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Borrelli S.,University of Milan | Fanoni D.,University of Milan | Dolfini D.,University of Milan | Ravo M.,The Second University of Naples | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

C/EBPs are a family of B-Zip transcription factors -TFs- involved in the regulation of differentiation in several tissues. The two most studied members -C/EBPα and C/EBPβ- play important roles in skin homeostasis and their ablation reveals cells with stem cells signatures. Much less is known about C/EBPδ which is highly expressed in the granular layer of interfollicular epidermis and is a direct target of p63, the master regular of multilayered epithelia. We identified C/EBPδ target genes in human primary keratinocytes by ChIP on chip and profiling of cells functionally inactivated with siRNA. Categorization suggests a role in differentiation and control of cell-cycle, particularly of G2/M genes. Among positively controlled targets are numerous genes involved in barrier function. Functional inactivation of C/EBPδ as well as overexpressions of two TF targets -MafB and SOX2- affect expression of markers of keratinocyte differentiation. We performed IHC on skin tumor tissue arrays: expression of C/EBPδ is lost in Basal Cell Carcinomas, but a majority of Squamous Cell Carcinomas showed elevated levels of the protein. Our data indicate that C/EBPδ plays a role in late stages of keratinocyte differentiation. © 2010 Borrelli et al.

Ambrosino C.,The Second University of Naples | Ambrosino C.,University of Sannio | Tarallo R.,The Second University of Naples | Bamundo A.,The Second University of Naples | And 17 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2010

Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a modular protein of the steroid/nuclear receptor family of transcriptional regulators that upon binding to the hormone undergoes structural changes, resulting in its nuclear translocation and docking to specific chromatin sites. In the nucleus, ERα assembles in multiprotein complexes that act as final effectors of estrogen signaling to the genome through chromatin remodeling and epigenetic modifications, leading to dynamic and coordinated regulation of hormoneresponsive genes. Identification of the molecular partners of ERα and understanding their combinatory interactions within functional complexes is a prerequisite to define the molecular basis of estrogen control of cell functions. To this end, affinity purification was applied to map and characterize the ERα interactome in hormone-responsive human breast cancer cell nuclei. MCF-7 cell clones expressing human ERα fused to a tandem affinity purification tag were generated and used to purify native nuclear ER-containing complexes by IgG-Sepharose affinity chromatography and glycerol gradient centrifugation. Purified complexes were analyzed by two-dimensional DIGE and massspectrometry, leading to the identification ofaligand-dependent multiprotein complex comprising β-actin, myosins, and several proteins involved in actin filament organization and dynamics and/or known to participate in actin-mediated regulation of gene transcription, chromatin dynamics, and ribosome biogenesis. Time course analyses indicated that complexes containing ERα and actin are assembled in the nucleus early after receptor activation by ligands, and gene knockdown experiments showed that gelsolin and the nuclear isoform of myosin 1c are key determinants for assembly and/or stability of these complexes. Based on these results, we propose that the actin network plays a role in nuclear ERα actions in breast cancer cells, including coordinated regulation of target gene activity, spatial and functional reorganization of chromatin, and ribosome biogenesis. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Borrelli S.,University of Milan | Candi E.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Hu B.,University of Lausanne | Dolfini D.,University of Milan | And 9 more authors.
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2010

Genetic experiments established that p63 is crucial for the development and maintenance of pluristratified epithelia. In the RNA interference (RNAi) screening for targets of p63 in keratinocytes, we identified the transcription factor, High Mobility Group (HMG) box protein 1 (HBP1). HBP1 is an HMG-containing repressor transiently induced during differentiation of several cell lineages. We investigated the relationship between the two factors: using RNAi, overexpression, chromatin immunoprecipitations and transient transfections with reporter constructs, we established that HBP1 is directly repressed by p63. This was further confirmed in vivo by evaluating expression in p63 knockout mice and in transgenics expressing p63 in basal keratinocytes. Consistent with these findings, expression of HBP1 increases upon differentiation of primary keratinocytes and HaCaT cells in culture, and it is higher in the upper layers of human skin. Inactivation of HBP1 by RNAi prevents differentiation of keratinocytes and stratification of organotypic skin cultures. Finally, we analyzed the keratinocyte transcriptomes after HBP1 RNAi; in addition to repression of growth-promoting genes, unexpected activation of differentiation genes was uncovered, coexisting with repression of other genes involved in epithelial cornification. Our data indicate that suppression of HBP1 is part of the growth-promoting strategy of p63 in the lower layers of epidermis and that HBP1 temporally coordinates expression of genes involved in stratification, leading to the formation of the skin barrier. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

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