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van Nieukerken E.J.,Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis | Lastuvka A.,Mendel University in Brno | Lastuvka Z.,Mendel University in Brno
ZooKeys | Year: 2010

The nine western Palaearctic species of the subgenus Zimmermannia Hering, 1940 and 48 species in the subgenus Ectoedemia Busck, 1907 of the genus Ectoedemia are reviewed. One species in the subgenus Zimmermannia and four species in the subgenus Ectoedemia are described as new: Ectoedemia (Zimmermannia) vivesi A. Laštu °vka, Z. Laštu °vka & Van Nieukerken sp. n. from southern Spain and Cyprus with unknown host plant, Ectoedemia (E.) hendrikseni A. Laštu °vka, Z. Laštu °vka & Van Nieukerken sp. n. from southern France on Quercus suber, E. (E.) heckfordi Van Nieukerken, A. Laštu °vka & Z. Laštu °vka sp. n. from southern England on Quercus petraea and Q. robur, E. (E.) phaeolepis Van Nieukerken, A. Laštu °vka & Z. Laštu °vka sp. n. from Spain and Portugal probably on Quercus ilex and Q. rotundifolia and E. (E.) coscoja Van Nieukerken, A. Laštu °vka & Z. Laštu °vka sp. n. from Spain on Quercus coccifera. The following species are redescribed: Ectoedemia (Zimmermannia) hispanica Van Nieukerken 1985, Ectoedemia (Zimmermannia) reichli Z. & A. Laštu °vka 1998, Ectoedemia (E.) algeriensis van Nieukerken 1985, E. (E.) pseudoilicis Z. & A. Laštu °vka 1998 and E. (E.) alnifoliae van Nieukerken 1985. Ectoedemia albiformae Puplesis & Diškus 2003 is synonymised with E. spinosella (Joannis, 1908). Ectoedemia jacutica Puplesis 1988, previously synonymised with E. agrimoniae (Frey, 1858), is here synonymised with E. spiraeae Gregor & Povolný 1983. Updated keys to the subgenus Zimmermannia and the Quercus feeding Ectoedemia are provided. © E.J. van Nieukerken, A. Laštůvka, Z. Laštůvka.


Reymond C.E.,University of Queensland | Reymond C.E.,Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology | Bode M.,University of Melbourne | Renema W.,Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis | Pandolfi J.M.,University of Queensland
Paleobiology | Year: 2011

Persistence in the structure of ecological communities can be predicted both by deterministic and by stochastic theory. Evaluating ecological patterns against the neutral theory of biodiversity provides an appropriate methodology for differentiating between these alternatives. We traced the history of benthic foraminiferal communities from the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. From the well-preserved uplifted reef terrace at Bonah River we reconstructed the benthic foraminiferal communities during a 2200-year period (9000-6800 yr B.P.) of reef building during the Holocene transgressive sea-level rise. We found that the similarity of foraminiferal communities was consistently above 60%, even when comparing communities on either side of a massive volcanic eruption that smothered the existing reef system with ash. Similarly, species diversity and rank dominance were unchanged through time. However, similarity dropped dramatically in the final stages of reef growth, when accommodation space was reduced as sea-level rise slowed. We compared the community inertia index (CII) computed from the observed species abundances with that predicted from neutral theory. Despite the differences in foraminiferal community composition in the younger part of the reef sequence, we found an overall greater degree of community inertia with less variance in observed communities than was predicted from neutral theory, regardless of foraminiferal community size or species migration rate. Thus, persistent species assemblages could not be ascribed to neutral predictions. Ecological incumbency of established foraminiferal species likely prevented stochastic increases in both migrant and rare taxa at the Bonah River site. Regardless of the structuring mechanisms, our reconstruction of Holocene foraminiferal assemblages provides historical context for the management and potential restoration of degraded species assemblages. © 2011 The Paleontological Society. All rights reserved.


