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Imaji A.,Nara Forest Research Institute | Seiwa K.,Tohoku University
Oecologia | Year: 2010

Optimal carbon allocation to growth, defense, or storage is a critical trait in determining the shade tolerance of tree species. Thus, examining interspecific differences in carbon allocation patterns is useful when evaluating niche partitioning in forest communities. We hypothesized that shade-tolerant species allocate more carbon to defense and storage and less to growth compared to shade-intolerant species. In gaps and forest understory, we measured relative growth rates (RGR), carbon-based defensive compounds (condensed tannin, total phenolics), and storage compounds (total non-structural carbohydrate; TNC) in seedlings of two tree species differing in shade tolerance. RGR was greater in the shade-intolerant species, Castanea crenata, than in the shade-tolerant species, Quercusmongolica var. grosseserrata, in gaps, but did not differ between the species in the forest understory. In contrast, concentrations of condensed tannin and total phenolics were greater in Quercus than in Castanea at both sites. TNC pool sizes did not differ between the species. Condensed tannin concentrations increased with increasing growth rate of structural biomass (GRstr) in Quercus but not in Castanea. TNC pool sizes increased with increasing GRstr in both species, but the rate of increase did not differ between the species. Accordingly, the amount of condensed tannin against TNC pool sizes was usually higher in Quercus than in Castanea. Hence, Quercus preferentially invested more carbon in defense than in storage. Such a large allocation of carbon to defense would be advantageous for a shade-tolerant species, allowing Quercus to persist in the forest understory where damage from herbivores and pathogens is costly. In contrast, the shade-intolerant Castanea preferentially invested more carbon in growth rather than defense (and similar amounts in storage as Quercus), ensuring establishment success in gaps, where severe competition occurs for light among neighboring plants. These contrasting carbon allocation patterns are closely associated with strategies for persistence in these species' respective habitats. © Springer-Verlag 2009.


Ota Y.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Yamanaka T.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Murata H.,Mushroom | Neda H.,Mushroom | And 5 more authors.
Mycologia | Year: 2012

Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito & S. Imai) Singer and its allied species are referred to as matsutake worldwide and are the most economically important edible mushrooms in Japan. They are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere and established an ectomycorrhizal relationship with conifer and broadleaf trees. To clarify relationships among T. matsutake and its allies, and to delimit phylogenetic species, we analyzed multilocus datasets (ITS, megB1, tef, gpd) with samples that were correctly identified based on morphological characteristics. Phylogenetic analyses clearly identified four major groups: matsutake, T. bakamatsutake, T. fulvocastaneum and T. caligatum; the latter three species were outside the matsutake group. The haplotype analyses and median-joining haplotype network analyses showed that the matsutake group included four closely related but clearly distinct taxa (T. matsutake, T. anatolicum, Tricholoma sp. from Mexico and T. magnivelare) from different geographical regions; these were considered to be distinct phylogenetic species. © 2012 by The Mycological Society of America.


Hattori T.,Tokushima University | Hisamori H.,Kyoto University | Suzuki S.,Kyoto University | Umezawa T.,Kyoto University | And 2 more authors.
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2015

Copper sulfate (CuSO4)-treated Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) blocks were cultivated with copper-tolerant wood-rotting fungi, either Fomitopsis palustris TYP-0507 or Antrodia xantha Shiga-1F. After 2 weeks, mycelia of both species had covered the blocks, but wood weight loss was not observed. At that time, oxalate accumulations were 21% (F.palustris) and 47% (A.xantha) of their maxima after 6 weeks. Within 2 weeks, the natural copper oxalate complex moolooite appeared at the interface between the wood surface and fungal mat of both species. In addition, the copper content in F.palustris mycelia located far from the CuSO4-treated wood block was at least 5.5 times greater than that in mycelia on untreated controls. By brushing off the moolooite and mycelia, 42.9% (F.palustris) and 34.7% (A.xantha) of the original copper was removed within 2 weeks. The results showed that both species transferred copper from inside the wood blocks and precipitated some of it as moolooite before significant wood decay was observed. Furthermore, F.palustris transferred copper far from the wood blocks, probably through the hyphae. This rapid fungal transfer and precipitation of copper could provide a practical method for the bioremediation of CCA-treated wood. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Visnovsky S.B.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Cummings N.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Cummings N.,Lincoln University at Christchurch | Guerin-Laguette A.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | And 6 more authors.
Mycorrhiza | Year: 2014

