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Bano Q.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Hassan M.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Hussain S.B.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Javed M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | And 5 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2016

This study aimed to identify high-yielding peanut genotypes with resistance to leaf spot disease. The experiments included material from fourteen local and four exotic peanut genotypes that showed highly significant differences among morphological and disease severity parameters in all the genotypes which, in turn, suggested diversity genotypes. Disease severity analysis showed that the highest disease score and damaged leaf area were observed in the genotype Kelincer and the lowest scores and leaf damaged areas were observed in Majalaya super and BARI-2000, respectively. Based on these results, the genotypes BARI-2011, Chakori, Golden, BARI-89, Majalaya Super, BARD-699, BARI-2000, SP-1, and No. 334 can be used by breeders in peanut improvement programs for the development of new cultivars with higher disease resistance and increased yield. © 2016 The Authors.


PubMed | Bahauddin Zakariya University, University of Agriculture at Faisalabad, NARC and Pmas Arid Agriculture University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2016

This study aimed to identify high-yielding peanut genotypes with resistance to leaf spot disease. The experiments included material from fourteen local and four exotic peanut genotypes that showed highly significant differences among morphological and disease severity parameters in all the genotypes which, in turn, suggested diversity genotypes. Disease severity analysis showed that the highest disease score and damaged leaf area were observed in the genotype Kelincer and the lowest scores and leaf damaged areas were observed in Majalaya super and BARI-2000, respectively. Based on these results, the genotypes BARI-2011, Chakori, Golden, BARI-89, Majalaya Super, BARD-699, BARI-2000, SP-1, and No. 334 can be used by breeders in peanut improvement programs for the development of new cultivars with higher disease resistance and increased yield.


Saleem-Ud-Din,NARC | Khan M.A.,NARC | Gull S.,Plant Genetic Resource Institute | Usman K.,Gomal University | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

This paper encompasses the study of line x tester analysis to chalk out genetic implications regarding yield and yield relating components in different genotypes of sunflower. Eight parents (four CMS lines and four restorers) along with their sixteen F1 hybrids were considered and planted in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated thrice at experimental area of Oilseed Research Program, National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan in 2011. Combining ability for some important morphological traits included days to flower initiation, days to flower completion, days to maturity, plant height, head diameter and seed yield plant-1. In this concern general combining ability (GCA), reciprocals combining ability (RCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) for all traits were studied. The GCA and SCA variances due to lines and testers interaction were significant for all the characters. However, the magnitude of GCAs from CMS lines (females) and restorers (pollinators) were higher than the SCA indicating preponderance of additive genes in the expression of all the traits. Among the lines, CMS-HA-54 whereas in testers, RHP-71, by manifesting maximum GCA effects were considered as the best general combiners for almost all the traits indicating the presence of more additive gene effects in these parents, therefore may serve as potential parents for hybridization and to improve the characters studied. Among the F1 hybrids, CMS HA-99 × RHP-76 (1.54, 212.65) and CMS HA-101 × RHP-73 (0.91, 432.73) were found as the best specific combiners for head or capitulum and seed yield. Hence, if farming community and researchers include these hybrids in their selection and hybridization program for the trait under study optimum result may be obtained.


Cheema N.M.,Plant science Division PARC | Azim Malik M.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Qadir G.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Zubair Rafique M.,Pakistan Oilseed Development Board | Nawaz N.,NARC
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

Among the different factors temperature and moisture are considered very important for germination, crop maturity and productivity. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory to determine the effect of temperature and moisture stress on the speed and total germination of four Castor bean cultivars (DS-30, PR-7/1, PR-101 and Local) obtained from two locations viz., Attock and Chakwal. The seeds were conditioned to different moisture content ranging from 0 to -14 bars and temperature ranging from 0 to 35°C in hot air chamber/oven. The highest value indicated the fastest germination that was obtained from Attock location (3.992), in comparison with value (3.933) obtained from Chakwal when the Castor bean cultivars were incubated at 25°C. The maximum GRI was recorded at the osmotic pressure of 0 bar (control), whose value in case of Attock seed location was 3.857 and Chakwal seed location (4.788). The interaction effects of moisture, temperature and cultivars were found significant for GRI. The cultivars performed differently under different temperature and moisture conditions.


Kannan S.R.,Pondicherry University | Devi R.,Pondicherry University | Ramathilagam S.,Periyar Government College | Takezawa K.,NARC
Computers in Biology and Medicine | Year: 2013

The main motivation of this paper is to introduce a class of robust non-Euclidean distance measures for the original data space to derive new objective function and thus clustering the non-Euclidean structures in data to enhance the robustness of the original clustering algorithms to reduce noise and outliers. The new objective functions of proposed algorithms are realized by incorporating the noise clustering concept into the entropy based fuzzy C-means algorithm with suitable noise distance which is employed to take the information about noisy data in the clustering process. This paper presents initial cluster prototypes using prototype initialization method, so that this work tries to obtain the final result with less number of iterations. To evaluate the performance of the proposed methods in reducing the noise level, experimental work has been carried out with a synthetic image which is corrupted by Gaussian noise. The superiority of the proposed methods has been examined through the experimental study on medical images. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithms perform significantly better than the standard existing algorithms. The accurate classification percentage of the proposed fuzzy C-means segmentation method is obtained using silhouette validity index. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Manzoor F.,Lahore College for Women University | Chaudhary M.,Lahore College for Women University | Sheikh N.,University of Punjab | Khan I.A.,University of Peshawar | Khan T.,NARC
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2011

