Nara Forest Research Institute

Takatori, Japan

Nara Forest Research Institute

Takatori, Japan
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Nishida M.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Tanaka T.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Miki T.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Ito T.,Nara Forest Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2017

Steam-treated bamboo was analyzed for structural changes at multiple scales using several solid-state NMR methods, including relaxation time analysis. Subtle changes due to different processing conditions were analyzed by 13C magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR using cross polarization (CP), single pulse with dipolar decoupling (DD), and pulse saturation transfer (PST). The analyses also used 1H spin-lattice relaxation time (T1H) integrated with attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The first change due to the steam treatment appeared in the hemicellulose methyl groups and the aromatic carboxylic acid; with further processing the carbohydrate ring of hemicellulose decreased and the pyrolysis products having quaternary olefinic and aromatic groups increased. During steam treatment, pyrolysis products appear to have restrained molecular motions of the steam-heated bamboo, while cleavage of lignin increased molecular motion of the OCH3 group. Bamboo treated with pressurized steam retained its hemicellulose and produced a smaller amount of pyrolysis products, while both hemicellulose and lignin were reduced by treatment with NaOH solution. The physical fracture of the sample observed at higher processing temperatures and longer times occurred not because of chemical changes in specific constituents but through physical destruction of vascular bundle units. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Yanagawa Y.,Nara Forest Research Institute | Masuda K.,Nara Forest Research Institute
Mokuzai Gakkaishi/Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society | Year: 2011

In order to correlate bonding durability obtained from accelerated aging tests (AAT) and outdoor exposure tests, and to investigate the influence of wood preservatives, resorcinol content, specimen width and specimen density on bonding durability of glulam, we manufactured 5 ply sugi glulams with laminae treated with five wood-preservatives (ACQ, E-NCU, E-CUAZ2, NZN, AAC). Block shear form specimens of 10 mm and 25 mm width were taken from those glulams, and specimens were subjected to cyclic-boiling (C-B) or cyclic-vacuum-pressure (C-VP) of 2, 5, 10, and 20 cycles respectively, followed by block shear tests. We defined the wood failure area for which we could not confirm an adhesive layer as “deep wood failure”, and calculated the deep wood failure ratio. The decrease of shear strength at C-B was larger than that of C-VP. The results of statistical tests showed that the degree of decrease of shear strength did not correspond to the differences of shear strength observed among wood preservatives. Though shear strength of 25 mm width specimens showed higher values than those of 10 mm width before AAT, after AAT 10 mm width specimens showed higher values and less decrease of shear strength than those of 25 mm width. It was assumed that the reason was that stresses occurring at the adhesive layer or wood for 10 mm width specimens were lower than those for 25 mm width. High density specimens showed higher shear strength before AAT; however, those differences tended to diminish after AAT. In most cases phenol-resorcinol resin adhesive showed higher shear strength than resorcinol resin adhesive. Wood failure ratio did not show remarkable differences, and deep wood failure ratio increased remarkably after two cycles of AAT. © 2011, The Japan Wood Research Society. All rights reserved.

Yanagawa Y.,Nara Forest Research Institute | Masuda K.,Nara Forest Research Institute
Mokuzai Gakkaishi/Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society | Year: 2011

In order to investigate the bonding durability of sugi glulams treated with five wood preservatives (ACQ, E-NCU, CUAZ2, E-NZN, AAC), block shear form specimens were exposed outdoors. We studied relationships between wood preservative, or specimen width, or specimen density, or adhesive resin and bonding durability, respectively, and we discussed the difference between results obtained from outdoor exposure and accelerated aging. We also attempted to correlate the results obtained at accelerated-aging with those at outdoor exposure. It was suggested that outdoor exposure testing was superior to accelerated aging for evaluating the influence of wood preservatives on bonding durability. Investigation of the relationships between specimen width or density, or adhesive resins and bonding durability suggested that the deteriorating mechanism of outdoor exposure was milder than that of accelerated aging, and the influence of specimen width, specimen density, and adhesive resins on bonding durability was less than observed with accelerated aging. Results of wood failure ratio were almost the same as those of accelerated aging, and results of deep wood failure ratio, defined as failed wood portion which could not confirm an adhesive layer, did not show a remarkable increase and differed from the results obtained at accelerated aging. This suggested that deterioration of wood at outdoor exposure was slight. We analyzed the results of outdoor exposure and accelerated aging by adopting three methods, and correlated number of accelerated aging cycles to exposure duration based on a liner regression equation. As a result, in the case of the analysis with cycle number and duration transformed into common logarithms, the calculated exposure duration corresponding to cycle number was nearest the values calculated from experimental values. © 2011, The Japan Wood Research Society. All rights reserved.

