National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS

Suigen, South Korea

National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS

Suigen, South Korea
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Kim Y.B.,Chungnam National University | Park S.-Y.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS | Thwe A.A.,Chungnam National University | Seo J.M.,Chungnam National University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Red-flowered buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is used in the production of tea, juice, and alcohols after the detoxification of fagopyrin. In order to investigate the metabolomics and regulatory of anthocyanin production in red-flowered (Gan-Chao) and white-flowered (Tanno) buckwheat cultivars, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted. The transcriptions of FePAL, FeC4H, Fe4CL1, FeF3H, FeANS, and FeDFR increased gradually from flowering stage 1 and reached their highest peaks at flowering stage 3 in Gan-Chao flower. In total 44 metabolites, 18 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 7 sugars, 3 sugar alcohols, and 1 amine were detected in Gan-Chao flowers. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, were identified in Gan-Chao cultivar. The first component of the partial least-squares to latent structures-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that high amounts of phenolic, shikimic, and pyruvic acids were present in Gan-Chao. We suggest that transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, anthocyanin contents, and metabolites have correlation in the red-flowered buckwheat Gan-Chao flowers. Our results may be helpful to understand anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-flowered buckwheat. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Krishnamurthy P.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS | Hong J.K.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS | Kim J.A.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS | Jeong M.-J.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Genomics | Year: 2015

Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) is an economically important vegetable that has encountered four rounds of polyploidization. The fourth event, whole genome triplication (WGT), occurred after its divergence from Arabidopsis. Expansins (EXPs) are cell wall loosening proteins that participate in cell wall modification processes. In this study, the impacts of WGT on the B. rapa expansin (BrEXP) superfamily were evaluated. Whole genome screening of B. rapa identified 32 loci coding 53 expansin genes. Fifteen of the loci maintained a single gene copy, 15 maintained two gene copies and 2 maintained three gene copies. Six loci had no synteny to any Arabidopsis thaliana orthologs. Two loci were involved in tandem duplication. Segmental duplication and fragment recombination were dominant in accelerating BrEXP evolution. Three genes (BrEXPA7, BrEXLA1 and BrEXLA2) lost one of their ancestral introns, two genes (BrEXPA18 and BrEXPB6) gained new introns, and a domain tandem repeat (BrEXPA18) and domain recombination (Bra016981; not considered as expansin) were observed in one gene each. Further, domain deletion was observed in an additional five genes (Bra033068, Bra000142, Bra025800, Bra016473 and Bra004891, not considered as expansins) that lost one of their expansin-specific domains evolutionarily. These findings provide a basis for the evolution and modification of the BrEXP superfamily after a WGT event, which will help in determining the functional characteristics of BrEXPs. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Huang J.,Gyeongsang National University | Kim C.M.,University of Oxford | Xuan Y.-H.,Gyeongsang National University | Liu J.,Gyeongsang National University | And 3 more authors.
Planta | Year: 2013

The outgrowth of root hairs from the epidermal cell layer is regulated by a strict genetic regulatory system and external growth conditions. Rice plants cultivated in water-logged paddy land are exposed to a soil ecology that differs from the environment surrounding upland plants, such as Arabidopsis and maize. To identify genes that play important roles in root-hair growth, a forward genetics approach was used to screen for short-root-hair mutants. A short-root-hair mutant was identified, and the gene was isolated using map-based cloning and sequencing. The mutant harbored a point mutation at a splicing acceptor site, which led to truncation of OsFH1 (rice formin homology 1). Subsequent analysis of two additional T-DNA mutants verified that OsFH1 is important for root-hair elongation. Further studies revealed that the action of OsFH1 on root-hair growth is dependent on growth conditions. The mutant Osfh1 exhibited root-hair defects when roots were grown submerged in solution, and mutant roots produced normal root hairs in the air. However, root-hair phenotypes of mutants were not influenced by the external supply of hormones or carbohydrates, a deficiency of nutrients, such as Fe or Pi, or aeration. This study shows that OsFH1 plays a significant role in root-hair elongation in a growth condition-dependent manner. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Zhao X.,Pusan National University | Zhao X.,Chongqing University | Kim S.-Y.,National Academy of Agricultural science NAAS | Park K.-Y.,Pusan National University
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2013

