Nara, Japan

Nara Institute of Science and Technology , abbreviated as NAIST, is a Japanese national university located in Ikoma, Nara of Kansai Science City. It was founded in 1991 with a focus on research and consists solely of graduate schools in three integrated areas: Biological science, Information science, and Material science. In 2010, NAIST ranked first overall among the 86 Japanese national universities by the Japanese government in its first-ever six-year assessment of national university standards and achievements.The university has a total of about 1,000 Master's and Doctoral students in its three graduate schools , among which 10% are international students . There are about 200 faculty members and 170 staff . Wikipedia.

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Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha, Nara Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2016-07-13

A light emitting device includes a light source and a wavelength converter that includes a resin including a constitutional unit that includes an ionic liquid or a derivative of the ionic liquid, and a semiconductor nanoparticle phosphor included in the resin and provided on at least a portion of the light source. A wavelength converter includes a resin including a constitutional unit that includes an ionic liquid or a derivative of the ionic liquid, and a semiconductor nanoparticle phosphor included in the resin and emitting fluorescence upon receiving excitation light. A light emitting device includes the wavelength converter and a light source emitting excitation light to the wavelength converter, which is provided separately from the wavelength converter.

Hashimoto T.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2013

The construction of dynamic polar microtubules from 13 protofilaments consisting of α-tubulin and β-tubulin heterodimers requires a preformed nucleation seed that specifies subcellular localization and timing of microtubule polymerization in vivo. An evolutionarily conserved γ-tubulin-containing ring complex is recruited to the lateral wall of preexisting microtubules or outer nuclear membranes in plant cells, and is then activated as a template for new microtubules of defined geometry. Specific regulators are thought to target/activate the ring complex to nucleate nascent microtubules in distinct polymerization patterns, as seen in interphase and mitotic arrays. The augmin complex, which was initially identified in metazoan cells, recruits the ring complex to plant mitotic microtubules, where new polymers are abundantly generated at shallow angles. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Suetsugu S.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology | Kurisu S.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology | Takenawa T.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology
Physiological reviews | Year: 2014

All cellular compartments are separated from the external environment by a membrane, which consists of a lipid bilayer. Subcellular structures, including clathrin-coated pits, caveolae, filopodia, lamellipodia, podosomes, and other intracellular membrane systems, are molded into their specific submicron-scale shapes through various mechanisms. Cells construct their micro-structures on plasma membrane and execute vital functions for life, such as cell migration, cell division, endocytosis, exocytosis, and cytoskeletal regulation. The plasma membrane, rich in anionic phospholipids, utilizes the electrostatic nature of the lipids, specifically the phosphoinositides, to form interactions with cytosolic proteins. These cytosolic proteins have three modes of interaction: 1) electrostatic interaction through unstructured polycationic regions, 2) through structured phosphoinositide-specific binding domains, and 3) through structured domains that bind the membrane without specificity for particular phospholipid. Among the structured domains, there are several that have membrane-deforming activity, which is essential for the formation of concave or convex membrane curvature. These domains include the amphipathic helix, which deforms the membrane by hemi-insertion of the helix with both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, and/or the BAR domain superfamily, known to use their positively charged, curved structural surface to deform membranes. Below the membrane, actin filaments support the micro-structures through interactions with several BAR proteins as well as other scaffold proteins, resulting in outward and inward membrane micro-structure formation. Here, we describe the characteristics of phospholipids, and the mechanisms utilized by phosphoinositides to regulate cellular events. We then summarize the precise mechanisms underlying the construction of membrane micro-structures and their involvements in physiological and pathological processes. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

Morita M.T.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2010

Plants can reorient their growth direction by sensing organ tilt relative to the direction of gravity. With respect to gravity sensing in gravitropism, the classic starch statolith hypothesis, i.e., that starch-accumulating amyloplast movement along the gravity vector within gravity-sensing cells (statocytes) is the probable trigger of subsequent intracellular signaling, is widely accepted. Several lines of experimental evidence have demonstrated that starch is important but not essential for gravity sensing and have suggested that it is reasonable to regard plastids (containers of starch) as statoliths. Although the word statolith means sedimented stone, actual amyloplasts are not static but instead possess dynamic movement. Recent studies combining genetic and cell biological approaches, using Arabidopsis thaliana, have demonstrated that amyloplast movement is an intricate process involving vacuolar membrane structures and the actin cytoskeleton. This review covers current knowledge regarding gravity sensing, particularly gravity susception, and the factors modulating the function of amyloplasts for sensing the directional change of gravity. Specific emphasis is made on the remarkable differences in the cytological properties, developmental origins, tissue locations, and response of statocytes between root and shoot systems. Such an approach reveals a common theme in directional gravity-sensing mechanisms in these two disparate organs. Copyright © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Kimata Y.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology | Kohno K.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology
Current Opinion in Cell Biology | Year: 2011