Imaji A.,Nara Forest Research Institute | Seiwa K.,Tohoku University
Oecologia | Year: 2010

Optimal carbon allocation to growth, defense, or storage is a critical trait in determining the shade tolerance of tree species. Thus, examining interspecific differences in carbon allocation patterns is useful when evaluating niche partitioning in forest communities. We hypothesized that shade-tolerant species allocate more carbon to defense and storage and less to growth compared to shade-intolerant species. In gaps and forest understory, we measured relative growth rates (RGR), carbon-based defensive compounds (condensed tannin, total phenolics), and storage compounds (total non-structural carbohydrate; TNC) in seedlings of two tree species differing in shade tolerance. RGR was greater in the shade-intolerant species, Castanea crenata, than in the shade-tolerant species, Quercusmongolica var. grosseserrata, in gaps, but did not differ between the species in the forest understory. In contrast, concentrations of condensed tannin and total phenolics were greater in Quercus than in Castanea at both sites. TNC pool sizes did not differ between the species. Condensed tannin concentrations increased with increasing growth rate of structural biomass (GRstr) in Quercus but not in Castanea. TNC pool sizes increased with increasing GRstr in both species, but the rate of increase did not differ between the species. Accordingly, the amount of condensed tannin against TNC pool sizes was usually higher in Quercus than in Castanea. Hence, Quercus preferentially invested more carbon in defense than in storage. Such a large allocation of carbon to defense would be advantageous for a shade-tolerant species, allowing Quercus to persist in the forest understory where damage from herbivores and pathogens is costly. In contrast, the shade-intolerant Castanea preferentially invested more carbon in growth rather than defense (and similar amounts in storage as Quercus), ensuring establishment success in gaps, where severe competition occurs for light among neighboring plants. These contrasting carbon allocation patterns are closely associated with strategies for persistence in these species' respective habitats. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

Ota Y.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Yamanaka T.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Murata H.,Mushroom | Neda H.,Mushroom | And 5 more authors.
Mycologia | Year: 2012

Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito & S. Imai) Singer and its allied species are referred to as matsutake worldwide and are the most economically important edible mushrooms in Japan. They are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere and established an ectomycorrhizal relationship with conifer and broadleaf trees. To clarify relationships among T. matsutake and its allies, and to delimit phylogenetic species, we analyzed multilocus datasets (ITS, megB1, tef, gpd) with samples that were correctly identified based on morphological characteristics. Phylogenetic analyses clearly identified four major groups: matsutake, T. bakamatsutake, T. fulvocastaneum and T. caligatum; the latter three species were outside the matsutake group. The haplotype analyses and median-joining haplotype network analyses showed that the matsutake group included four closely related but clearly distinct taxa (T. matsutake, T. anatolicum, Tricholoma sp. from Mexico and T. magnivelare) from different geographical regions; these were considered to be distinct phylogenetic species. © 2012 by The Mycological Society of America.

Visnovsky S.B.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Cummings N.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Cummings N.,Lincoln University at Christchurch | Guerin-Laguette A.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | And 6 more authors.
Mycorrhiza | Year: 2014

Lyophyllum shimeji is an edible ectomycorrhizal fungus that is widely distributed in East Asia and also present in the northern regions of Europe. In Japan, L. shimeji is a culinary delicacy, considered amongst all edible mushrooms to have the best taste and to be second only to Tricholoma matsutake in price. Traditionally, fruiting bodies of L. shimeji have been collected from the wild but fruiting of L. shimeji is now relatively uncommon and cannot keep up with increasing consumer demand. As a result, methods for its cultivation are being developed for commercial production in Japan and other countries. In this work, techniques were developed to cultivate L. shimeji on coniferous seedlings using a pure culture inoculum. They resulted in successful mycorrhization of Pinus pinaster and Picea abies in only 8 to 10 months. As ectomycorrhizae of L. shimeji are difficult to identify morphologically, mycorrhization was confirmed using an L. shimeji-specific PCR diagnostic, which was designed following a phylogenetic analysis of the Lyophyllum section Difformia using DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), intergenic spacer (IGS) and elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α) gene. L. shimeji is a member of the Lyophyllum decastes complex in section Difformia, which also includes Lyophyllum fumosum and L. decastes. This analysis confirmed the separation of L. shimeji from closely related Lyophyllum spp. and enabled its unambiguous detection using an IGS-based PCR diagnostic. This is the first report of successful mycorrhization of L. shimeji on P. pinaster and P. abies and provides an opportunity for its commercial cultivation on conifers in New Zealand. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Fujihira M.,Nara Women's University | Itoh T.,Nara Forest Research Institute | Teranishi Y.,Nara Forest Research Institute
Zairyo/Journal of the Society of Materials Science, Japan | Year: 2015

