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Gyeonggi, South Korea

Jo Y.,Kyungpook National University | Baek J.-Y.,Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute | Jeong I.-Y.,Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute | Jeong Y.-J.,Keimyung University | And 3 more authors.
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

High acidity vinegar using grape concentrate was manufactured by fed-batch fermentation without additional chemical nutrients. Physicochemical properties and volatile components were investigated at different wine vinegar fermentation stages (stages 1–4) and at different initial alcohol concentrations (IAC, 6–9%). Acetic acid production showed a high yield and a rapid increase with an IAC=6%. The contents of reducing sugar, free amino acids, total phenolics, and overall volatiles increased during stage 4 (high acidity vinegar) most likely due to addition of a feeding solution. High acidity vinegar produced using a fed-batch culture at an IAC of 6% is a source of functional constituents with improved physicochemical and volatile properties, compared to moderate acidity vinegar. © 2015, The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Jo D.,Kyungpook National University | Park E.-J.,Kyungpook National University | Kim G.-R.,Kyungpook National University | Yeo S.-H.,NASS | And 2 more authors.
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The quality of commercial cider vinegars was compared according to their acidity levels (low, general, double strength and triple strength). The pH, reducing sugar content and brown color intensity decreased, while the total acidity increased with the increasing acidity levels, which may be resulted from difference in formulation and manufacturing procedures. The free sugars were mainly composed of fructose and glucose, which were the highest in low acidity vinegar, followed by double strength, general, and triple strength acidity vinegars. Acetic acids and malic acids were identified as the major organic acids. The citric acid concentration was the highest in triple strength vinegars. The contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were the highest in low acidity vinegars, which indicated their dependence on the apple juice content. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging abilities were the highest in low acidity vinegars, that showed high amounts of antioxidants. © The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology. Source


Jo Y.,Kyungpook National University | Park Y.,Kyungpook National University | Lee H.-G.,Kyungpook National University | Lee H.-J.,Kyungpook National University | And 3 more authors.
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

In this study, high-acidity cider vinegar (HACV) was produced by alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation of apple concentrate without any nutrients and then the optimum alcohol concentration was determined through a qualitative study. HACV was fermented with different initial alcohol concentrations (6-9%) during the process of acetic acid fermentation. The highest content of reducing sugar, organic acids, and free amino acids was observed at 6% of initial alcohol concentration. Approximately 20 types of volatile compounds were identified by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC-MS. The total volatile content was the highest at 6% of initial alcohol concentration, and the acid content was the lowest at 9% of the initial alcohol concentration. The HACV produced by a two-stage fermentation process was qualitatively better than commercial HACV presenting the highest value at 6% of initial alcohol concentration. Malic acid, aspartic acid, and hexyl acetate were selected as quality index components of HACV production by two-stage fermentation on the basis of correlation between their physicochemical properties and the sensory attributes of HACV. © The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology. Source


Kim K.-O.,Kyungpook National University | Kim S.-M.,Kyungpook National University | Kim D.-Y.,Kyungpook National University | Jo D.,Kyungpook National University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

The physiochemical properties of commercial fruit vinegars were compared according to fermentation methods. Type A vinegars were synthesized through acetic acid fermentation while Type B vinegars were produced using both alcohol and acetic acid fermentation serially. There were differences from using these fermentation methods; Type A vinegars had a lower pH and slightly higher total acidity than Type B vinegars. The content of total sugar and reducing sugar were relatively higher in Type B vinegars, which showed a higher content of the free sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, and maltose). The intensity of brown color and Hunter's a and b values were also high in Type B vinegars. In contrast, the content of organic acids was higher in Type A vinegars, which were mainly composed of acetic, tartaric, malic, and succinic acid. We were also able to estimate the fruit juice content of vinegars through its content of organic acids. Type B vinegars contained a higher total phenolics and flavonoids content than Type A vinegars, and showed a higher DPPH radical scavenging activity. Source


Jo D.,Kyungpook National University | Kim G.-R.,Kyungpook National University | Yeo S.-H.,NASS | Jeong Y.-J.,Keimyung University | And 2 more authors.
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Aroma compounds of commercial cider vinegars according to their acidity (low, moderate, double-strength, and triple-strength) were comparatively investigated. SPME/GC-MS analysis revealed 8 types of aroma compounds commonly existing in the vinegar including acetic acid. A cider vinegar with moderate acidity showed the most volatile profiles. Electronic nose analysis suggested that the peak at 0.40 s was a component related to total acidity of vinegar. Principal component analysis enabled e-nose to discriminate easily by presenting the separated position depending on total acidity. Significant differences with the acidity were observed in the pungent odor intensity and odor preference. According to the results, the moderate acidity vinegar was revealed to retain most volatile profiles and sensory odor. Compared to sensory evaluation, the analysis using SPME/GC-MS and e-nose provided more distinct patterns on their volatile compounds depending on their acidity, which might be a potential tool in determining the volatile profiles of cider vinegars. © 2013 The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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