Meijer H.J.,Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis | Due R.A.,National Center for Archaeology
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2010

Fossils of the genus Leptoptilos from the Pleistocene of Liang Bua, Flores, Indonesia, belong to a new species of giant marabou stork, Leptoptilos robustus sp. nov. This giant bird, estimated at 1.80 m in length, was similar in dimensions to extant Leptoptilos dubius, except for the tibiotarsus. The thick cortical bone wall of the tibiotarsus and the estimated weight of 16 kg imply a reduced flight capability. Osteological and biometric characters suggest that L. robustus is most closely related to L. dubius. An evolutionary lineage is proposed in which a volant L. dubius-like ancestor in the Middle Pleistocene evolved into the Late Pleistocene L. robustus on Flores, with a concomitant reduction of the ability to fly and an increase in body size. The large body size and terrestrial lifestyle of L. robustus are responses to an unbalanced, insular environment with abundant prey items and a lack of mammalian carnivores, and emphasize the extraordinary nature of the Homo floresiensis fauna. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London.


Pall-Gergely B.,Shinshu University | Hunyadi A.,Adria Setany 10G 2 5 | Maassen W.J.M.,Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis
Journal of Conchology | Year: 2014

A middle-sized pupinid species was recently discovered in Vietnam and described here as Rhaphaulus tonkinensis n. sp. Its shell is characterized by a thick, rather flat outer tube which turns downwards along the peristome margin. This new species represents the first record of the species from Vietnam. A checklist of Rhaphaulus and Streptaulus taxa, photos of most known species (mainly type specimens) and a comprehensive map are presented. The taxonomic position of the genus Streptaulus is discussed.


Donovan S.K.,Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis | Paul C.R.C.,University of Bristol
Geology Today | Year: 2011

The thick and widespread limestones of Jamaica include many hundreds of caves of all shapes and sizes. The Red Hills Road Cave, near Kingston, is unusual for the richness of its included tetrapods and gastropods, and the exceptional, three-dimensional preservation of terrestrial arthropods such as millipedes. This diverse assemblage consists mainly of a forest fauna that was washed into a bottle-shaped cave, either alive or as carcasses, during tropical storms and hurricanes about 30 000 years ago. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, The Geologists' Association & The Geological Society of London.


An important question in coral reef ecology is whether algal abundance in coral reef eco-systems is a natural phenomenon, or has increased as a result of coral reef degradation ultimately resulting in coral-algal regime shifts. Regime shifts, from coral to macro-algae dominated, alter the three-dimensional habitat structure in coral reef ecosystems. Surprisingly, few studies have looked at the effects for species that inhabit the reefs without being the architects of the three-dimensional structure. In this study the effects of a change in habitat characteristics on the community structure of large benthic foraminifera (LBF) is compared between an area with high (Kepulauan Seribu) and lower (Spermonde Archipelago) anthropogenic influence. The results indicate a general relationship between habitat and LBF assemblage structure. The largest difference was observed in shallow habitats. Habitats dominated by algae are inhabited by a specific group of LBF, the Calcarinidae, and domination of this group increases with higher algal prevalence. The fossil record of this group indicates that they evolved following a major change in settings of the central Indo-West-Pacific coral reefs from land detached platforms to fringing reefs, about 5 million years ago. Understanding the biotic response to this transition in reef morphology and the associated increase in terrestrially derived nutrients forms an excellent challenge to gain insights in present-day threats to coral reef ecosystems. © Springer-Verlag 2009.


Donovan S.K.,Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis
Memoir of the Geological Society of America | Year: 2010

In contrast to the geological investigations of Jamaica during the nineteenth century, which were separated by periods of tens of years, three notable geologists, one American (Woodring) and two Englishmen, pursued different research programs on the island between the First and Second World Wars. Wendell Phillips Woodring wrote a comprehensive monograph of the benthic mollusks of the Bowden shell bed, describing ~610 species, in the process making it the most famous and well-researched stratigraphic unit on the island. Lyellian statistics indicated the Bowden shell bed was Miocene; modern biostratigraphy shows it to be Upper Pliocene; but Woodring did not visit Bowden until 1952. Charles Alfred Matley was a career civil servant and skilled amateur geologist who recognized the significance of the Mona Complex (deformed basement) in northwest Wales. On retirement, he was appointed to lead the second geological survey of Jamaica (1921-1924). Matley published a new map and posthumous memoir on the geology of the Kingston region. He also identified what he thought was a Basal Complex under Jamaica, analogous to the Mona Complex, and suggested that the Antillean islands were deposited on an ancient continental basement. This was contested by the wealthy and eccentric amateur Charles Taylor Trechmann. A paleontologist with wide experience of island geology, Trechmann disagreed with Matley's evidence for a pre-Cretaceous basement to Jamaica and formulated his own Theory of Mountain Uplift, involving lunar attraction, gravity tectonics, and metamorphic changes at shallow crustal depths under the influence of sea water. Neither theory engendered more than very limited interest, and both are now considered erroneous and based on the preconceptions of their respective authors. © 2010 The Geological Society of America.