In order to prepare for proposals that would lead to activate Japanese cedar market, including product development of wooden products using Yoshino Sugi, we tried to understand images of Yoshino Sugi which people have for. From the SD method survey that targeted female students, it was found that Sugi tended to be evaluated as having a neutral image. But Sugi also has images of being slightly exclusive, smooth, glossy, and thick. It was also revealed that such factors as color, gloss, and hardness of Sugi affected the outcome of the surveys for image and conformity as material to be used for the interior of houses. In addition, Sugi was assessed as suitable as flooring in the master bedroom and living room by the reason that Sugi had soothing colors and warm atmosphere. So, it will be important that we propose how to utilize such relaxing and warm image and texture of Sugi. We can say, for example, that Sugi has enough potentiality to be used as flooring in the master bedroom and living room of houses in general. © 2015 The Society of Materials Science, Japan.

Okuda Y.,Tottori University | Ueda J.,Tottori University | Obatake Y.,Nara Forest Research Institute | Murakami S.,Tottori Mycological Institute | And 2 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

A large number of spores from fruiting bodies can lead to allergic reactions and other problems during the cultivation of edible mushrooms, including Pleurotus eryngii (DC.) Quél. A cultivar harboring a sporulation-deficient (sporeless) mutation would be useful for preventing these problems, but traditional breeding requires extensive time and labor. In this study, using a sporeless P. eryngii strain, we constructed a genetic linkage map to introduce a molecular breeding program like marker-assisted selection. Based on the segregation of 294 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, two mating type factors, and the sporeless trait, the linkage map consisted of 11 linkage groups with a total length of 837.2 centimorgans (cM). The gene region responsible for the sporeless trait was located in linkage group IX with 32 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and the B mating type factor. We also identified eight markers closely linked (within 1.2 cM) to the sporeless locus using bulked-segregant analysis-based amplified fragment length polymorphism. One such amplified fragment length polymorphism marker was converted into two sequence-tagged site markers, SD488-I and SD488-II. Using 14 wild isolates, sequence-tagged site analysis indicated the potential usefulness of the combination of two sequence-tagged site markers in cross-breeding of the sporeless strain. It also suggested that a map constructed for P. eryngii has adequate accuracy for marker-assisted selection. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

Izumitsu K.,Kyoto University | Hatoh K.,Kyoto University | Sumita T.,Kyoto University | Kitade Y.,Kyoto University | And 8 more authors.
Mycoscience | Year: 2012

We have optimized a simple and rapid preparation procedure for mushroom DNA extraction from colonies on media or from fruiting bodies for PCR amplification. The protocol combines microwaving twice for 1 min, cooling for 10 min, and centrifuging for 5 min. By using this procedure, more than 100 samples of mushroom DNA can be prepared within 1 h. The DNA obtained can be used for (1) identifying mushroom species by PCR and subsequent sequencing, (2) amplifying low copy number genes (at least 2,000 bp), and (3) screening genetic transformants. This technique will contribute to the mycology of mushroom species. © 2012 The Mycological Society of Japan and Springer.

Yamanaka T.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Ota Y.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Konno M.,Miyagi Prefectural Forestry Technology Institute | Kawai M.,Nara Forest Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Mycologia | Year: 2014

Tricholoma matsutake is the most commercially important edible mushroom in pine forests in Japan. Tricholoma bakamatsutake and T. fulvocastaneum, species closely related to T. matsutake, occur in Fagaceae forests. We examined ectomycorrhizal (EM) formation by these Tricholoma species by in vitro synthesis among seven strains (two of T. matsutake, four of T. bakamatsutake, one of T. fulvocastaneum) and axenic plants of pine (Pinus densiflora) and oak (Quercus serrata, Q. phillyraeoides). All strains, except for one of T. matsutake, formed EM associations with both pine and oak. Plant growth and mycelial development were differently affected by EM formation depending on the plant-fungus combination. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

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