Bamboo salt is a traditional food widely used in Korea. The in vitro anticancer effects of this salt were evaluated in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. A 1% salt concentration of bamboo salt baked nine times (9×) inhibited the growth of HCT-116 cells by 53%, which was higher than salt baked three times (3×) or once (1×; 44% and 41%, respectively) and much higher than solar sea salt (Korean sea salt) and purified salt (22% and 18%, respectively). To elucidate the inhibitory mechanisms underlying the anticancer effect of the salt samples in cancer cells, expression of genes associated with apoptosis, inflammation, and metastasis was measured with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Bamboo salt (9×) significantly induced apoptosis in cancer cells (P<.05) by upregulating Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3, and downregulating Bcl-2. The expression of genes associated with inflammation (NF-κB, iNOS, and COX-2) was significantly downregulated (P<.05) by 9× bamboo salt, demonstrating its anti-inflammatory properties. The 9× bamboo salt also exerted a greater anti-metastatic effect on cancer cells than the other salts as demonstrated by decreased mRNA expression of MMP genes and increased expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, which was confirmed by the inhibition of tumor metastasis induced in colon 26-M3.1 cells in BALB/c mice. In contrast, purified and solar salts increased metastasis in the mice. Our results demonstrated that 9× bamboo salt had the most potent in vitro anticancer effect, induced apoptosis, had anti-inflammatory activities, and exerted in vivo anti-metastatic effects. Additionally, the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-metastatic effects of the 1× and 3× bamboo salts were stronger than those of the purified and solar salts. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.

Kim C.-K.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS | Cho M.-A.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science NIHHS | Choi Y.-H.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | Kim J.-A.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

Black rice is rich in anthocyanin and is expected to have more healthful dietary potential than white rice. We assessed expression of anthocyanin in black rice cultivars using a newly designed 135 K Oryza sativa microarray. A total of 12,673 genes exhibited greater than 2.0-fold up- or down-regulation in comparisons between three rice cultivars and three seed developmental stages. The 137 transcription factor genes found to be associated with production of anthocyanin pigment were classified into 10 groups. In addition, 17 unknown and hypothetical genes were identified from comparisons between the rice cultivars. Finally, 15 out of the 17 candidate genes were verified by RT-PCR analysis. Among the genes, nine were up-regulated and six exhibited down-regulation. These genes likely play either a regulatory role in anthocyanin biosynthesis or are related to anthocyanin metabolism during flavonoid biosynthesis. While these genes require further validation, the results here underline the potential use of the new microarray and provide valuable insight into anthocyanin pigment production in rice. © 2011 The Author(s).

Huang J.,Gyeongsang National University | Kim C.M.,University of Oxford | Xuan Y.-H.,Gyeongsang National University | Park S.J.,Gyeongsang National University | And 6 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Rice is cultivated in water-logged paddy lands. Thus, rice root hairs on the epidermal layers are exposed to a different redox status of nitrogen species, organic acids, and metal ions than root hairs growing in drained soil. To identify genes that play an important role in root hair growth, a forward genetics approach was used to screen for short-root-hair mutants. A short-root-hair mutant was identified and isolated by using map-based cloning and sequencing. The mutation arose from a single amino acid substitution of OsSNDP1 (Oryza sativa Sec14-nodulin domain protein), which shows high sequence homology with Arabidopsis COW1/AtSFH1 and encodes a phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITP). By performing complementation assays with Atsfh1 mutants, we demonstrated that OsSNDP1 is involved in growth of root hairs. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy was utilized to further characterize the effect of the Ossndp1 mutation on root hair morphology. Aberrant morphogenesis was detected in root hair elongation and maturation zones. Many root hairs were branched and showed irregular shapes due to bulged nodes. Many epidermal cells also produced dome-shaped root hairs, which indicated that root hair elongation ceased at an early stage. These studies showed that PITP-mediated phospholipid signaling and metabolism is critical for root hair elongation in rice. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Balaraju K.,Entomology Research Institute | Balaraju K.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS | Agastian P.,Loyola College | Ignacimuthu S.,Entomology Research Institute | Park K.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2011

An efficient protocol has been developed for the in vitro propagation of Pterocarpus santalinus L. using shoot tip explants which is a valuable woody medicinal plant. Various parts of this plant are pharmaceutically used for the treatment of different diseases. Multiple shoots were induced from shoot tip explants derived from 20 days old in vivo germinated seedlings on 1:1 ratio of sand and soil after treating with gibberellic acid (GA3). The highest frequency for shoot regeneration (83. 3%) with maximum number of shoot buds (11) per explant was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1. 0 mg/l of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) along with 0. 1 mg/l of thidiazuron (TDZ) after 45 days of culture. A proliferating shoot culture was established by repeatedly subculturing the original shoot tip explants on fresh medium after each harvest of the newly formed shoots. Sixty percent of the shoots produced roots were transferred to rooting medium containing MS salts and 0. 1 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) after 30 days. About 73. 33% of the in vitro raised plantlets were established successfully in earthen pots. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-based DNA fingerprinting profiles were generated for the first time using shoot tip explants of this species and confirmed that there was no genetic variability. This protocol might be helpful for the mass multiplication of P. santalinus in the future. © 2011 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.