Donovan S.K.,Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis
Memoir of the Geological Society of America | Year: 2010

After service in the Great War, Lawrence John Chubb (1887-1971) entered University College London at the late age of 31 and remained there, as a student and, subsequently, staff member for 30 years. At this time Chubb's research interests were British Paleozoic stratigraphy and the geology of the Pacific islands. He retired in 1950 and joined the new Geological Survey Department of Jamaica as a geologist, later becoming deputy director (1957) and acting director (1961-1963). Chubb developed a new research program on the Cretaceous of Jamaica and the tropical Americas, with specialist expertise in the systematics of the rudist bivalves. He also founded and led the Jamaica Group of the Geologists' Association in 1955, which became the Geological Society of Jamaica in 1960; he was the first president of both organizations. He was the first historian of the geology of Jamaica, and wrote accessible biographies of De la Beche, Barrett, and Zans, the latter co-authored with John Williams, all of which are reproduced in the present volume. © 2010 The Geological Society of America.


Donovan S.K.,Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis
Memoir of the Geological Society of America | Year: 2010

Without a resident population of informed experts, the study of the geology of Jamaica during the nineteenth century relied upon visits by peripatetic specialists. Such visitors were rare, coming about every 35 years or so: H.T. De la Beche (mid- 1820s), Lucas Barrett and J.G. Sawkins (1860s), and R.T. Hill (late 1890s). The theory and practice of geology had moved on with every visit. In the 1920s and 1930s, with improved international travel, geologists were more common visitors. C.A. Matley, of the second geological survey of the island, and C.T. Trechmann, a wealthy amateur, sought data that supported their conflicting theories of Jamaica's geological evolution, although their primary interests were field mapping and paleontology, respectively. At the same time, W.P. Woodring described the diverse mollusks of the Bowden shell bed, a key biostratigraphic horizon in the Antillean Neogene, without actually visiting the island until much later. Following the Second World War, the foundation of the modern Geological Survey Department based in Kingston encouraged new field studies, under the leadership of V.A. Zans and L.J. Chubb. Following Draper's model, the geological evolution of the island is considered to have involved four phases: island arc volcanism during much of the Cretaceous; early Paleogene uplift and intrusion; mid-Cenozoic quiescence and limestone deposition; and late Cenozoic tectonic revival. This framework relies on a plate tectonic synthesis which was only formulated after the death or retirement from active research of the geologists that form the focus of this volume. © 2010 The Geological Society of America.


Donovan S.K.,Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis
Memoir of the Geological Society of America | Year: 2010

Robert Thomas Hill Jr. (1858-1941) was called both the "Father of Texas Geology" and the "Father of Antillean and Isthmian Geology" in his own lifetime. Hill was the preeminent field geologist of his day and the first American to play a prominent role in Caribbean crustal studies. Hill's working life included spells with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and various geological speculations which failed to make his fortune. His Antillean research spanned a brief period, from the mid-1890s to ~1900, and was supported by the fortune of Alexander Agassiz, who commissioned Hill to search for evidence of foundered continental connections and changes of sea level. Hill's major Caribbean surveys included the Isthmus of Panama and the principal islands of the Greater Antilles, and major reports were published on these areas. Hill visited Jamaica in 1896 and 1897, and made over 800 miles of geological traverses. His geological base map was that of Sawkins, whose survey Hill criticized for its failure to determine the correct geological succession of the island, a shortcoming that he corrected. Based on this research, Hill determined the geological history of Jamaica for the first time, an interpretation that remains modern in concept. © 2010 The Geological Society of America.

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