Lyophyllum shimeji is an edible ectomycorrhizal fungus that is widely distributed in East Asia and also present in the northern regions of Europe. In Japan, L. shimeji is a culinary delicacy, considered amongst all edible mushrooms to have the best taste and to be second only to Tricholoma matsutake in price. Traditionally, fruiting bodies of L. shimeji have been collected from the wild but fruiting of L. shimeji is now relatively uncommon and cannot keep up with increasing consumer demand. As a result, methods for its cultivation are being developed for commercial production in Japan and other countries. In this work, techniques were developed to cultivate L. shimeji on coniferous seedlings using a pure culture inoculum. They resulted in successful mycorrhization of Pinus pinaster and Picea abies in only 8 to 10 months. As ectomycorrhizae of L. shimeji are difficult to identify morphologically, mycorrhization was confirmed using an L. shimeji-specific PCR diagnostic, which was designed following a phylogenetic analysis of the Lyophyllum section Difformia using DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), intergenic spacer (IGS) and elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α) gene. L. shimeji is a member of the Lyophyllum decastes complex in section Difformia, which also includes Lyophyllum fumosum and L. decastes. This analysis confirmed the separation of L. shimeji from closely related Lyophyllum spp. and enabled its unambiguous detection using an IGS-based PCR diagnostic. This is the first report of successful mycorrhization of L. shimeji on P. pinaster and P. abies and provides an opportunity for its commercial cultivation on conifers in New Zealand. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Hatoh K.,Kyoto University | Izumitsu K.,Kyoto University | Morita A.,Kyoto University | Shimizu K.,Chiba University | And 6 more authors.
Mycoscience | Year: 2013

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT) was successfully applied to mycelia of the 3 economically important mushrooms Hypsizigus marmoreus, Flammulina velutipes, and Grifola frondosa. We used the hygromycin B resistance gene (hph) under the control of the Cryptococcus neoformans actin promoter. Eighty-six resistant strains of H. marmoreus, 4 of F. velutipes, and 2 of G. frondosa were obtained. All transformants were highly resistant to hygromycin B, suggesting that the C. neoformans actin promoter has a potential universal promoter activity in basidiomycetes. Southern analysis revealed random but single integration of the hph gene. © 2012 The Mycological Society of Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Fujihira M.,Nara Women's University | Itoh T.,Nara Forest Research Institute | Teranishi Y.,Nara Forest Research Institute
Zairyo/Journal of the Society of Materials Science, Japan | Year: 2015

In order to prepare for proposals that would lead to activate Japanese cedar market, including product development of wooden products using Yoshino Sugi, we tried to understand images of Yoshino Sugi which people have for. From the SD method survey that targeted female students, it was found that Sugi tended to be evaluated as having a neutral image. But Sugi also has images of being slightly exclusive, smooth, glossy, and thick. It was also revealed that such factors as color, gloss, and hardness of Sugi affected the outcome of the surveys for image and conformity as material to be used for the interior of houses. In addition, Sugi was assessed as suitable as flooring in the master bedroom and living room by the reason that Sugi had soothing colors and warm atmosphere. So, it will be important that we propose how to utilize such relaxing and warm image and texture of Sugi. We can say, for example, that Sugi has enough potentiality to be used as flooring in the master bedroom and living room of houses in general. © 2015 The Society of Materials Science, Japan.


