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München, Germany

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News Article | December 14, 2016
Site: www.nature.com

No statistical methods were used to predetermine sample size. The experiments were not randomized and the investigators were not blinded to allocation during experiments and outcome assessment. Human skin tissue was obtained from healthy donors undergoing corrective breast or abdominal surgery after informed consent in accordance with our institutional guidelines. This study was approved by the Medical Ethics Review Committee of the Academic Medical Center. Split-skin grafts of 0.3 mm in thickness were obtained using a dermatome (Zimmer). After incubation with Dispase II (1 U ml−1, Roche Diagnostics), epidermal sheets were separated from the dermis and cultured in in Iscoves Modified Dulbeccos’s Medium (IMDM, Thermo Fischer Scientific) supplemented with 10% FCS, gentamycine (20 μg ml−1, Centrafarm), pencilline/streptomycin (10 U ml−1 and 10 μg ml−1, respectively; Invitrogen). Further LC purification was performed using a Ficoll gradient (Axis-shield) and CD1a microbeads (Miltenyl Biotec) as described before4, 10. Isolated LCs were routinely 90% pure and expressed high levels of Langerin and CD1a. MUTZ-LCs were differentiated from CD34+ human AML cell line MUTZ3 progenitors in the presence of GM-CSF (100 ng ml−1, Invitrogen), TGF-β (10 ng ml−1, R&D) and TNF-α (2.5 ng ml−1, R&D) and cultured as described before14. Immature DCs were differentiated from monocytes, isolated from buffy coats of healthy volunteer blood donors (Sanquin, The Netherlands), in the presence of IL-4 (500 U ml−1, Invitrogen) and GM-CSF (800 U ml−1, Invitrogen) and used at day 6 or 7 as previously described20. CD4+ T cells were obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) activated with phytohaemagglutinin (1 mg ml−1; L2769, Sigma Aldrich) for 3 days, enriched for CD4+ T cells by negative selection using MACS beads (130-096-533, Miltenyi) and cultured overnight with IL-2 (20 U ml−1; 130-097-745, Miltenyi) as described before5. The following inhibitors were used: rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor, tlrl-rap, Invivogen), bafilomycin A1 (V-ATPase inhibitor; tlrl-baf1; Invivogen) and MG-132 (proteasome inhibitor; 474790; Calbiochem). All cell lines were obtained from ATCC and tested negative for mycoplasma contamination, determined in 3-day-old cell cultures by PCR. Langerin and Langerin mutant W264R expression plasmid pcDNA3.1 were obtained from Life Technologies and subcloned into lentiviral construct pWPXLd (Addgene). HIV-1-based lentiviruses were produced by co-transfection of 293T cells with the lentiviral vector construct, the packaging construct (psPAX2, Addgene) and vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein envelope (pMD2.G, Addgene) as described previously31. U87 cell lines stably expressing CD4 and wild-type CCR5 co-receptor (obtained through the NIH AIDS Reagent Program, Division of AIDS, NIAID, NIH: U87 CD4+CCR5+ cells from H. K. Deng and D. R. Littman32) were transduced with HIV-1-based lentiviruses expressing sequences coding human TRIM5α33, rhesus TRIM5α33, wild-type Langerin or Langerin(W264R). NL4.3, NL4.3-BaL, SF162, NL4.3eGFP-BaL, NL4.3-BlaM-Vpr and VSV-G-pseudotyped NL4.3(ΔEnv) HIV-1 were generated as described10. All produced viruses were quantified by p24 ELISA (Perkin Elmer Life Sciences) and titrated using the indicator cells TZM-Bl. Primary LCs and MUTZ-LCs were infected with a multiplicity of infection of 0.2–0.4 and HIV-1 infection was assessed by flow cytometry at day 7 after infection by intracellular p24 staining. Double staining with CD1a (LCs marker; HI149-APC; BD Pharmigen) and p24 (KC57-RD1-PE; Beckman Coulter) was used to discriminate the percentage of CD1a+p24+ infected LCs. CD4+CCR5+ U87 parental or transduced cells were infected at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1–0.2 and HIV-1 infection was assessed at day 3 after infection by intracellular p24 staining or GFP expression. For analysis of transmission of HIV-1 to T cells, LCs were stringently washed 3 days after infection followed by co-culture with activated allogeneic CD4+ T cells for 3 days. Triple staining with CD1a (LCs marker), CD3 (T cells marker; 552851-PercP, BD Pharmigen) and p24 was used to discriminate the percentage of CD3+CD1a−p24+ infected T cells. HIV-1 infection and transmission was assessed by FACSCanto II flow cytometer (BD Biosciences) and data analysis was carried out with FlowJo software (Treestar). HIV-1 production was determined by a p24 antigen ELISA in culture supernatants (ZeptoMetrix). mRNA was isolated with an mRNA Capture kit (Roche) and cDNA was synthesized with a reverse-transcriptase kit (Promega). For real-time PCR analysis, PCR amplification was performed in the presence of SYBR green in a 7500 Fast Realtime PCR System (ABI). Specific primers were designed with Primer Express 2.0 (Applied Biosystems; Extended Data Table 1). The cycling threshold (C ) value is defined as the number of PCR cycles in which the fluorescence signal exceeds the detection threshold value. For each sample, the normalized amount of target mRNA (N ) was calculated from the C values obtained for both target and household (GAPDH, primary LCs, DCs and U87 cells lines; β-actin, MUTZ-LCs) mRNA with the equation N  = 2Ct(control) − Ct(target). For relative mRNA expression, control siRNA sample was set at 1 within the experiment and for each donor. A two-step Alu-long terminal repeat (LTR) PCR was used to quantify the integrated HIV-1 DNA in infected cells as previously described20. Total cell DNA was isolated at 16 h after infection (multiplicity of infection of 0.4) with a QIAamp blood isolation kit (Qiagen). In the first round of PCR, the DNA sequence between HIV-1 LTR (LTR R region, extended with a marker region at the 5′ end) and the nearest Alu repeat was amplified (primer sequences, Extended Data Table 1). The second round was nested quantitative real-time PCR of the first-round PCR products using primers annealing to the aforementioned marker region in combination with another HIV-1-specific primer (LTR U5 region) by real-time quantitative PCR. Two different dilutions of the PCR products from the first-round of PCR were assayed to ensure that PCR inhibitors were absent. For monitoring the signal contributed by unintegrated HIV-1 DNA, the first-round PCR was also performed using the HIV-1-specific primer (LTR R region) only. HIV-1 integration was normalized relative to GAPDH DNA levels. For relative HIV-1 integration, control siRNA-infected cells (total signal; Supplementary Table 1) was set as 1 for one experiment or for each donor. A BlaM-Vpr-based assay was used to quantify fusion of HIV-1 to the host membrane in infected LCs as previously described10. LCs were infected with NL4.3-BlaM-Vpr for 2 h and then loaded with CCF2/AM (1 mM, LiveBLAzer FRET-B/G Loading Kit, Life technologies) in serum-free IMDM medium for 1 h at 25 °C. After washing, BlaM reaction was allowed to develop for 16 h at 22 °C in IMDM supplemented with 10% FCS and 2.5 mM anion transport inhibitor probenecid (Sigma Pharmaceuticals). HIV-1 fusion was determined by monitoring the changes in fluorescence of CCF2/AM dye, which reflect the presence of BlaM-Vpr into the cytoplasm of target cells upon viral fusion. The shift from green emission fluorescence (500 nm) to blue emission fluorescence (450 nm) of CCF2/AM dye was assessed by flow cytometer LSRFortessa (BD Biosciences) and data analysis was carried out with FlowJo software. Percentages of blue fluorescent CCF2/AM+ cells are depicted as percentage of HIV-1 fusion. A fluorescent bead adhesion assay was used to examine the ability of HIV-1 gp120-coated fluorescent beads to bind Langerin in CD4+CCR5+ U87 transfectants as previously described5. Binding was measured by FACSCanto II flow cytometer and data analysis was carried out with FlowJo software. Skin LCs and DCs were transfected with 50 nm siRNA with the transfection reagent DF4 (Dharmacon) whereas MUTZ-LCs, CD4+CCR5+ U87 parental or transduced cells were transfected with transfection reagent DF1 (Dharmacon) and were used for experiments 48–72 h after transfection. The siRNA (SMARTpool; Dharmacon) were specific for Atg5, (M-004374-04), Atg16L1 (M-021033), LSP-1 (M-012640-00), TRIM5α (M-007100-00) and non-targeting siRNA (D-001206-13) served as control. Langerin was silenced in MUTZ-LCs by electroporation with Neon Transfection System (ThermoFischer Scientific) using siRNA Langerin (10 μM siRNA, M-013059-01, SMARTpool; Dharmacon). Silencing of the aforementioned targets was verified by real-time PCR, flow cytometer and immunoblotting (Extended Data Figs 1d, e, 2a–k). Cells were pre-treated with bafilomycin A1 for 2 h or left untreated followed by incubation with HIV-1 for 16 h. Quantification of intracellular LC3 II levels by saponin extraction was performed as described before34, 35. LCs were washed in PBS and permeabilized with 0.05% saponin in PBS. Cells were incubated at 4 °C for 30 min with mouse anti-LC3 primary antibody (M152-3; MBL International) or with mouse anti-IgG1 isotype control (MOPC-21; BD Pharmingen) followed by incubation with Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated goat-anti mouse IgG antibody (A-21121, Life Technologies) in saponin buffer. Intracellular LC3 II levels were assessed by FACSScan or FACSCanto II flow cytometers (BD Biosciences) and data analysis was carried out with FlowJo. Cells were pre-treated with bafilomycin for 2 h or left untreated followed by incubation with HIV-1 for 4 h. Quantification of intracellular LC3 II levels by saponin extraction was performed as described before35. Whole-cell extracts were prepared using RIPA lysis buffer supplemented with protease inhibitors (9806; Cell Signalling). 