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Phat P.,Chonbuk National University | ur Rehman S.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Jung H.-I.,National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA | Ju H.-J.,Chonbuk National University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2015

Tissue culture could provide key insights into the development of transgenic plants, production of good cultivars and secondary metabolites, conservation of endangered plants, and safeguarding of germplasms. In this study, the effects of shoot induction media, explants, cultivars, and phytohormone concentrations on the regeneration efficiency of Korean soybean cultivars were evaluated. Restricted dormancy and poor germination may affect regeneration, depending on the type of germination medium or initiation of phytohormone treatment. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of different germination media containing plant growth regulators, i.e., 6-benzyladenine (BAP), gibberellic acid 3 (GA3), and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), prior to investigating the influences of explant types, media with or without vitamins, cultivars, and different phytohormones (BAP and GA3). A high frequency of germination was observed in Murashige and Skooge (MS) medium with vitamins supplemented with 1 mg L-1 BAP and 0.25 mg L-1 GA3. Cotyledonary node explants and Gamborg B5 with vitamins supplemented with 1 mg L-1 BAP and 0.17 mg L-1 GA3 in callus induction medium (CIM) and 1 mg L-1 BAP in shoot induction medium (SIM) were found to be the most efficient conditions for induction of soybean regeneration, both in callus development and shoot regeneration. Two Korean soybean cultivars, cv. Daepung and Nampung, showed similar development of shoot regeneration efficiency, but significantly different shoot induction times. Therefore, the protocol reported here may be used for further development of regeneration efficiency and can be employed for efficient transformation in soybeans. © 2015, Pakistan Botanical Society. All rights reserved.

Youn K.,Dong - A University | Lee J.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Lee J.,Korean University of Science and Technology | Yun E.-Y.,National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2014

Sequential proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase (BACE1) is a crucial process in β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) generation, which further forms into neurotoxic amyloid plaques that are considered to be a pivotal hallmark in the development and progress of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, the inhibition of BACE1 has emerged as a credible target for the prevention and/or treatment of AD. In this study, γ-linolenic acid (GLA) was discovered as a novel BACE1 specific inhibitor. GLA non-competitively suppressed BACE1 activity with an IC50 value of 7.6×10-5M and Ki value of 3.5×10-5M. In addition, we demonstrated the calculated docking poses of GLA to human BACE1 and revealed the interactions of GLA with the allosteric site of the enzyme bound with the OH group of CYS359. Our findings provide a novel possibility of GLA to be efficacious for the prevention of AD and provide scaffolds to explore more potent natural BACE1 inhibitors. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Ryu H.Y.,Toxicity Evaluation Center | Lee S.,Toxicity Evaluation Center | Lee S.,Seoul National University | Ahn K.S.,Toxicity Evaluation Center | And 9 more authors.
Toxicological Research | Year: 2016

Crickets have been attracting considerable interest in the field of nutrition and toxicology due to the global exhaustion of food resulting from a growing population. The cricket is normally eaten in several countries after roasting, similar to the grasshopper; however, safety evaluation data on cricket powder is limited. Here, we performed general toxicity studies of cricket powder including a single, 2-week repeated dose range evaluation test, a 13-week repeated oral dose toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats, a single oral dose toxicity test in Beagle dogs, and a skin sensitization test in guinea pigs following the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guidelines 406 and 408 in addition to Good Laboratory Practice. To investigate the NOAEL and target organs of cricket powder, Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 4 groups: vehicle control, 1,250 mg/kg, 2,500 mg/kg, 5,000 mg/kg dose test groups and cricket powder was administered over 13 weeks after single dose and dose range finding studies in rats based on the results of the single oral administration toxicity study in rats and Beagle dogs. The results of the study showed that the NOAEL of cricket powder was over 5,000 mg/kg for both sexes of rats without adverse effects in a 13-week repeated oral toxicity study and there was no skin hypersensitivity reaction. Therefore, our results reveal that crickets can be widely used as a new substitute food or nutrient resource.

Lee H.,Kyungpook National University | Hwang J.-S.,National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA | Lee D.G.,Kyungpook National University
Apoptosis | Year: 2016

Centipedes, a kind of arthropod, have been reported to produce antimicrobial peptides as part of an innate immune response. Scolopendin 2 (AGLQFPVGRIGRLLRK) is a novel antimicrobial peptide derived from the body of the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans by using RNA sequencing. To investigate the intracellular responses induced by scolopendin 2, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione accumulation and lipid peroxidation were monitored over sublethal and lethal doses. Intracellular ROS and antioxidant molecule levels were elevated and lipids were peroxidized at sublethal concentrations. Moreover, the Ca2+ released from the endoplasmic reticulum accumulated in the cytosol and mitochondria. These stress responses were considered to be associated with yeast apoptosis. Candida albicans cells exposed to scolopendin 2 were identified using diagnostic markers of apoptotic response. Various responses such as phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation were exhibited. Scolopendin 2 disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential and activated metacaspase, which was mediated by cytochrome c release. In conclusion, treatment of C. albicans with scolopendin 2 induced the apoptotic response at sublethal doses, which in turn led to mitochondrial dysfunction, metacaspase activation, and cell death. The cationic antimicrobial peptide scolopendin 2 from the centipede is a potential antifungal peptide, triggering the apoptotic response. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Ahn J.C.,Kumoh National Institute of Technology | Park S.H.,Kumoh National Institute of Technology | Heo J.W.,National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA | Kim K.,Kumoh National Institute of Technology | Choi H.K.,Kumoh National Institute of Technology
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

In this paper, the utilization and light characteristics of light control system (LCS) using light-emitting diode (LED) which was developed for plant production inside plant factory system were experimentally investigated. Characteristics of the monochromatic red (R), blue (B), green (G), and white (W) lights and mixed lights of blue, red, or green LED were studied by spectrometer-MMS1 and illuminometer. In our LCS, power consumption of each LED was 1W, and the each LED has five wavelength bands. Light intensity, and lighting type of continuity or intermittence can be controlled at 10-100% required for plant growth and development can be also achieved by the LCS. Utilization of the LCS in a plant factory system was suggested by the experimental results of promoted growth and metabolism in several plant species. There was no significant difference in fresh weight of Radish sprouts cultured under BR mixture or the conventional fluorescent lighting condition. However, the mixture-light quality provided by the LCS gave the higher phenol contents in the plants.

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