Okuda Y.,Tottori University | Ueda J.,Tottori University | Obatake Y.,Nara Forest Research Institute | Murakami S.,Tottori Mycological Institute | And 2 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

A large number of spores from fruiting bodies can lead to allergic reactions and other problems during the cultivation of edible mushrooms, including Pleurotus eryngii (DC.) Quél. A cultivar harboring a sporulation-deficient (sporeless) mutation would be useful for preventing these problems, but traditional breeding requires extensive time and labor. In this study, using a sporeless P. eryngii strain, we constructed a genetic linkage map to introduce a molecular breeding program like marker-assisted selection. Based on the segregation of 294 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, two mating type factors, and the sporeless trait, the linkage map consisted of 11 linkage groups with a total length of 837.2 centimorgans (cM). The gene region responsible for the sporeless trait was located in linkage group IX with 32 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and the B mating type factor. We also identified eight markers closely linked (within 1.2 cM) to the sporeless locus using bulked-segregant analysis-based amplified fragment length polymorphism. One such amplified fragment length polymorphism marker was converted into two sequence-tagged site markers, SD488-I and SD488-II. Using 14 wild isolates, sequence-tagged site analysis indicated the potential usefulness of the combination of two sequence-tagged site markers in cross-breeding of the sporeless strain. It also suggested that a map constructed for P. eryngii has adequate accuracy for marker-assisted selection. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.


Izumitsu K.,Kyoto University | Hatoh K.,Kyoto University | Sumita T.,Kyoto University | Kitade Y.,Kyoto University | And 8 more authors.
Mycoscience | Year: 2012

We have optimized a simple and rapid preparation procedure for mushroom DNA extraction from colonies on media or from fruiting bodies for PCR amplification. The protocol combines microwaving twice for 1 min, cooling for 10 min, and centrifuging for 5 min. By using this procedure, more than 100 samples of mushroom DNA can be prepared within 1 h. The DNA obtained can be used for (1) identifying mushroom species by PCR and subsequent sequencing, (2) amplifying low copy number genes (at least 2,000 bp), and (3) screening genetic transformants. This technique will contribute to the mycology of mushroom species. © 2012 The Mycological Society of Japan and Springer.


Wakayama M.,Nara Forest Research Institute | Inoue T.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Sato S.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Maeto K.,Kobe University
Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2010

The camphor tree weevil Pimelocerus hylobioides is a major pest insect injurious to Illicium anisatum trees whose cut branches are used as an offering to the spirits by Buddhists and which are cultivated mainly in western Japan. We reared the weevil under various photoperiod and temperature conditions. Under both 15L9D and 12L12D photoperiods, larvae developed into pupae without entering diapause at 18, 20 and 25°C. Larvae passed through five to 13 instar stages before pupation. The numbers of larval molts increased under low-temperature conditions. The developmental zero temperature and the total effective temperature for egg, larva and pupa were 10.45°C and 137.42 degree-days (DD), 15.19°C and 1,361.58 DD, and 10.28°C and 177.34 DD, respectively. Life cycles in the warm temperate lowland and the mountain zone of Kochi Prefecture were estimated. In the warm temperate lowland, eggs laid in early summer developed into adults and emerged from the host tree in autumn, but eggs laid in mid-summer to autumn developed into adults in the second year. In the mountain zone, eggs laid in summer and autumn developed into adults in the second and third year, respectively.


Yamanaka T.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Ota Y.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Konno M.,Miyagi Prefectural Forestry Technology Institute | Kawai M.,Nara Forest Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Mycologia | Year: 2014

Tricholoma matsutake is the most commercially important edible mushroom in pine forests in Japan. Tricholoma bakamatsutake and T. fulvocastaneum, species closely related to T. matsutake, occur in Fagaceae forests. We examined ectomycorrhizal (EM) formation by these Tricholoma species by in vitro synthesis among seven strains (two of T. matsutake, four of T. bakamatsutake, one of T. fulvocastaneum) and axenic plants of pine (Pinus densiflora) and oak (Quercus serrata, Q. phillyraeoides). All strains, except for one of T. matsutake, formed EM associations with both pine and oak. Plant growth and mycelial development were differently affected by EM formation depending on the plant-fungus combination. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

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