Wolnzach, Germany
Wolnzach, Germany

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Bohm D.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Grau T.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Igl-Schmid N.,NATECO2 GmbH and Co. KG | Johnsen S.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Supercritical Fluids | Year: 2013

The use of supercritical CO2 as solvent for separation processes and chemical reactions is widespread. Many industrial extraction processes using CO2 consume a huge amount of energy and hence are very cost-intensive. In the past, the duration of extraction was often longer than required for an optimum result. Therefore, an inline monitoring device for terminating CO2 extraction processes at the right time has been desirable. In collaboration between KIT and SITEC-Sieber Engineering, Switzerland, a mobile near infrared (NIR) inline monitoring device has been developed to close this gap and to offer an opportunity to implement it into industrial extractions processes using CO2 and to use the data for process optimization. NIR spectroscopy with fiber optics adaption has been proven to be a very good choice, because the CO2 bands are well separated from all other bands of interest caused by the extracts (organics and water). The NIR inline monitoring device can easily be implemented into industrial plants to visualize the extraction progress and to terminate the process at the right time in order to save energy and money. Measurements on customer's demand are available for extraction and reaction processes in supercritical CO2. This paper will actually focus on two applications. Firstly, in collaboration with NATECO2, Germany, the NIR inline monitoring device has been implemented into a plant for hops extraction with supercritical CO2. Extractions have been performed and successfully monitored for the varieties Hallertauer Magnum, Hallertauer Herkules, and French Strisselspalter at 60°C and 25 MPa, 28 MPa, and 50 MPa, respectively. The detectability was 0.1 wt% of hops in CO2. Secondly, the applicability of this NIR inline monitoring method on processes for the production of submicron particles in supercritical CO2 has been demonstrated in a feasibility study. For this purpose, a RESS (Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solution) high pressure plant (160 ml, max. 35 MPa, max. 120°C) was built and the NIR inline monitoring device integrated. Two syringe pumps were coupled for an almost pulsation-free-feeding. Benzoic acid was used as a reference solid. In this feasibility study, the focus has not been to perform an optimized RESS process, but rather to monitor the loading of the CO2 phase with benzoic acid continuously, as this information is crucial for the optimization of a RESS process and has not been available up to the present. The experiments have been carried out at 55°C and 25MPa as reference conditions. The performed calibration resulted in a detection limit of 0.1 mg benzoic acid per g CO2. The loading of the CO2 phase has been successfully and continuously monitored and can now be applied for other systems. A side effect of these investigations has been the finding that this NIR inline monitoring device can also be used for very precise solubility measurements and to visualize the establishment of thermodynamic phase equilibrium as a function of time, especially in cases of low solubility of a substance in CO2. The NIR inline monitoring device can also be used for the inline monitoring of reactions producing data for kinetic modeling and process optimization. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Saugspier M.,University of Regensburg | Dorn C.,University of Regensburg | Czech B.,University of Regensburg | Gehrig M.,Nateco2 GmbH and Co. KG | And 2 more authors.
Oncology Reports | Year: 2012

Bitter acids (BAs) from the hop plant Humulus lupulus L. exhibit multiple beneficial biological properties with promising effects in cancer therapy and prevention, but information regarding the effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is missing. Here, we used two different hop bitter acid extracts enriched for either α-acids or β-acids to obtain insight into whether biological activity varies between these two groups of BAs. At a concentration of 25 μg/ml, only the β-acid rich started to induce aspartate transaminase (AST) release, and a significant increase was detected with 50 μg/ml of both extracts. Already at lower concentrations both extracts led to a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation, and migration was suppressed at a concentration as low as 5 μg/ml in HCC cells. The focus on different signaling pathways revealed an inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, downregulation of AP-1 activity and an alleviation of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) activity in HepG2 cells incubated with 5 μg/ml of both extracts, whereby the β-acid rich extract showed more pronounced effects. In conclusion, we identified ERK1/2, AP-1 and NFκB, which are important factors in tumor development and progression, as targets of hop BAs. Thus, these data suggest the potential use of BAs as functional nutrients for both prevention and treatment of HCC.

Dall'Acqua S.,University of Padua | Catanzaro D.,University of Padua | Cocetta V.,University of Padua | Igl N.,NATECO2 GmbH and Co. KG | And 4 more authors.
Fitoterapia | Year: 2016

The triterpene esters Ψ taraxasterol-3-O-myristate (1) and arnidiol-3-O-myristate (2) were tested for their ability to protect epithelial intestinal barrier in an in vitro model. Their effects on ROS production and on trans-epithelial resistance were investigated on CaCo-2 cell monolayers both in basal and stress-induced conditions. Both compounds were able to modulate the stress damage induced by H2O2 and INFγ + TNFα, showing a potential use as model compounds for the study of new therapeutic agents for intestinal inflammations. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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