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Kutkowska J.,Zaklad Genetyki i Mikrobiologii | Michalska-Szymaszek M.,Oddzial Laboratoryjny W Tarnobrzegu | Matuszewska R.,Narodowy Instytut Zdrowia Publicznego Panstwowy Zaklad Higieny | Chmiel E.,Zaklad Genetyki i Mikrobiologii | Urbanik-Sypniewska T.,Zaklad Genetyki i Mikrobiologii
Postepy Mikrobiologii | Year: 2015

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are commensal bacteria in cattle with high potential for transmission to humans. The serotype E. Coli O157:H7 is the main cause of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. E. Coli O157 synthesizes an O-antigen containing a repeating tetrasaccharide with the structure (4-N-acetyl-perosamine →3-fucose →3-glucose →3-N-acetyl-galactosmine). The presence of a common epitope consisting of 2-substituted N-acyl-perosamine is responsible for the serological cross-reactions with Yersinia enterocolitica O9 or Vibrio cholerae O1. The sequence homology indicates that the O157:H7 rfbE gene encoding perosamine synthetase may have originated in a species other than E. Coli. The peculiarity of O157 repeat unit biosynthesis is a new pathway performed by epimerase Gnu that catalyses the reversible epimerization of N-acetyl-glucosamine-P-P-undecaprenol to N-acetyl-galactosmine-P-P-undecaprenol. The potential of the bacterial epimerase as a new target for antimicrobial agents is discussed. O157 and H7 antigens seem to be accessory virulence factors implicated in the pathogenesis of human diseases. The O157 antigen is important in the animal and plant host immune response and plays a role in the adherence of this organism to epithelial cells. One of the sources of epidemic outbreaks is water from the municipal water supply and other reservoirs. Survival of O157 bacteria in water environments has been recorded. The comparative analysis of nucleotide sequences within the rfb O antigen gene cluster and of other genes in the genome among STEC strains will elucidate the genetic basis of the evolution and virulence of these enteric pathogens.

In his rapport from Calcutta published in 1884 in German press of Berlin Robert Koch described Vibrio as an etiological agent of cholera, in spite that the germ did not caused cholera symptoms in the animals infected in laboratory [9]. The research works connected with VII pandemic of cholera that started in 1961 solved the problem by the demonstration of the toxic activity of the V. cholerae on biological models. New important information concerning the bacteriological media for isolation of cholera vibrio, vibrio genetics, cholera toxins, vibrio virulence and survival of cholera vibrio in the environment brought new solutions for surveillance, prevention and control of cholera in the world. The epidemic outbreaks of cholera in some European countries, in Slovakia and Ukraine in 1970 caused the conditions that a group of workers of National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw started to work on microbiological methods for examination for V. cholera the patients and healthy contacts, water and food, as well as to instruct the sanitary stations staff for epidemiological and laboratory investigation. The cooperation with researchers in Europe and other countries were developed to exchange the most important news. The pandemic of cholera faded but still remained several unsolved problems that actually are investigated by researchers in countries developed as well as underdeveloped working together as cholera remain a heavy burden to many poor regions in the world.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 3.18M | Year: 2009

The research project investigates the possible impact of global climate change on reproductive health in one Arctic and two European populations. The key questions to be addressed are, firstly, how may climate change influence human exposure to widespread environmental contaminants and, secondly, how may contaminants impact occurrence of reproductive disorders as sensitive indicators of health? To provide affirmative answers to these questions the proposal will as a first step identify and describe mechanisms by which a changing climate may affect the exposure of Arctic and other human populations to contaminants through change in chemical use and emissions, delivery to the arctic ecosystem as well as processing within the arctic physical environment and human food chain. This work relies on modelling of existing data. Secondly, the project will expand the existing knowledge database on human exposure to polybrominated biphenylethers, perfluorinated surfactants and phthalates by analyses of 1000 biobanked serum samples collected in a EU FP5 project. Thirdly, the project will increase the limited knowledge on links between human exposure to contaminants and reproductive health. This work relies on a large existing parent-child-cohort, where a follow-up survey provide new data that are fed into risk assessment. Furthermore we will perform reviews of experimental and epidemiological literature to identify critical reproductive effects and exposure-response data for selected compounds as input to the risk assessment. Finally the project will integrate data on climate induced changes in contaminant mobility and distribution and links between contaminant exposure and reproductive health into a risk evaluation providing insight into possible future risk scenarios related to global climate change. The project draws upon a network of experts in climate modelling and in experimental, epidemiological and risk assessment methodologies and builds upon three established cohorts in Greenland, Poland and Ukraine.

Maczka I.,Narodowy Instytut Zdrowia Publicznego Panstwowy Zaklad Higieny | Tylewska-Wierzbanowska S.,Narodowy Instytut Zdrowia Publicznego Panstwowy Zaklad Higieny
Postepy Mikrobiologii | Year: 2010

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes are long, spiral Gram-negative bacteria. The life cycle of B. burgdorferi in the environment can be divided into several stages. Each of them is essential for the survival of these microorganisms. The first stage of the life cycle takes place in a hungry tick, second in the blood and/or body fluids of warm-blooded animals, the third stage inside the mammalian cells, and the fourth one is connected with the death of the infected host cells and the release of the bacteria into the bloodstream, from where they can be sucked again by ticks and the cycle repeats. Lyme borreliosis, caused by B. burgdorferi spirochetes, is a meta-zoonosis transmitted by arthropod vectors. Ticks of the genus Ixodes are the most competent vector of the disease. Following outer membrane lipoproteins: OspA, OspB until OspF and decorin-binding proteins DbpA and DbpB have been described. Their role in the life cycle of B. burgdorferi has only been partly clucidated. The first step of colonization of specific sites by pathogenic bacteria in the binding of bacterial adhesion proteins to receptors (decorin, glicosaminoglican, fibronectin, integrins) present on the surface of the target tissues of the host. B. burgdorferi spirochetes are very motile bacteria which can easily spread throughout the body to various, often very distant organs. Even a normal and efficient immune system is unable to eliminate B. burgdorferi bacteria since they are able to disguise and hide protecting themselves agains the host immune system. Outer membrane proteins B. burgdorferi undergo antigenic variation depending on environmental conditions, such as temperature, pH, and availability of nutrients.

The I-MOVE\ Consortium includes European Union (EU) Public Health Institutes, SME and Universities. It aims at measuring and comparing the effectiveness (VE) and impact (VI) of influenza and Pneumococcal vaccines and vaccination strategies a in the elderly population in Europe. The goal is to develop a sustainable platform of primary care practices, hospitals and laboratory networks that share validated methods to evaluate post marketing vaccine performances. The objectives are to identify, pilot test, and disseminate in EU the best study designs to measure, on a real time basis, VE (direct effect) and the VI of vaccination programmes (indirect and overall effect) against laboratory confirmed cases of influenza (types/subtypes) and pneumococcal disease (serotypes), and clinical outcomes. Cost effectiveness analysis will be conducted. Results will allow to understand factors affecting specific VE, the duration of protection of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, the interaction between vaccines, the role of repeated vaccinations, the occurrence of serotype replacement (pneumococcus); identify vaccine types and brands with low VE; guide the decision of the WHO committees on vaccine strain selection (influenza); provide robust benefit indicators (VE and VI) and cost benefit and effectiveness results; guide vaccination strategies (schedules, doses, boosters). This EU member state collaboration will respond to questions that require studies based on large sample sizes and sharing of expertise that cannot be achieved by one country alone. It will allow the best methods to be used and results to benefit to all EU countries whatever their current public health achievements. Results will be shared with international partners.

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