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In his rapport from Calcutta published in 1884 in German press of Berlin Robert Koch described Vibrio as an etiological agent of cholera, in spite that the germ did not caused cholera symptoms in the animals infected in laboratory [9]. The research works connected with VII pandemic of cholera that started in 1961 solved the problem by the demonstration of the toxic activity of the V. cholerae on biological models. New important information concerning the bacteriological media for isolation of cholera vibrio, vibrio genetics, cholera toxins, vibrio virulence and survival of cholera vibrio in the environment brought new solutions for surveillance, prevention and control of cholera in the world. The epidemic outbreaks of cholera in some European countries, in Slovakia and Ukraine in 1970 caused the conditions that a group of workers of National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw started to work on microbiological methods for examination for V. cholera the patients and healthy contacts, water and food, as well as to instruct the sanitary stations staff for epidemiological and laboratory investigation. The cooperation with researchers in Europe and other countries were developed to exchange the most important news. The pandemic of cholera faded but still remained several unsolved problems that actually are investigated by researchers in countries developed as well as underdeveloped working together as cholera remain a heavy burden to many poor regions in the world.

Maczka I.,Narodowy Instytut Zdrowia Publicznego Panstwowy Zaklad Higieny | Tylewska-Wierzbanowska S.,Narodowy Instytut Zdrowia Publicznego Panstwowy Zaklad Higieny
Postepy Mikrobiologii | Year: 2010

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes are long, spiral Gram-negative bacteria. The life cycle of B. burgdorferi in the environment can be divided into several stages. Each of them is essential for the survival of these microorganisms. The first stage of the life cycle takes place in a hungry tick, second in the blood and/or body fluids of warm-blooded animals, the third stage inside the mammalian cells, and the fourth one is connected with the death of the infected host cells and the release of the bacteria into the bloodstream, from where they can be sucked again by ticks and the cycle repeats. Lyme borreliosis, caused by B. burgdorferi spirochetes, is a meta-zoonosis transmitted by arthropod vectors. Ticks of the genus Ixodes are the most competent vector of the disease. Following outer membrane lipoproteins: OspA, OspB until OspF and decorin-binding proteins DbpA and DbpB have been described. Their role in the life cycle of B. burgdorferi has only been partly clucidated. The first step of colonization of specific sites by pathogenic bacteria in the binding of bacterial adhesion proteins to receptors (decorin, glicosaminoglican, fibronectin, integrins) present on the surface of the target tissues of the host. B. burgdorferi spirochetes are very motile bacteria which can easily spread throughout the body to various, often very distant organs. Even a normal and efficient immune system is unable to eliminate B. burgdorferi bacteria since they are able to disguise and hide protecting themselves agains the host immune system. Outer membrane proteins B. burgdorferi undergo antigenic variation depending on environmental conditions, such as temperature, pH, and availability of nutrients.

Bucholc B.,Narodowy Instytut Zdrowia Publicznego Panstwowy Zaklad Higieny
Przegla̧d epidemiologiczny | Year: 2011

The study did not support the hypothesis of a causal link between vaccinations and chronic diseases and autoimmune diseases. Vaccinations do not weaken the immune system. A man can produce about 10 billion different antibodies. During the lifetime human organism produces from 1 to 100 million different antibodies. Vaccination creates antibodies to about 150 antigens. We describe the capacity of the infant's immune system to respond to vaccines as well as discuss the plausibility of theories that relate vaccines to the development if specific chronic disease.

Matuszewska R.,Narodowy Instytut Zdrowia Publicznego Panstwowy Zaklad Higieny | Szczotko M.,Narodowy Instytut Zdrowia Publicznego Panstwowy Zaklad Higieny | Bartosik M.,Narodowy Instytut Zdrowia Publicznego Panstwowy Zaklad Higieny | Krogulska B.,Narodowy Instytut Zdrowia Publicznego Panstwowy Zaklad Higieny
Ochrona Srodowiska | Year: 2011

Parasite protozoa of the genera Cryptosporidium and Giardia play an equally significant part in controlling the quality of the water intended for human consumption as do such indicator organisms as Escherichia coli, coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci and anaerobic sulfite-reducing clostridia. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the surface water taken in by the waterworks of Warsaw, Plock and Bialystok. Water was sampled simultaneously at the intake, before rapid filtration and after rapid filtration. Simultaneously were also determined the counts of indicator bacteria and those of the sulfite-reducing clostridia spores. It has been demonstrated that water contamination with Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts was relatively low (0.23 per 1 dm3 on average) in contrast to the contamination by Giardia sp. cysts (1.1 per 1 dm3). Fecal streptococci and spores of sulfite-reducing clostridia were detected in all of the water samples, whereas the presence of coliform bacteria and E. coli was determined only in some of them. The results of the study have revealed that the treatment trains used in the investigated waterworks, and specifically the rapid filtration processes, provide a kind of 'safety fence' protecting against parasite protozoa and spores of sulfite-reducing clostridia.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: SiS-2008- | Award Amount: 1.05M | Year: 2009

