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Nara, Japan

Nara Women's University is one of two national women's universities in Japan, in Nara. The other one is the Ochanomizu University Wikipedia.

Kitsunezaki S.,Nara Womens University
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan | Year: 2010

Uniform drying causes a quasi-two-dimensional cellular crack pattern in a thin layer of paste. In our previous research, we found that such cracks are created in a capillary state, and that the growth speed is determined by the rate of increase in tension in the layer, rather than by the magnitude of the tension itself. In this paper, we present a theoretical investigation of the effects of increasing negative pore pressure and plastic deformation on crack growth using a modified spring network model. The analytical and numerical results indicate that the stress-rate dependence of crack speed could be caused by the competition between plastic relaxation and crack growth. © 2010 The Physical Society of Japan. Source

Kitsunezaki S.,Nara Womens University
Advanced Powder Technology | Year: 2011

The main features of crack patterns in drying paste have been explained by assuming that the paste is an elastic material when cracking occurs. However, recent studies have revealed that the porous and rheological properties of the paste influence the fracture processes. Starting from a spring-network model for a thin layer of paste, the memory effect found by Nakahara and directional crack growth are reviewed. We measured crack speeds in a uniformly dried thin layer of paste and found that crack growth depended significantly on the drying rate. Such dependence suggests that crack growth competes with plastic relaxation in paste. © 2010 The Society of Powder Technology Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. and The Society of Powder Technology Japan. All rights reserved. Source

The establishment and maintenance of rhizobium-legume symbioses require a sequence of highly regulated and coordinated events between the organisms. Although the interaction is mutually beneficial under nitrogen-limited conditions, it can resemble a pathogenic infection at some stages. Some host legumes mount defense reactions, including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and defensin-like antimicrobial compounds. To subvert these host defenses, the infecting rhizobial cells can use measures to passively protect themselves and actively modulate host functions. This review first describes the establishment and maintenance of active nodules, as well as the external and endogenous attack and threat stages. Next, recent studies of ROS scavenging enzymes, the BacA protein originally found in Sinorhizobium meliloti, and the type III/IV secretion systems are discussed, with a focus on two legume-rhizobium model systems. © 2011 Springer Basel AG. Source

Matsuda S.,Nara Womens University
Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity | Year: 2013

Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homologue-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause recessively inherited Parkinson's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Studies support the notion of neuroprotective roles for the PINK1, as it protects cells from damage-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis. PARL is a mitochondrial resident rhomboid serine protease, and it has been reported to mediate the cleavage of the PINK1. Interestingly, impaired mitophagy, an important autophagic quality control mechanism that clears the cells of damaged mitochondria, may also be an underlying mechanism of disease pathogenesis in patients for Parkinson's disease with the PARL mutations. Functional studies have revealed that PINK1 recruits Parkin to mitochondria to initiate the mitophagy. PINK1 is posttranslationally processed, whose level is definitely regulated in healthy steady state of mitochondria. As a consequence, PINK1 plays a pivotal role in mitochondrial healthy homeostasis. Source

Ota N.,Nara Womens University
Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Clusters of galaxies are the most massive objects in the Universe and precise knowledge of their mass structure is important to understand the history of structure formation and constrain still unknown types of dark contents of the Universe. X-ray spectroscopy of galaxy clusters provides rich information about the physical state of hot intracluster gas and the underlying potential structure. In this paper, starting from the basic description of clusters under equilibrium conditions, we review properties of clusters revealed primarily through X-ray observations considering their thermal and dynamical evolutions. The future prospects of cluster studies using upcoming X-ray missions are also mentioned. © 2012 National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences and IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

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