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Park W.T.,Chungnam National University | Kim J.K.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS | Park S.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Lee S.-W.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

We profiled and quantified glucosinolates, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and other secondary metabolites in the skin and flesh of pale green and purple kohlrabis. Analysis of these distinct kohlrabis revealed the presence of 8 glucosinolates, 12 anthocyanins, 2 carotenoids, and 7 phenylpropanoids. Glucosinolate contents varied among the different parts and types of kohlrabi. Glucoerucin contents were 4-fold higher in the flesh of purple kohlrabi than those in the skin. Among the 12 anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-(feruloyl)(sinapoyl) diglucoside-5-glucoside levels were the highest. Carotenoid levels were much higher in the skins than the flesh of both types of kohlrabi. The levels of most phenylpropanoids were higher in purple kohlrabi than in pale green ones. trans-Cinnamic acid content was 12.7-fold higher in the flesh of purple kohlrabi than that in the pale green ones. Thus, the amounts of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and phenylpropanoids varied widely, and the variations in these compounds between the two types of kohlrabi were significant. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Zhao X.,Pusan National University | Zhao X.,Chongqing University | Kim S.-Y.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS | Park K.-Y.,Pusan National University
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2013

Bamboo salt is a traditional food widely used in Korea. The in vitro anticancer effects of this salt were evaluated in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. A 1% salt concentration of bamboo salt baked nine times (9×) inhibited the growth of HCT-116 cells by 53%, which was higher than salt baked three times (3×) or once (1×; 44% and 41%, respectively) and much higher than solar sea salt (Korean sea salt) and purified salt (22% and 18%, respectively). To elucidate the inhibitory mechanisms underlying the anticancer effect of the salt samples in cancer cells, expression of genes associated with apoptosis, inflammation, and metastasis was measured with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Bamboo salt (9×) significantly induced apoptosis in cancer cells (P<.05) by upregulating Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3, and downregulating Bcl-2. The expression of genes associated with inflammation (NF-κB, iNOS, and COX-2) was significantly downregulated (P<.05) by 9× bamboo salt, demonstrating its anti-inflammatory properties. The 9× bamboo salt also exerted a greater anti-metastatic effect on cancer cells than the other salts as demonstrated by decreased mRNA expression of MMP genes and increased expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, which was confirmed by the inhibition of tumor metastasis induced in colon 26-M3.1 cells in BALB/c mice. In contrast, purified and solar salts increased metastasis in the mice. Our results demonstrated that 9× bamboo salt had the most potent in vitro anticancer effect, induced apoptosis, had anti-inflammatory activities, and exerted in vivo anti-metastatic effects. Additionally, the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-metastatic effects of the 1× and 3× bamboo salts were stronger than those of the purified and solar salts. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.


Kim Y.B.,Chungnam National University | Park S.-Y.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS | Thwe A.A.,Chungnam National University | Seo J.M.,Chungnam National University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Red-flowered buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is used in the production of tea, juice, and alcohols after the detoxification of fagopyrin. In order to investigate the metabolomics and regulatory of anthocyanin production in red-flowered (Gan-Chao) and white-flowered (Tanno) buckwheat cultivars, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted. The transcriptions of FePAL, FeC4H, Fe4CL1, FeF3H, FeANS, and FeDFR increased gradually from flowering stage 1 and reached their highest peaks at flowering stage 3 in Gan-Chao flower. In total 44 metabolites, 18 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 7 sugars, 3 sugar alcohols, and 1 amine were detected in Gan-Chao flowers. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, were identified in Gan-Chao cultivar. The first component of the partial least-squares to latent structures-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that high amounts of phenolic, shikimic, and pyruvic acids were present in Gan-Chao. We suggest that transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, anthocyanin contents, and metabolites have correlation in the red-flowered buckwheat Gan-Chao flowers. Our results may be helpful to understand anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-flowered buckwheat. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Balaraju K.,Entomology Research Institute | Balaraju K.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS | Agastian P.,Loyola College | Ignacimuthu S.,Entomology Research Institute | Park K.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2011

An efficient protocol has been developed for the in vitro propagation of Pterocarpus santalinus L. using shoot tip explants which is a valuable woody medicinal plant. Various parts of this plant are pharmaceutically used for the treatment of different diseases. Multiple shoots were induced from shoot tip explants derived from 20 days old in vivo germinated seedlings on 1:1 ratio of sand and soil after treating with gibberellic acid (GA3). The highest frequency for shoot regeneration (83. 3%) with maximum number of shoot buds (11) per explant was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1. 0 mg/l of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) along with 0. 1 mg/l of thidiazuron (TDZ) after 45 days of culture. A proliferating shoot culture was established by repeatedly subculturing the original shoot tip explants on fresh medium after each harvest of the newly formed shoots. Sixty percent of the shoots produced roots were transferred to rooting medium containing MS salts and 0. 1 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) after 30 days. About 73. 33% of the in vitro raised plantlets were established successfully in earthen pots. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-based DNA fingerprinting profiles were generated for the first time using shoot tip explants of this species and confirmed that there was no genetic variability. This protocol might be helpful for the mass multiplication of P. santalinus in the future. © 2011 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.


Park J.-W.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS | Balaraju K.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS | Kim J.-W.,Yaechungun Agricultural Experimental Center | Lee S.-W.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS | Park K.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS
Biological Control | Year: 2013

In the present study, the ability of plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR), Bacillus vallismortis strain BS07 (BS07) was evaluated as one of the potential biocontrol agents against multiple pathogens in chili pepper. Under greenhouse conditions, chili pepper seedlings treated with BS07 or chemical control, benzothiadiazole (BTH) by soil drench suppressed the soft rot incidence significantly by reducing the percent disease lesion area per leaf disk compared to negative control. The treatment with BS07 or BTH induced plant resistance against phytophthora blight caused by Phytophthora capsici upon pathogen challenge. There was a greater reduction of anthracnose infection caused by Colletotrichum acutatum on matured fruits in BS07 or BTH treated plants when compared to untreated control. Under field conditions, percent of soft rot incidence and disease severity of phytophthora blight were significantly reduced in BS07 and BTH treated plants when compared to untreated control. In the case of anthracnose disease, the significant reduction of disease was observed during the two years on matured fruits, when compared to untreated control. The study also clearly showed that there was a significant increase of fruit yield in BS07 treated plants, and it has also been observed that BS07 treated plants showed higher chlorophyll content in the fresh leaves compared to untreated control. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves revealed up-regulation of PR1a gene expression in Col-0, while there was no expression in Nag-. G plants treated with BS07 suspensions. This suggests that the systemic resistance might be evolved by the mechanism of salicylic acid (SA) dependent pathway. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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