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Donovan S.K.,Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis | Paul C.R.C.,University of Bristol
Geology Today | Year: 2011

The thick and widespread limestones of Jamaica include many hundreds of caves of all shapes and sizes. The Red Hills Road Cave, near Kingston, is unusual for the richness of its included tetrapods and gastropods, and the exceptional, three-dimensional preservation of terrestrial arthropods such as millipedes. This diverse assemblage consists mainly of a forest fauna that was washed into a bottle-shaped cave, either alive or as carcasses, during tropical storms and hurricanes about 30 000 years ago. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, The Geologists' Association & The Geological Society of London.

An important question in coral reef ecology is whether algal abundance in coral reef eco-systems is a natural phenomenon, or has increased as a result of coral reef degradation ultimately resulting in coral-algal regime shifts. Regime shifts, from coral to macro-algae dominated, alter the three-dimensional habitat structure in coral reef ecosystems. Surprisingly, few studies have looked at the effects for species that inhabit the reefs without being the architects of the three-dimensional structure. In this study the effects of a change in habitat characteristics on the community structure of large benthic foraminifera (LBF) is compared between an area with high (Kepulauan Seribu) and lower (Spermonde Archipelago) anthropogenic influence. The results indicate a general relationship between habitat and LBF assemblage structure. The largest difference was observed in shallow habitats. Habitats dominated by algae are inhabited by a specific group of LBF, the Calcarinidae, and domination of this group increases with higher algal prevalence. The fossil record of this group indicates that they evolved following a major change in settings of the central Indo-West-Pacific coral reefs from land detached platforms to fringing reefs, about 5 million years ago. Understanding the biotic response to this transition in reef morphology and the associated increase in terrestrially derived nutrients forms an excellent challenge to gain insights in present-day threats to coral reef ecosystems. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

van Nieukerken E.J.,Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis | Lastuvka A.,Mendel University in Brno | Lastuvka Z.,Mendel University in Brno
ZooKeys | Year: 2010

The nine western Palaearctic species of the subgenus Zimmermannia Hering, 1940 and 48 species in the subgenus Ectoedemia Busck, 1907 of the genus Ectoedemia are reviewed. One species in the subgenus Zimmermannia and four species in the subgenus Ectoedemia are described as new: Ectoedemia (Zimmermannia) vivesi A. Laštu °vka, Z. Laštu °vka & Van Nieukerken sp. n. from southern Spain and Cyprus with unknown host plant, Ectoedemia (E.) hendrikseni A. Laštu °vka, Z. Laštu °vka & Van Nieukerken sp. n. from southern France on Quercus suber, E. (E.) heckfordi Van Nieukerken, A. Laštu °vka & Z. Laštu °vka sp. n. from southern England on Quercus petraea and Q. robur, E. (E.) phaeolepis Van Nieukerken, A. Laštu °vka & Z. Laštu °vka sp. n. from Spain and Portugal probably on Quercus ilex and Q. rotundifolia and E. (E.) coscoja Van Nieukerken, A. Laštu °vka & Z. Laštu °vka sp. n. from Spain on Quercus coccifera. The following species are redescribed: Ectoedemia (Zimmermannia) hispanica Van Nieukerken 1985, Ectoedemia (Zimmermannia) reichli Z. & A. Laštu °vka 1998, Ectoedemia (E.) algeriensis van Nieukerken 1985, E. (E.) pseudoilicis Z. & A. Laštu °vka 1998 and E. (E.) alnifoliae van Nieukerken 1985. Ectoedemia albiformae Puplesis & Diškus 2003 is synonymised with E. spinosella (Joannis, 1908). Ectoedemia jacutica Puplesis 1988, previously synonymised with E. agrimoniae (Frey, 1858), is here synonymised with E. spiraeae Gregor & Povolný 1983. Updated keys to the subgenus Zimmermannia and the Quercus feeding Ectoedemia are provided. © E.J. van Nieukerken, A. Laštůvka, Z. Laštůvka.

Donovan S.K.,Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis
Memoir of the Geological Society of America | Year: 2010

After service in the Great War, Lawrence John Chubb (1887-1971) entered University College London at the late age of 31 and remained there, as a student and, subsequently, staff member for 30 years. At this time Chubb's research interests were British Paleozoic stratigraphy and the geology of the Pacific islands. He retired in 1950 and joined the new Geological Survey Department of Jamaica as a geologist, later becoming deputy director (1957) and acting director (1961-1963). Chubb developed a new research program on the Cretaceous of Jamaica and the tropical Americas, with specialist expertise in the systematics of the rudist bivalves. He also founded and led the Jamaica Group of the Geologists' Association in 1955, which became the Geological Society of Jamaica in 1960; he was the first president of both organizations. He was the first historian of the geology of Jamaica, and wrote accessible biographies of De la Beche, Barrett, and Zans, the latter co-authored with John Williams, all of which are reproduced in the present volume. © 2010 The Geological Society of America.

Donovan S.K.,Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis
Memoir of the Geological Society of America | Year: 2010

Without a resident population of informed experts, the study of the geology of Jamaica during the nineteenth century relied upon visits by peripatetic specialists. Such visitors were rare, coming about every 35 years or so: H.T. De la Beche (mid- 1820s), Lucas Barrett and J.G. Sawkins (1860s), and R.T. Hill (late 1890s). The theory and practice of geology had moved on with every visit. In the 1920s and 1930s, with improved international travel, geologists were more common visitors. C.A. Matley, of the second geological survey of the island, and C.T. Trechmann, a wealthy amateur, sought data that supported their conflicting theories of Jamaica's geological evolution, although their primary interests were field mapping and paleontology, respectively. At the same time, W.P. Woodring described the diverse mollusks of the Bowden shell bed, a key biostratigraphic horizon in the Antillean Neogene, without actually visiting the island until much later. Following the Second World War, the foundation of the modern Geological Survey Department based in Kingston encouraged new field studies, under the leadership of V.A. Zans and L.J. Chubb. Following Draper's model, the geological evolution of the island is considered to have involved four phases: island arc volcanism during much of the Cretaceous; early Paleogene uplift and intrusion; mid-Cenozoic quiescence and limestone deposition; and late Cenozoic tectonic revival. This framework relies on a plate tectonic synthesis which was only formulated after the death or retirement from active research of the geologists that form the focus of this volume. © 2010 The Geological Society of America.

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