The general objective of this project is to improve the quality, effectiveness and efficiency of science advice for health across Europe. Science advice is any recommendation for policy action based on scientific knowledge, considering also expert judgment, ethical and societal values, and experience from relevant stakeholders. Many EU Member States have national science advisory bodies. However, many health issues have transnational dimensions. Moreover, the rapid increase of scientific knowledge and health issues to be addressed exceed what can be dealt with by national bodies. Accordingly, international collaboration between national bodies will lead to more effective and efficient science advice, in support of decision-making at national and EU level. This objective narrowly fits in FP7-SIS-2008- The general objective has been translated into the following specific objectives: Describe the functions and structure of existing national science advisory bodies for health in 12 European countries; and carry out a thematic analysis of reports from each country Establish a common best practice methodology for science advice Develop a plan for communication and cooperation in the expanding network of science advisory bodies, taking advantage of the SINAPSE system Illustrate the common methodology and the functioning of the network by developing a pilot case study for a European science advisory report A common methodology with improved transnational cooperation promotes open governance, as more evidence-based policy making in Europe will be more transparent to the public. The recently established European Science Advisory Network for Health coordinates activities among science advisory bodies within the EU, and is eminently suited to provide the infrastructure for these tasks. As improvement of science advice is a long-term goal, the Coordinating Action will also aim at strengthening the network beyond the time frame of the project.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: NoE | Phase: HEALTH.2010.2.3.2-3 | Award Amount: 15.96M | Year: 2011

Over the past 15 years, EU-funded cohorts and collaborations (EuroSIDA, CASCADE and PENTA), have played a central role in developing our understanding of HIV progression and the effects of ART, enabling European expertise to contribute directly to the advances in patient diagnosis and management worldwide, and providing a continued surveillance mechanism for detection of emerging problems at a European level. Furthermore, we also established COHERE (Collaboration Of HIV Epidemiologic Research in Europe), a new European-wide cohort collaboration encompassing virtually all European HIV cohorts which were not included in the EU-funded networks. COHERE provides us with sufficient statistical power to address questions that cannot be addressed by existing cohorts and networks alone. Together, these collaborations form the foundation of a proposed Network of Excellence, which we have named EuroCoord. EuroCoord currently has access to data from over 250,000 HIV-infected individuals across the European continent, and beyond, both male and female, from neonates to geriatric populations, infected through sex between men, sex between men and women, injecting drug use, nosocomially and from mother to child, with and without co-infection with hepatitis viruses, of different ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds, from indigenous and migrant populations, in settings with varying levels of access to care and laboratory techniques. Our multidisciplinary research will thus allow us to address key areas of HIV research aimed at improving the management and life of HIV-infected individuals, whilst allowing us to explore differences within sub-groups. EuroCoord is in a position to mobilise European HIV cohort research, bringing it within one truly pan-European network of cohort studies with a strong and increasing presence in the Central- and Eastern European region. The structure of our network, maintaining autonomy within each individual network but within one common research platform, ensures that the most competitive science is performed whilst allowing us to pool our expertise and resources to undertake new initiatives within an integrated collaborative structure.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 3.18M | Year: 2009

The research project investigates the possible impact of global climate change on reproductive health in one Arctic and two European populations. The key questions to be addressed are, firstly, how may climate change influence human exposure to widespread environmental contaminants and, secondly, how may contaminants impact occurrence of reproductive disorders as sensitive indicators of health? To provide affirmative answers to these questions the proposal will as a first step identify and describe mechanisms by which a changing climate may affect the exposure of Arctic and other human populations to contaminants through change in chemical use and emissions, delivery to the arctic ecosystem as well as processing within the arctic physical environment and human food chain. This work relies on modelling of existing data. Secondly, the project will expand the existing knowledge database on human exposure to polybrominated biphenylethers, perfluorinated surfactants and phthalates by analyses of 1000 biobanked serum samples collected in a EU FP5 project. Thirdly, the project will increase the limited knowledge on links between human exposure to contaminants and reproductive health. This work relies on a large existing parent-child-cohort, where a follow-up survey provide new data that are fed into risk assessment. Furthermore we will perform reviews of experimental and epidemiological literature to identify critical reproductive effects and exposure-response data for selected compounds as input to the risk assessment. Finally the project will integrate data on climate induced changes in contaminant mobility and distribution and links between contaminant exposure and reproductive health into a risk evaluation providing insight into possible future risk scenarios related to global climate change. The project draws upon a network of experts in climate modelling and in experimental, epidemiological and risk assessment methodologies and builds upon three established cohorts in Greenland, Poland and Ukraine.