The diversity and proportions of termite species was studied in a wheat crop and garden trees from January to June, 2006 in District Bhakkar. Six species of termites i.e., Coptotermes heimi, Microcerotermes spp., Odontotermes obesus, Microtermes obesi, Microtermes mycophagus and Odontotermes guptai were recorded from wheat fields and garden trees. Termite species inhabited different portions of trees. The results also provided a comparison between the termite species diversity in wheat crop and garden trees. Diversity of termites recovered from soil cores' revealed 35% diversity on the Simpson index and 84% on the Shannon scale. M. mycophagus was the dominant termite species in both garden trees as well as wheat crop. The six species variably inhabit different portions of garden trees. Copyright 2011 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Iqbal M.,Pakistan National Agricultural Research Center | Fayyaz M.,NARC | Shahzad A.,Pakistan National Agricultural Research Center | Ahmed I.,Pakistan National Agricultural Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Vernalization response genes are known to contribute indirectly to grain yield by influencing flowering time, number of tillers and spikelets in sensitive wheat genotypes. There has been no report of the effect of vernalization on grain fill duration and grain weight in wheat. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vernalization on grain fill duration and grain weight in a set of 5 high latitude spring wheat, differing in vernalization response, and their 10 F1 hybrids obtained from a one-way diallel cross. The 15 genotypes were grown with and without 42d-vernalization treatment. Vernalization altered grain fill duration and grain weight in both sensitive and in-sensitive genotypes and no clear pattern was observed in terms of the vernalization responsiveness of the genotypes. No correlation was found between grain fill duration and grain weight in vernalized and non-vernalized treatment, indicating that the increase in grain fill duration of some of the genotypes with vernalization did not have an effect on grain weight. In order to harvest the full yield potential, vernalization sensitive genotypes may be grown in those eco-regions of high northern latitudes where growing season is relatively long and where temperatures are usually above the vernalization range.


Shrestha B.S.,NARC | Paudel L.N.,DLS Inc | Osti N.P.,NARC | Panta B.K.,National Dairy Development Board
Buffalo Bulletin | Year: 2013

Livestock is an integral and important component of mixed farming system in Nepal. Buffalo is the most important livestock species contributing highest share in the livestock sector GDP. Buffalo alone contributes for 70% and 60% of national annual milk and meat production respectively. Nearly half of the households of the country keep buffaloes primarily for milk and meat and also for manure, hide, traction and ploughing agricultural land. Three native buffalo breeds, all riverine type have been identified and their production performance been documented. Selective breeding for genetic improvement of native breed in some potential pockets have been recommended owing to the variability in the performance of indigenous buffaloes. Murrah is the important buffalo breed introduced from India for upgrading indigenous buffaloes and that has led to crossbred buffalo population in the major dairy pocket areas of the country. Considering the importance of buffaloes, the Department of Livestock Services and Nepal Agricultural Research Council have jointly initiated the Buffalo Genetic Improvement Project and is being implemented in 10 districts along with 2 government buffalo farms since mid of 2010. Around 800 farm families owning buffaloes have been registered with around 1800 milking buffaloes for Pedigree and Performance Recording Scheme (PPRS). Records on monthly milk yield, milk content analysis, breeding and reproduction and health are being regularly taken and data are being managed on Microsoft Access Database specifically developed for this purpose. The process and status of implementation, challenges faced and way forward for genetic improvement of buffaloes in the country have been discussed in this paper.


Ansar M.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Ahmed Z.I.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Malik M.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Nadeem M.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | And 2 more authors.
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2010

Livestock in rainfed area of Pothwar often faces green fodder scarcity during winter months and thus has to survive on cereal residues of previous crops such as wheat straw, summer sorghum, corn stalk etc. which are not rich source of protein and digestible nutrients. The basic objective of this experiment is to produce more fodder for livestock production and food for community. The investigations were carried out to evaluate the yield and quality of oat (Avena sativa L.), barely (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) in pure stands as well as in mixture of 50:50 ratios with common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) under rainfed conditions of Pothowar to address the problem of nutritious green fodder for livestock in the region. From the result of this study, it is evident that oatvetch mixture performed better under rainfed conditions of Pothowar in terms of green and dry matter yield. By this mixture, 37.97 tons ha-1 green and 9.28 ton ha-1 dry matter yield were obtained which are 20 % higher than the pure stand of oat respectively. Similarly, it was found that overall oat + vetch, mixture yielded 63% and 78% higher dry matter than barley + vetch and wheat-vetch mixtures, respectively. Cereal + vetch mixture also produced higher crude protein content than their respective pure stands. Oats-vetch, barley + vetch and wheat + vetch resulted in 11.31%, 7.04% and 5.80% higher crude protein contents than their cereal pure stands respectively. With the advancement of growth stage, green fodder yield increased progressively while reverse was observed for qualitative traits. Maximum green fodder yield was obtained at 50% heading stage while maximum crude protein content was achieved at tillering stage in this study. On the basis of these field qualitative and quantitative investigations, cereal + vetch mixture is recommended for both obtaining higher tonnage and nutritious fodder under the rainfed conditions of Pothowar.


PubMed | NARC and Quaid-i-Azam University
Type: | Journal: Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology | Year: 2016

Water contamination by organic dyes, is among the most alarming threats to healthy green environment. Complete removal of organic dyes is necessary to make water healthy for drinking, cooking, and for other useful aspects. Recently use of nanotechnology for removing organic dyes, became fruitful because of high surface to volume ratio and adsorption properties. Among these materials, metal chalcogenides emerge as new class of active materials for water purification. In this review article, we gathered information related to sulfide and selenide based nanomaterials which include metal sulfides and selenides, their binary composites, and use of different capping agents and dopants for enhancing photocatalysis. We have discussed in detail, about adsorption power of different dyes, relative percentage degradation, reaction time and concentration.

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