as Ca, Mg, and K, and the heavy metal concentrations of rainwater. The trends of monthly heavy metal concentrations showed higher values in July during 2011-2013. The order of average enrichment factors (EFs) was Cd > Pb > Cu > Zn > Ni > Cr; all of these were relatively higher than the EFs of natural components such as Fe, Mg and Ca. The overall finding of this study indicated that the concentration of dissolved trace metals can increase under the condition of acid rain. Copyright © 2016 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

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