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Yoneda M.,Nara Prefectural Institute for Hygiene and Environment
Kansenshōgaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

This study is based on clinical information on 894 subjects diagnosed with influenza (H1N1) 2009 in Nara Prefecture from June 15, 2009, to March 4, 2010, and from July 9, 2010, to March 6, 2011. Clinical data for 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 was compared. Results showed that 43% of 2009-2010 subjects were 0-9 years old and 38% were 10-19 years old. They also showed that 25% of 2010-2011 0-9 years old, 20% 10-19 years old, 20% 20-29 years old and 16% 30-39 years old. Both seasons showed a high percentage of subjects 0-9 years old. Numbers of subjects aged 20-39 years old increased in 2010-2011. Results thus suggest that an age shift occurred in subjects, in Nara Prefecture. The most frequent symptom was fever, e.g., 38 degrees C, in 88%. Upper airway inflammation was seen in 68%, lower airway inflammation in 20% and gastroenteritis in 6%. Lower airway inflammation decreased from 20% in 2009-2010 to 7% in 2010-2011. Neuraminidase inhibitor was prescribed for 408 (46%) subjects, oseltamivir for 262 (63%), zanamivir for 120 (29%), peramivir for 10 (2.4%), and laninamivir for 12 (2.9%). Two neuraminidase inhibitors were prescribed for 11 subjects. Oseltamivir prescription rates were lower among subjects 10-19 years old, following guidelines for the use of antiinfluenza drugs. Source


Shimizu K.,Chiba University | Nakagawa H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Hashimoto R.,Chiba Prefectural Institute of Public Health | Hagiwara D.,Chiba University | And 6 more authors.
Mycoscience | Year: 2015

One of the secondary metabolite gene clusters of Aspergillus niger possesses highly homologous genes with those within the fumonisin gene cluster of Fusarium spp. At least 14 genes are considered to be present within approximately 50 kb genomic region. A number of strains of A. niger have been shown to produce fumonisin B2 (FB2), however, there has been no direct evidence that the gene cluster is responsible for FB2 production in this fungus. We investigated the involvement of the cluster in FB2 biosynthesis. The disruption of fum8, coding for an α-oxoamine synthase, resulted in loss of FB2 biosynthesis in A. niger, but did not influence the vegetative growth and sensitivity to high temperature or UV irradiation. The gene expression patterns of the transcription factor gene fum21 and fum8 were determined, but were different from those in F. verticillioides. © 2014, Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Sakai T.,Nara Prefectural Institute for Hygiene and Environment | Ohmae H.,Nara Prefectural Institute for Hygiene and Environment | Kitahori Y.,Nara Prefectural Institute for Hygiene and Environment
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Previously, we reported that multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) was useful for epidemiological investigations of entero-hemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 outbreaks (1). Our MLVA method was a modification of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention method (2) and the National Institute of Infectious Diseases method (3) to suit an ABI PRISM 310 Genetic Analyzer (Life Technologies, Tokyo, Japan). Compared with the conventional method which uses a single capillary sequencer, in which three PCR products are analyzed separately, our method of analyzing three PCR products together using the five-dye system can reduce electrophoresis run time by one-third. The results of size measurement showed such high precision that it would be hard to misidentify alleles due to errors in size measurement. In 177 analyses of 125 strains collected from 2007 to 2009, including some repeat performances, the average and standard deviation of size values of each allele fragment are listed in Table 1. To verify the results of the fragment analyses, several fragments of each locus were sequenced. Source


Uranishi K.,Nara Prefectural Institute for Hygiene and Environment | Yamashita H.,Nara Prefectural Institute for Hygiene and Environment | Okayama A.,Nara Prefectural Institute for Hygiene and Environment | Yamamoto K.,Nara Prefectural Institute for Hygiene and Environment
Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan | Year: 2012

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was applied to extraction of pesticides from cereals and pulses. Residues were extracted from homogenized samples mixed with water-absorbent polymer and supercritical carbon dioxide in a stainless steel tube, followed by elution with acetonitrile. Coextractives were removed by means of mini-column clean-up. Measurement was performed by GC-MS/MS. Calibration was achieved by preparing matrix-matched calibration standards to counteract matrix effects. With the Japanese method validation guideline for pesticide residues as a reference, the method was assessed in 5 agricultural products spiked with 334 pesticides at 0.01 and 0.1 ug/g. Compounds at each level were extracted from 2 samples on 5 separate days. The trueness of the method for 137 pesticides in all samples was 70-120%, and the repeatability and within-run reproducibility were also consistent with the guideline. The trueness of the method for the other 101 pesticides was in the range of 50-70%, though the repeatability and within-run reproducibility were satisfactory. This method is available as a multiresidue analysis method for cereals and pulses. Source


Uranishi K.,Nara Prefectural Institute for Hygiene and Environment | Yamashita H.,Nara Prefectural Institute for Hygiene and Environment | Yamamoto K.,Nara Prefectural Institute for Hygiene and Environment
Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan | Year: 2012

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was applied to extraction of pesticides from vegetables and fruits. Residues were extracted from homogenized samples mixed with water-absorbent polymer with supercritical carbon dioxide in a stainless steel tube, followed by elution with acetone. Coextractives were removed by means of mini-column clean-up. Measurement was performed by GCMS/ MS. Calibration was achieved by preparing matrix-matched calibration standards to counteract matrix effects. With the Japanese method validation guideline as a reference, the method was assessed in 5 agricultural products spiked with 334 pesticides at 0.01 and 0.1 g/g. Compounds at each level were extracted from 2 samples on 5 separate days. The trueness of the method for 189 pesticides in all samples was 70-120%, and the repeatability and within-run reproducibility were also consistent with the guideline. The trueness of the method for the other 71 pesticides was in the range of 50-70%, though the repeatability and within-run reproducibility were satisfactory. This method is available as a multiresidue analysis method for vegetables and fruits. Source

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