Collins R.,Karolinska Institutet |
Johansson A.-L.,University of Stockholm |
Karlberg T.,Karolinska Institutet |
Markova N.,Karolinska Institutet |
And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Selenium and sulfur are two closely related basic elements utilized in nature for a vast array of biochemical reactions. While toxic at higher concentrations, selenium is an essential trace element incorporated into selenoproteins as selenocysteine (Sec), the selenium analogue of cysteine (Cys). Sec lyases (SCLs) and Cys desulfurases (CDs) catalyze the removal of selenium or sulfur from Sec or Cys and generally act on both substrates. In contrast, human SCL (hSCL) is specific for Sec although the only difference between Sec and Cys is the identity of a single atom. The chemical basis of this selenium-over-sulfur discrimination is not understood. Here we describe the X-ray crystal structure of hSCL and identify Asp146 as the key residue that provides the Sec specificity. A D146K variant resulted in loss of Sec specificity and appearance of CD activity. A dynamic active site segment also provides the structural prerequisites for direct product delivery of selenide produced by Sec cleavage, thus avoiding release of reactive selenide species into the cell. We thus here define a molecular determinant for enzymatic specificity discrimination between a single selenium versus sulfur atom, elements with very similar chemical properties. Our findings thus provide molecular insights into a key level of control in human selenium and selenoprotein turnover and metabolism. © 2012 Collins et al. Source
Nanoxis Ab | Date: 2010-10-21
The instant invention provides plasma membrane vesicles, methods of making the same, and method of using the plasma membrane vesicles.
Sui P.,Astrazeneca |
Miliotis T.,Astrazeneca |
Davidson M.,Nanoxis AB |
Karlsson R.,Gothenburg University |
Karlsson A.,Nanoxis AB
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2011
Membrane protein profiling and characterization is of immense importance for the understanding of vital processes taking place across cellular membranes. Traditional techniques used for soluble proteins, such as 2D gel electrophoresis, are sometimes not entirely applicable to membrane protein targets, due to their low abundance and hydrophobic character. New tools have been developed that will accelerate research on membrane protein targets. Lipid-based protein immobilization (LPI) is the core technology in a new approach that enables immobilization and digestion of native membrane proteins inside a flow cell format. The presented method is described in the context of comparing the method to traditional approaches where the sample amount that is digested and analyzed is the same. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011. Source
Rust S.,MedImmune |
Guillard S.,MedImmune |
Sachsenmeier K.,MedImmune |
Hay C.,MedImmune |
And 11 more authors.
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2013
Background: The continued discovery of therapeutic antibodies, which address unmet medical needs, requires the continued discovery of tractable antibody targets. Multiple protein-level target discovery approaches are available and these can be used in combination to extensively survey relevant cell membranomes. In this study, the MDA-MB-231 cell line was selected for membranome survey as it is a 'triple negative' breast cancer cell line, which represents a cancer subtype that is aggressive and has few treatment options.Methods: The MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cell line was used to explore three membranome target discovery approaches, which were used in parallel to cross-validate the significance of identified antigens. A proteomic approach, which used membrane protein enrichment followed by protein identification by mass spectrometry, was used alongside two phenotypic antibody screening approaches. The first phenotypic screening approach was based on hybridoma technology and the second was based on phage display technology. Antibodies isolated by the phenotypic approaches were tested for cell specificity as well as internalisation and the targets identified were compared to each other as well as those identified by the proteomic approach. An anti-CD73 antibody derived from the phage display-based phenotypic approach was tested for binding to other 'triple negative' breast cancer cell lines and tested for tumour growth inhibitory activity in a MDA-MB-231 xenograft model.Results: All of the approaches identified multiple cell surface markers, including integrins, CD44, EGFR, CD71, galectin-3, CD73 and BCAM, some of which had been previously confirmed as being tractable to antibody therapy. In total, 40 cell surface markers were identified for further study. In addition to cell surface marker identification, the phenotypic antibody screening approaches provided reagent antibodies for target validation studies. This is illustrated using the anti-CD73 antibody, which bound other 'triple negative' breast cancer cell lines and produced significant tumour growth inhibitory activity in a MDA-MB-231 xenograft model.Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that multiple methods are required to successfully analyse the membranome of a desired cell type. It has also successfully demonstrated that phenotypic antibody screening provides a mechanism for rapidly discovering and evaluating antibody tractable targets, which can significantly accelerate the therapeutic discovery process. © 2013 Rust et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source
Jansson E.T.,Chalmers University of Technology |
Trkulja C.L.,Chalmers University of Technology |
Olofsson J.,Chalmers University of Technology |
Olofsson J.,Stanford University |
And 7 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012
We have developed a microfluidic flow cell where stepwise enzymatic digestion is performed on immobilized proteoliposomes and the resulting cleaved peptides are analyzed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The flow cell channels consist of two parallel gold surfaces mounted face to face with a thin spacer and feature an inlet and an outlet port. Proteoliposomes (50-150 nm in diameter) obtained from red blood cells (RBC), or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, were immobilized on the inside of the flow cell channel, thus forming a stationary phase of proteoliposomes. The rate of proteoliposome immobilization was determined using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) which showed that 95% of the proteoliposomes bind within 5 min. The flow cell was found to bind a maximum of 1 μg proteoliposomes/cm2, and a minimum proteoliposome concentration required for saturation of the flow cell was determined to be 500 μg/mL. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies showed an even distribution of immobilized proteoliposomes on the surface. The liquid encapsulated between the surfaces has a large surface-to-volume ratio, providing rapid material transfer rates between the liquid phase and the stationary phase. We characterized the hydrodynamic properties of the flow cell, and the force acting on the proteoliposomes during flow cell operation was estimated to be in the range of 0.1-1 pN, too small to cause any proteoliposome deformation or rupture. A sequential proteolytic protocol, repeatedly exposing proteoliposomes to a digestive enzyme, trypsin, was developed and compared with a single-digest protocol. The sequential protocol was found to detect ∼65% more unique membrane-associated protein (p < 0.001, n = 6) based on peptide analysis with LC-MS/MS, compared to a single-digest protocol. Thus, the flow cell described herein is a suitable tool for shotgun proteomics on proteoliposomes, enabling more detailed characterization of complex protein samples. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source