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Deodhar K.,Tata Memorial Hospital and Cancer Research Institute | Gheit T.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Vaccarella S.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Romao C.C.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2012

Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in many areas of India which contributes for a fifth of the global burden of disease. Persistent infection with one of the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) has been established as the cause for cervical cancer and the documentation of the prevalence of HPV types in cervical cancer in different regions of India is useful for a prevention program combining both screening and vaccination. In this study, the HPV type distribution and the frequency of p16INK4a immunoexpression have been determined in 125 cases of inflammatory lesions or grade 1 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, 74 cases of grade 2, 72 cases of grade 3, and 113 cervical cancer cases diagnosed among women from rural Solapur and Osmanabad districts, Maharashtra. The overall prevalence of high-risk HPV was 37.6% in inflammatory lesions or grade 1 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, 63.5% in grade 2, 97.2% in grade 3 and 92% in cervical cancer cases. HPV 16 and HPV 18 were detected in 80.6% of grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 86.5% of cervical cancer cases. 94.7% of the cervical cancer and 84.4% of the high grade lesions with a strong and full thickness staining for p16INK4a were positive for HPV infection; p16INK4a immunoexpression increased with worsening grade of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The HPV genotyping data showing a high HPV 16 and 18 prevalence in cancer specimens indicate that prophylactic HPV 16/18 vaccination would have a significant impact on the prevention of cervical cancer in India. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Deodhar K.,Cancer Research Institute | Sankaranarayanan R.,World Health Organization | Jayant K.,Nargis Dutt Memorial Cancer Hospital NDMCH | Jeronimo J.,Program for Appropriate Technology in Health PATH | And 13 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2012

The high burden of cervical cancer and inadequate/suboptimal cytology screening in developing countries led to the evaluation of visual screening tests, like visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI). We describe the performance of VIA, VILI and cytology, carried out in a multinational project called "Screening Technologies to Advance Rapid Testing" in 5,519 women aged 30-49 years, in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). VIA, VILI and cytology were positive in 16.9%, 15.6% and 6.1% women, respectively. We found 57 cases of CIN2, 55 of CIN3 and 12 of cervical cancer; 90% of CIN3 and 43% CIN2 cases were positive for p16 overexpression and high-risk HPV infection, indicating a high validity of histological diagnosis. The sensitivity of VIA, VILI and cytology to detect high-grade CIN were 64.5%, 64.5% and 67.7%, respectively; specificities were 84.2%, 85.5% and 95.4%. A high proportion of p16 positive CIN 3 (93.8%) and 2 (76.9%) were positive on cytology compared with visual tests (68.8% and 53.8%, respectively) indicating a higher sensitivity of cytology to detect p16 positive high-grade CIN. However, the immediate availability of the results from the visual tests permits diagnosis and/or treatment to be performed in the same sitting, which can potentially reduce loss to follow-up when women must be recalled following positive cytology. Organizing visual screening services in low-resource countries may facilitate the gradual building of an infrastructure committed to screening allowing the eventual introduction of more sensitive, highly objective, reproducible and affordable human papillomavirus screening tests in future. Copyright © 2012 UICC. Source


Missaoui N.,Laboratoire Central Of Pathologie | Missaoui N.,Laboratoire Danatomie Et Of Cytologie Pathologiques | Hmissa S.,Laboratoire Danatomie Et Of Cytologie Pathologiques | Sankaranarayanan R.,Center International Of Recherche Sur Le Cancer Circ | And 12 more authors.
Annales de Biologie Clinique | Year: 2010

The histological criteria of uterine cervix lesions are well known. However, there is a poor diagnostic reproducibility especially concerning low- grade precancerous lesions. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of p16INK4A overexpression as a surrogate biomarker of precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix. A retrospective study was carried out by the International Center for Research on Cancer, Lyon, on 79 uterine cervix lesions. Specimens included 4 normal tissue samples, 24 benign lesions, 9 low-grade precancerous lesions (CIN1), 40 high-grade precancerous lesions (CIN2-3) and 2 squamous cell carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry was used to find p16INK4A expression. HPV infection was detected by HPV testing. No p16INK4A expression was detected in normal tissues and benign lesions of the uterine cervix. p16INK4A immunolabeling was weak in CIN1 cases (77.8%). Strong and diffuse p16INK4A expression was detected among all precancerous lesions (CIN2-3) and squamous cell carcinomas. p16 INK4A overexpression was associated to the CIN grade (p < 0.0001) and high-risk HPV infection (p< 0.0001). In conclusion, p16INK4A overexpression should be regarded as a surrogate biomarker of precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix. p16INK4A overexpression is useful in reducing the variability during evaluation of suspicious biopsies ofthe uterine cervix. Source

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