The I-MOVE\ Consortium includes European Union (EU) Public Health Institutes, SME and Universities. It aims at measuring and comparing the effectiveness (VE) and impact (VI) of influenza and Pneumococcal vaccines and vaccination strategies a in the elderly population in Europe. The goal is to develop a sustainable platform of primary care practices, hospitals and laboratory networks that share validated methods to evaluate post marketing vaccine performances. The objectives are to identify, pilot test, and disseminate in EU the best study designs to measure, on a real time basis, VE (direct effect) and the VI of vaccination programmes (indirect and overall effect) against laboratory confirmed cases of influenza (types/subtypes) and pneumococcal disease (serotypes), and clinical outcomes. Cost effectiveness analysis will be conducted. Results will allow to understand factors affecting specific VE, the duration of protection of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, the interaction between vaccines, the role of repeated vaccinations, the occurrence of serotype replacement (pneumococcus); identify vaccine types and brands with low VE; guide the decision of the WHO committees on vaccine strain selection (influenza); provide robust benefit indicators (VE and VI) and cost benefit and effectiveness results; guide vaccination strategies (schedules, doses, boosters). This EU member state collaboration will respond to questions that require studies based on large sample sizes and sharing of expertise that cannot be achieved by one country alone. It will allow the best methods to be used and results to benefit to all EU countries whatever their current public health achievements. Results will be shared with international partners.

PubMed | Zaklad Badan Nad Alkoholizmem i Toksykomaniami IPiN., Katedra Psychiatrii UM we Wroclawiu., Narodowy Instytut Zdrowia Publicznego Panstwowy Zaklad Higieny. and Harvard University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Psychiatria polska | Year: 2015

The article presents lifetime (LT) prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) in accordance with the DSMIV classification, based on assessment of representative population sample of 10,081 Poles aged 18-64.Computer based WHO CIDI3.0 was adapted for the Polish population according to WMH protocol. The survey was performed by certified and supervised interviewers.Out of the 18 CMDs analyzed the most common was alcohol abuse, significantly more often in males (18.6%) than in women (3.3%), (p<0.01). The second most common disorder was panic, also more frequent in women (8.5%) than in men (3.9%), (p<0.01). Similarly, depression occurred in women (4.0%) two times more often than in males (1.9%), (p<0.01). GAD, agoraphobia, panic, specific phobia (p<0.01), and dysthymia (p<0.05) were also more prevalent in women. On the other hand, alcohol abuse, alcohol and drug dependence (p<0.01), and hypomania (p<0.05) were more common in males. For most analyzed disorders significantly higher prevalence was found in the older age groups. Social phobia, specific phobias, and drug abuse occurred most often in men from the youngest group. No significant differences related to age were found for the prevalence of hypomania both in men and women.Indices of prevalence obtained in the EZOP Poland study differ from the indices of prevalence of mental disorders described earlier in other countries. Lower values were found in Poland for affective disorders and some anxiety disorders. Only alcohol abuse was diagnosed more often than in other studies using similar methods except Ukraine, where this disorder was diagnosed with similar frequency.

PubMed | Zaklad Badan Nad Alkoholizmem i Toksykomaniami IPiN., Katedra Psychiatrii UM we Wroclawiu., Narodowy Instytut Zdrowia Publicznego Panstwowy Zaklad Higieny. and Harvard University
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Psychiatria polska | Year: 2015

Since the second half of the twentieth century, with the development of structured diagnostic tools, population based studies on epidemiology of mental disorders are carried out. A special role is played by World Mental Health Survey Initiative which brings together a group of countries from different continents in order to carry out research projects according to standard methodology using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Polish EZOP study, which was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of WMH joined that group. The project was implemented under the Norwegian Financial Mechanism and the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area. Its aim was to estimate the prevalence of mental disorders in the Polish population of adults, assess the distance to mental disorders and to obtain knowledge about the perception of psychiatric disorders and treatment.The research tool was the Polish version of CIDI-WHO ver.3.0., which was developed for the project. The study was performed in accordance with the guidelines of WMH (cognitive interviews, interviewers training, standardization of field procedures) using electronic version of CIDI questionnaire (CAPI) within the 2-stages procedure in randomly selected representative sample of the Polish population aged 18-64. The quality of the study was systematically controlled and reported by MB SMG/KRC, and completed data (10,081 interviews) were sent to the Department-Centre of Monitoring and Analyses of Population Health NIPH-NIH. After the initial analysis data were sent to the analytical center of WMH, which applied additional cleaning tools and added new variables representing psychiatric diagnoses in DSM-IV and ICD-10.

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