Upon endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, ER-located transmembrane stress sensors evoke diverse protective responses. Although ER stress-dependent activation of the sensor proteins is partly explained through their negative regulation by the ER-located chaperone BiP under non-stress conditions, each of the sensors is also regulated by distinct mechanism(s). For instance, yeast Ire1 is fully activated via its direct interaction with unfolded proteins accumulated in the ER. This insight is consistent with a classical notion that unfolded proteins per se trigger ER-stress responses, while various stress stimuli also seem to activate individual sensors independently of unfolded proteins and in a stimuli-specific manner. These properties may account for the different responses observed under different conditions in mammalian cells, which carry multiple ER-stress sensors. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Yoshida A.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology
Blood | Year: 2013

The ubiquitin ligase constitutively photomorphogenic 1 (COP1) is involved in many biological responses in mammalian cells, but its role in tumorigenesis remains unclear. Here we show that COP1 is a ubiquitin ligase for the tumor suppressor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPα) and promotes its degradation in vivo, thereby blocking myeloid differentiation of hematopoietic cells for tumorigenesis. In this process, mammalian homolog of Tribbles, Trib1, which contains a COP1-binding motif, is essential for down-regulation of C/EBPα expression. Murine bone marrow transplantation experiments showed that coexpression of COP1 accelerates development of acute myeloid leukemia induced by Trib1, which pathologically resembles that of p42C/EBPα-deficient mice. Interestingly, coexpression of ligase activity-deficient COP1 mutant abrogated Trib1-induced leukemogenesis. These results indicate that COP1 and Trib1 act as an oncoprotein complex functioning upstream of C/EBPα, and its ligase activity is crucial for leukemogenesis.

Nara Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2015-12-23

The present invention addresses the problem of providing an electrode structure capable of realizing an electrode array which allows each of the electrodes to be individually controlled while allowing them to be densely arranged and placed in a living body. According to the present invention, an electrode control circuit electrically connected to an electrode body is fixed to a rear portion of the electrode body within a front-viewed contour of the electrode body. This electrode control circuit may be contained in a recess formed in the rear portion of the electrode body, or it may be fixed to the back face of the electrode body. Conversely, an electrically conductive material layer covering the electrode control circuit may be used as the electrode body. A plurality of such bioelectrodes may be arranged in a two-dimensional form (array) on a substrate or connected by a connection line including an electrical wire. Such configurations allow the bioelectrodes to be densely arranged.

Nara Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-12-17

The present invention relates to a method of introducing a florigen into a cell of a shoot apical tissue of a plant using a cell-penetrating peptide. More specifically, the present invention relates to a method of introducing a florigen into a cell of a shoot apical tissue of a plant, the method including the step of bringing a solution for florigen introduction containing a florigen and a cell-penetrating peptide in one solvent into contact with a shoot apical tissue of a plant. The present invention also relates to an agent for introducing a florigen into a cell of a shoot apical tissue of a plant, including a florigen and a cell-penetrating peptide, and to a kit for introducing a florigen into a cell of a shoot apical tissue of a plant.

Nara Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2016-01-27

L-cysteine can be produced inexpensively and efficiently by using a bacterium belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae modified to reduce activity of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase B thereof, the bacterium being modified so that the C terminal region of its thiosulfate-binding protein is deleted, and the bacterium having an increased ability to produce L-cysteine in the presence of a sulfate.

Shoji T.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology
International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

Plants have developed elaborate detoxification mechanisms to cope with a large number of potentially toxic compounds, which include exogenous xenobiotics and endogenous metabolites, especially secondary metabolites. After enzymatic modification or synthesis, such compounds are transported and accumulated in apoplastic cell walls or central vacuoles in plant cells. Membrane transporters actively catalyze translocation of a diverse range of these compounds across various membranes within cells. Biochemical, molecular, and genetic studies have begun to reveal functions of a handful of ATP-binding cassette and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion family transporters engaged in transport of organic xenobiotics, heavy metals, metalloids, aluminum, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, terpenoid-derived phytohormones, cuticle lipids, and monolignols in plants. This detoxification versatility and metabolic diversity may underlie the functional diversification in plants of these families of transporters, which are largely involved in multidrug resistance in microorganisms and animals. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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