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Visnovsky S.B.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Cummings N.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Cummings N.,Lincoln University at Christchurch | Guerin-Laguette A.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | And 6 more authors.

Lyophyllum shimeji is an edible ectomycorrhizal fungus that is widely distributed in East Asia and also present in the northern regions of Europe. In Japan, L. shimeji is a culinary delicacy, considered amongst all edible mushrooms to have the best taste and to be second only to Tricholoma matsutake in price. Traditionally, fruiting bodies of L. shimeji have been collected from the wild but fruiting of L. shimeji is now relatively uncommon and cannot keep up with increasing consumer demand. As a result, methods for its cultivation are being developed for commercial production in Japan and other countries. In this work, techniques were developed to cultivate L. shimeji on coniferous seedlings using a pure culture inoculum. They resulted in successful mycorrhization of Pinus pinaster and Picea abies in only 8 to 10 months. As ectomycorrhizae of L. shimeji are difficult to identify morphologically, mycorrhization was confirmed using an L. shimeji-specific PCR diagnostic, which was designed following a phylogenetic analysis of the Lyophyllum section Difformia using DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), intergenic spacer (IGS) and elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α) gene. L. shimeji is a member of the Lyophyllum decastes complex in section Difformia, which also includes Lyophyllum fumosum and L. decastes. This analysis confirmed the separation of L. shimeji from closely related Lyophyllum spp. and enabled its unambiguous detection using an IGS-based PCR diagnostic. This is the first report of successful mycorrhization of L. shimeji on P. pinaster and P. abies and provides an opportunity for its commercial cultivation on conifers in New Zealand. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Ota Y.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Yamanaka T.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Murata H.,Mushroom | Neda H.,Mushroom | And 5 more authors.

Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito & S. Imai) Singer and its allied species are referred to as matsutake worldwide and are the most economically important edible mushrooms in Japan. They are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere and established an ectomycorrhizal relationship with conifer and broadleaf trees. To clarify relationships among T. matsutake and its allies, and to delimit phylogenetic species, we analyzed multilocus datasets (ITS, megB1, tef, gpd) with samples that were correctly identified based on morphological characteristics. Phylogenetic analyses clearly identified four major groups: matsutake, T. bakamatsutake, T. fulvocastaneum and T. caligatum; the latter three species were outside the matsutake group. The haplotype analyses and median-joining haplotype network analyses showed that the matsutake group included four closely related but clearly distinct taxa (T. matsutake, T. anatolicum, Tricholoma sp. from Mexico and T. magnivelare) from different geographical regions; these were considered to be distinct phylogenetic species. © 2012 by The Mycological Society of America. Source

Imaji A.,Nara Forest Research Institute | Seiwa K.,Tohoku University

Optimal carbon allocation to growth, defense, or storage is a critical trait in determining the shade tolerance of tree species. Thus, examining interspecific differences in carbon allocation patterns is useful when evaluating niche partitioning in forest communities. We hypothesized that shade-tolerant species allocate more carbon to defense and storage and less to growth compared to shade-intolerant species. In gaps and forest understory, we measured relative growth rates (RGR), carbon-based defensive compounds (condensed tannin, total phenolics), and storage compounds (total non-structural carbohydrate; TNC) in seedlings of two tree species differing in shade tolerance. RGR was greater in the shade-intolerant species, Castanea crenata, than in the shade-tolerant species, Quercusmongolica var. grosseserrata, in gaps, but did not differ between the species in the forest understory. In contrast, concentrations of condensed tannin and total phenolics were greater in Quercus than in Castanea at both sites. TNC pool sizes did not differ between the species. Condensed tannin concentrations increased with increasing growth rate of structural biomass (GRstr) in Quercus but not in Castanea. TNC pool sizes increased with increasing GRstr in both species, but the rate of increase did not differ between the species. Accordingly, the amount of condensed tannin against TNC pool sizes was usually higher in Quercus than in Castanea. Hence, Quercus preferentially invested more carbon in defense than in storage. Such a large allocation of carbon to defense would be advantageous for a shade-tolerant species, allowing Quercus to persist in the forest understory where damage from herbivores and pathogens is costly. In contrast, the shade-intolerant Castanea preferentially invested more carbon in growth rather than defense (and similar amounts in storage as Quercus), ensuring establishment success in gaps, where severe competition occurs for light among neighboring plants. These contrasting carbon allocation patterns are closely associated with strategies for persistence in these species' respective habitats. © Springer-Verlag 2009. Source

Hattori T.,Tokushima University | Hisamori H.,Kyoto University | Suzuki S.,Kyoto University | Umezawa T.,Kyoto University | And 2 more authors.
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation

Copper sulfate (CuSO4)-treated Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) blocks were cultivated with copper-tolerant wood-rotting fungi, either Fomitopsis palustris TYP-0507 or Antrodia xantha Shiga-1F. After 2 weeks, mycelia of both species had covered the blocks, but wood weight loss was not observed. At that time, oxalate accumulations were 21% (F.palustris) and 47% (A.xantha) of their maxima after 6 weeks. Within 2 weeks, the natural copper oxalate complex moolooite appeared at the interface between the wood surface and fungal mat of both species. In addition, the copper content in F.palustris mycelia located far from the CuSO4-treated wood block was at least 5.5 times greater than that in mycelia on untreated controls. By brushing off the moolooite and mycelia, 42.9% (F.palustris) and 34.7% (A.xantha) of the original copper was removed within 2 weeks. The results showed that both species transferred copper from inside the wood blocks and precipitated some of it as moolooite before significant wood decay was observed. Furthermore, F.palustris transferred copper far from the wood blocks, probably through the hyphae. This rapid fungal transfer and precipitation of copper could provide a practical method for the bioremediation of CCA-treated wood. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hatoh K.,Kyoto University | Izumitsu K.,Kyoto University | Morita A.,Kyoto University | Shimizu K.,Chiba University | And 6 more authors.

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT) was successfully applied to mycelia of the 3 economically important mushrooms Hypsizigus marmoreus, Flammulina velutipes, and Grifola frondosa. We used the hygromycin B resistance gene (hph) under the control of the Cryptococcus neoformans actin promoter. Eighty-six resistant strains of H. marmoreus, 4 of F. velutipes, and 2 of G. frondosa were obtained. All transformants were highly resistant to hygromycin B, suggesting that the C. neoformans actin promoter has a potential universal promoter activity in basidiomycetes. Southern analysis revealed random but single integration of the hph gene. © 2012 The Mycological Society of Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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