Woburn, MASSACHUSETTS, United States
Woburn, MASSACHUSETTS, United States

Nano-RAM is a proprietary computer memory technology from the company Nantero. It is a type of nonvolatile random access memory based on the position of carbon nanotubes deposited on a chip-like substrate. In theory, the small size of the nanotubes allows for very high density memories. Nantero also refers to it as NRAM. Wikipedia.

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A high-speed memory circuit architecture for arrays of resistive change elements is disclosed. An array of resistive change elements is organized into rows and columns, with each column serviced by a word line and each row serviced by two bit lines. Each row of resistive change elements includes a pair of reference elements and a sense amplifier. The reference elements are resistive components with electrical resistance values between the resistance corresponding to a SET condition and the resistance corresponding to a RESET condition within the resistive change elements being used in the array. A high speed READ operation is performed by discharging one of a rows bit lines through a resistive change element selected by a word line and simultaneously discharging the other of the rows bit lines through of the reference elements and comparing the rate of discharge on the two lines using the rows sense amplifier. Storage state data are transmitted to an output data bus as high speed synchronized data pulses. High speed data is received from an external synchronized data bus and stored by a PROGRAM operation within resistive change elements in a memory array configuration.


The present disclosure is directed toward carbon based diodes, carbon based resistive change memory elements, resistive change memory having resistive change memory elements and carbon based diodes, methods of making carbon based diodes, methods of making resistive change memory elements having carbon based diodes, and methods of making resistive change memory having resistive change memory elements having carbons based diodes. The carbon based diodes can be any suitable type of diode that can be formed using carbon allotropes, such as semiconducting single wall carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNT), semiconducting Buckminsterfullerenes (such as C60 Buckyballs), or semiconducting graphitic layers (layered graphene). The carbon based diodes can be pn junction diodes, Schottky diodes, other any other type of diode formed using a carbon allotrope. The carbon based diodes can be placed at any level of integration in a three dimensional (3D) electronic device such as integrated with components or wiring layers.


The present disclosure provides a nanotube solution being treated with a molecular additive, a nanotube film having enhanced adhesion property due to the treatment of the molecular additive, and methods for forming the nanotube solution and the nanotube film. The nanotube solution includes a liquid medium, nanotubes in the liquid medium, and a molecular additive in the liquid medium, wherein the molecular additive includes molecules that provide source elements for forming a group IV oxide within the nanotube solution. The molecular additive can introduce silicon (Si) and/or germanium (Ge) in the liquid medium, such that nominal silicon and/or germanium concentrations of the nanotube solution ranges from about 5 ppm to about 60 ppm.


Patent
Nantero | Date: 2017-04-10

A method for controlling density, porosity and/or gap size within a nanotube fabric layer is disclosed. In one aspect, this can be accomplished by controlling the degree of rafting in a nanotube fabric. In one aspect, the method includes adjusting the concentration of individual nanotube elements dispersed in a nanotube application solution. A high concentration of individual nanotube elements will tend to promote rafting in a nanotube fabric layer formed using such a nanotube application solution, whereas a lower concentration will tend to discourage rafting. In another aspect, the method includes adjusting the concentration of ionic particles dispersed in a nanotube application solution. A low concentration of ionic particles will tend to promote rafting in a nanotube fabric layer formed using such a nanotube application solution, whereas a higher concentration will tend to discourage rafting. In other aspects, both concentration parameters are adjusted.


A method for arranging nanotube elements within nanotube fabric layers and films is disclosed. A directional force is applied over a nanotube fabric layer to render the fabric layer into an ordered network of nanotube elements. That is, a network of nanotube elements drawn together along their sidewalls and substantially oriented in a uniform direction. In some embodiments this directional force is applied by rolling a cylindrical element over the fabric layer. In other embodiments this directional force is applied by passing a rubbing material over the surface of a nanotube fabric layer. In other embodiments this directional force is applied by running a polishing material over the nanotube fabric layer for a predetermined time. Exemplary rolling, rubbing, and polishing apparatuses are also disclosed.


A high-speed memory circuit architecture for arrays of resistive change elements is disclosed. An array of resistive change elements is organized into rows and columns, with each column serviced by a word line and each row serviced by two bit lines. Each row of resistive change elements includes a pair of reference elements and a sense amplifier. The reference elements are resistive components with electrical resistance values between the resistance corresponding to a SET condition and the resistance corresponding to a RESET condition within the resistive change elements being used in the array. A high speed READ operation is performed by discharging one of a rows bit lines through a resistive change element selected by a word line and simultaneously discharging the other of the rows bit lines through of the reference elements and comparing the rate of discharge on the two lines using the rows sense amplifier. Storage state data are transmitted to an output data bus as high speed synchronized data pulses. High speed data is received from an external synchronized data bus and stored by a PROGRAM operation within resistive change elements in a memory array configuration.


Methods for passivating a nanotube fabric layer within a nanotube switching device to prevent or otherwise limit the encroachment of an adjacent material layer are disclosed. In some embodiments, a sacrificial material is implanted within a porous nanotube fabric layer to fill in the voids within the porous nanotube fabric layer while one or more other material layers are applied adjacent to the nanotube fabric layer. Once the other material layers are in place, the sacrificial material is removed. In other embodiments, a non-sacrificial filler material (selected and deposited in such a way as to not impair the switching function of the nanotube fabric layer) is used to form a barrier layer within a nanotube fabric layer. In other embodiments, individual nanotube elements are combined with and nanoscopic particles to limit the porosity of a nanotube fabric layer.


Methods for dynamically programming and dynamically reading one or more resistive change elements within a resistive change element array are disclosed. These methods include first pre-charging all of the array lines within a resistive change element array simultaneously and then grounding certain array lines while allowing other array lines to float in order to direct discharge currents through only selected cells. In this way, resistive change elements within resistive change element arrays made up of 1-R cells that is, cells without in situ selection circuitrycan be reliably and rapidly accessed and programed.


Inverter circuits and NAND circuits comprising nanotube based FETs and methods of making the same are described. Such circuits can be fabricating using field effect transistors comprising a source, a drain, a channel region, and a gate, wherein the first channel region includes a fabric of semiconducting nanotubes of a given conductivity type. Such FETs can be arranged to provide inverter circuits in either two-dimension or three-dimensional (stacked) layouts. Design equations based upon consideration of the electrical characteristics of the nanotubes are described which permit optimization of circuit design layout based upon constants that are indicative of the current carrying capacity of the nanotube fabrics of different FETs.


An improved switching material for forming a composite article over a substrate is disclosed. A first volume of nanotubes is combined with a second volume of nanoscopic particles in a predefined ration relative to the first volume of nanotubes to form a mixture. This mixture can then be deposited over a substrate as a relatively thick composite article via a spin coating process. The composite article may possess improved switching properties over that of a nanotube-only switching article. A method for forming substantially uniform nanoscopic particles of carbon, which contains one or more allotropes of carbon, is also disclosed.

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