Park J.-W.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS | Balaraju K.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS | Kim J.-W.,Yaechungun Agricultural Experimental Center | Lee S.-W.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS | Park K.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS
Biological Control | Year: 2013

In the present study, the ability of plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR), Bacillus vallismortis strain BS07 (BS07) was evaluated as one of the potential biocontrol agents against multiple pathogens in chili pepper. Under greenhouse conditions, chili pepper seedlings treated with BS07 or chemical control, benzothiadiazole (BTH) by soil drench suppressed the soft rot incidence significantly by reducing the percent disease lesion area per leaf disk compared to negative control. The treatment with BS07 or BTH induced plant resistance against phytophthora blight caused by Phytophthora capsici upon pathogen challenge. There was a greater reduction of anthracnose infection caused by Colletotrichum acutatum on matured fruits in BS07 or BTH treated plants when compared to untreated control. Under field conditions, percent of soft rot incidence and disease severity of phytophthora blight were significantly reduced in BS07 and BTH treated plants when compared to untreated control. In the case of anthracnose disease, the significant reduction of disease was observed during the two years on matured fruits, when compared to untreated control. The study also clearly showed that there was a significant increase of fruit yield in BS07 treated plants, and it has also been observed that BS07 treated plants showed higher chlorophyll content in the fresh leaves compared to untreated control. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves revealed up-regulation of PR1a gene expression in Col-0, while there was no expression in Nag-. G plants treated with BS07 suspensions. This suggests that the systemic resistance might be evolved by the mechanism of salicylic acid (SA) dependent pathway. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

PubMed | National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS, Korea University, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of microbiology and biotechnology | Year: 2016

This is the first report that paromomycin, an antibiotic derived from Streptomyces sp. AG-P 1441 (AG-P 1441), controlled Phytophthora blight and soft rot diseases caused by Phytophthora capsici and Pectobacterium carotovorum, respectively, in chili pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Chili pepper plants treated with paromomycin by foliar spray or soil drenching 7 days prior to inoculation with P. capsici zoospores showed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in disease severity (%) when compared with untreated control plants. The disease severity of Phytophthora blight was recorded as 8% and 50% for foliar spray and soil drench, respectively, at 1.0 ppm of paromomycin, compared with untreated control, where disease severity was 83% and 100% by foliar spray and soil drench, respectively. A greater reduction of soft rot lesion areas per leaf disk was observed in treated plants using paromomycin (1.0 g/ml) by infiltration or soil drench in comparison with untreated control plants. Paromomycin treatment did not negatively affect the growth of chili pepper. Furthermore, the treatment slightly promoted growth; this growth was supported by increased chlorophyll content in paromomycin-treated chili pepper plants. Additionally, paromomycin likely induced resistance as confirmed by the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes: PR-1, -1,3-glucanase, chitinase, PR-4, peroxidase, and PR-10, which enhanced plant defense against P. capsici in chili pepper. This finding indicates that AG-P 1441 plays a role in pathogen resistance upon the activation of defense genes, by secretion of the plant resistance elicitor, paromomycin.

PubMed | National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS, Myongji University, Konkuk University and Seoul National University
Type: | Journal: BMC genomics | Year: 2016

Plant-pathogen interactions at early stages of infection are important to the fate of interaction. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight, which is a devastating disease in rice. Although in vivo and in vitro systems have been developed to study rice-Xoo interactions, both systems have limitations. The resistance mechanisms in rice can be better studied by the in vivo approach, whereas the in vitro systems are suitable for pathogenicity studies on Xoo. The current in vitro system uses minimal medium to activate the pathogenic signal (expression of pathogenicity-related genes) of Xoo, but lacks rice-derived factors needed for Xoo activation. This fact emphasizes the need of developing a new in vitro system that allow for an easy control of both pathogenic activation and for the experiment itself.We employed an in vitro system that can activate pathogenicity-related genes in Xoo using rice leaf extract (RLX) and combined the in vitro assay with RNA-Seq to analyze the time-resolved genome-wide gene expression of Xoo. RNA-Seq was performed with samples from seven different time points within 1h post-RLX treatment and the expression of up- or downregulated genes in RNA-Seq was validated by qRT-PCR. Global analysis of gene expression and regulation revealed the most dramatic changes in functional categories of genes related to inorganic ion transport and metabolism, and cell motility. Expression of many pathogenicity-related genes was induced within 15min upon contact with RLX. hrpG and hrpX expression reached the maximum level within 10 and 15min, respectively. Chemotaxis and flagella biosynthesis-related genes and cyclic-di-GMP controlling genes were downregulated for 10min and were then upregulated. Genes related to inorganic ion uptake were upregulated within 5min. We introduced a non-linear regression fit to generate continuous time-resolved gene expression levels and tested the essentiality of the transcriptionally upregulated genes by a pathogenicity assay of lesion length using single-gene knock-out Xoo strains.The in vitro system combined with RNA-Seq generated a genome-wide time-resolved pathogenic gene expression profile within 1h of initial rice-Xoo interactions, demonstrating the expression order and interaction dependency of pathogenic genes. This combined system can be used as a novel tool to study the initial interactions between rice and Xoo during bacterial blight progression.

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