20–30 μg of extract were resolved by SDS–PAGE (15%) and immunoblotted with LC3 (2G6; Nanotools) and β-actin (sc-81178; Santa Cruz) antibodies, followed by incubation with HRP-conjugated secondary rabbit-anti-mouse antibody (P0161; Dako) and luminol-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) detection (34075; Thermo Scientific). For gel source data, see Supplementary Fig. 1. MUTZ-LCs (2 × 106) were incubated for 16 h with HIV-1 NL4.3 (multiplicity of infection, 0.5) or left untreated as a control, fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and 1% glutaraldehyde in sodium cacodylate buffer for 10 min at room temperature followed by 24 h at 4 °C. After fixation, cells were collected by centrifugation and the pellet was washed in sodium cacodylate buffer. Cells were post-fixed for 1 h at 4 °C (1% osmium tetroxide, 0.8% potassium ferrocyanide in the same buffer), contrasted in 0.5% uranyl acetate, dehydrated in a graded ethanol series and embedded in epon LX112. Ultrathin sections were stained with uranylacetate/lead citrate and examined with a FEI Tecnai-12 transmission electron microscope. Numbers of autophagosomes per cell was determined in 50 cells for each condition counted by two independent researchers. LCs were left to adhere onto poly-l-lysine coated slides. Cells were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and permeabilized with PBS/0.1% saponin/1% BSA/1 mM Hepes. Cells were stained with anti-Langerin (AF2088; R&D Systems) and TRIM5α (ab109709; Abcam) antibodies followed by Alexa Fluor 647-conjugated anti-goat (A-21447; Life Technologies) and Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated anti-rabbit (A-21206; Life Technologies). For detection of autophagic vesicles, LCs were pre-loaded with the Cyto-ID Green detection autophagy reagent (ENZ-51031; Enzo Life Sciences), which was previously shown to specifically stain autophagic vesicles36 before adherence to microscope slides and stained with p24 (KC57-RD1-PE; Beckman Coulter) followed by Alexa-Fluor-546-conjugated anti-mouse (A-11003; Life Technologies). Nuclei were counterstained with Hoechst (10 μg ml−1; Molecular Probes). Single plane images were obtained by Leica TCS SP-8 X confocal microscope and data analysis was carried out with Leica LAS AF Lite (Leica Microsystems). Whole-cell extracts were prepared using RIPA lysis buffer supplemented with protease inhibitors. Atg16L1, DC-SIGN, Langerin, p62 and TRIM5α were immunoprecipitated from 40 μg of extract with anti- Atg16L1 (PM040; MBL International), DC-SIGN (AZN-D1)19, Langerin (10E2)5, p62 (ab56416; Abcam), TRIM5α (ab109709; Abcam), mouse IgG1 isotype control (MOPC-21; BD Pharmingen), mouse IgG2a isotype control (IC003A; R&D systems) and rabbit IgG control (sc-2077; Santa Cruz) coated on protein A/G PLUS agarose beads (sc-2003; Santa Cruz), washed twice with ice-cold RIPA lysis buffer and resuspended in Laemmli sample buffer (161-0747, Bio-Rad). Immunoprecipitated samples were resolved by SDS–PAGE (12.5%), and detected by immunoblotting with Atg5 (PM050; MBL), Atg16L1 (MBL), DC-SIGN (551186; BD Biosciences), Langerin (AF2088; R&D Systems), LSP-1 (3812S; Cell Signalling), TRIM5α (Abcam) and HIV-p24 (KC57-RD1-PE; Beckman Coulter) antibodies, followed by incubation with Clean-Blot IP Detection Kit-HRP (21232; Thermo Scientific) and ECL detection (34075; Thermo Scientific). Data acquisition was carried out with ImageQuant LAS 4000 (GE Healthcare). Immunoprecipitation with TRIM5α, Langerin, DC-SIGN, Atg16L1 and p62 pulls-down mostly the TRIM5α (approximately 56 kDa) form. Relative intensity of the bands was quantified using Image Studio Lite 5.2 software by normalizing β-actin and set at 1 in untreated cells. For gel source data, see Supplementary Fig. 1. Two-tailed Student’s t-test for paired observations (differences of stimulations within the same donor or cell-type) or unpaired observation (differences between U87 transfectants). Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad 6.0 software and significance was set at P < 0.05 (*P < 0.05; **P < 0.01). The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.


Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Global Nanotechnology Market Outlook 2024" report to their offering. The global nanotechnology market is expected to grow at a CAGR of around 17% during the forecasted period of 2017-2024.  Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing technology with potential applications in many sectors of global economy namely healthcare, cosmetics, energy and agriculture among others. The technology is revolutionizing every industry while tremendously attracting worldwide attention. Thus, there lies a great opportunity for industry participants to tap the fast growing market which would garner huge revenue on the back of commercialization of the technology. In 2016, the global nanotechnology market has shown impressive growth owing to factors, like increase in government and private sector funding for R&D, partnerships & strategic alliances between countries and increased in demand for smaller and more powerful devices at affordable prices. At present, the healthcare industry is one of the largest sectors where nanotechnology has made major breakthrough with its application for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic diseases like cancer, heart attack etc. Further, significant developments are also being done in other sectors like electronics, agriculture, and energy. In this report, the analysts have studied the current nanotechnology market on segment basis (by application, by component and by region) so as to provide an insight on the current market scenario as well as forecasts of the aforementioned segments till 2024. The report provides an in-depth analysis of all the major segments, taking into account the major developments taking place at global level in the respective segments that will further boost the growth of nanotechnology market. Further, the application section covers the use of nanotechnology in electronics, energy, cosmetics, medical, defence, and food and agriculture sectors while the component section covers the segregation of nanotechnology market into nanomaterials, nanotools, and nanodevices. Additionally, the report covers the country-level analysis of 13 major countries like the US, France, UK, Germany, and Russia among others in terms of R&D, nanotechnology patent analysis, funding and regulations, to provide an in-depth understanding about the investments and recent research & developments done in the field of nanotechnology. Besides, the report covers the profiles of key players like Altair, Nanophase Tech, Nanosys, etc. with the key financials, strength & weakness analyses and recent activities, providing a comprehensive outlook of global nanotechnology industry. Overall, the report provides all the pre-requisite information for clients looking to venture in this industry, and facilitate them to formulate schemes while going for an investment/partnership in the industry. 4. Key Market Trends and Developments      4.1 Nanotech Tools Open Market for more Miniature Electronics      4.2 Nanotechnology Accelerating Healthcare and Medical Device Industry      4.3 International Collaborations for Nanotechnology Research      4.4 Nanotechnology Playing a Vital Role in the Growth of Energy Industry      4.5 Nanotechnology Playing a Key Role in the Growth of Food & Agriculture Industry 5. Nanotechnology Market Outlook to 2024      5.1 By Components             5.1.1 Nanomaterials             5.1.2 Nanotools             5.1.3 Nanodevices      5.2 By Major Applications             5.2.1 Electronics                        5.2.1.1 Nanocircuits                        5.2.1.2 Nanowires                        5.2.1.3 NanoSensors             5.2.2 Energy                        5.2.2.1 Energy Source                        5.2.2.2 Energy Conversion                        5.2.2.3 Energy Storage                        5.2.2.4 Energy Distribution                        5.2.2.5 Energy Usage             5.2.3 Cosmetics                        5.2.3.1 Skin Care                        5.2.3.2 Hair Care             5.2.4 Biomedical                        5.2.4.1 Drug Delivery                        5.2.4.2 Therapeutics                        5.2.4.3 Medical Materials and Implants                        5.2.4.4 Analytical Tools and Instruments                        5.2.4.5 Diagnostics             5.2.5 Defense                        5.2.5.1 Military Vehicles                        5.2.5.2 Military Clothes                        5.2.5.3 Aeronautics                        5.2.5.4 Satellites             5.2.6 Food and Agriculture                        5.2.6.1 Agriculture & Food Processing                        5.2.6.2 Food Packaging                        5.2.6.3 Food Supplements 8. Competitive Landscape - Ablynx - Acusphere, Inc. - Advanced Diamond Technologies, Inc. - Altair Nanotechnologies Inc. - Bruker Nano GmbH - Nanophase Technologies Corporation - Nanosys, Inc. - PEN, Inc - SouthWest NanoTechnologies, Inc. - Unidym, Inc. - Zyvex Corporation For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/q4s4zs/global


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: NMP.2012.1.4-3 | Award Amount: 4.33M | Year: 2013

Knowing the mechanical properties of workpieces and machine-tools also at the nanometer scale is an absolute necessity for an efficient nanoscale production. Current technologies are lacking the flexibility and robustness needed for measuring such key parameters as topography, morphology, roughness, adhesion, or micro- and nano-hardness directly in a production environment. This hinders rapid development cycles and resource efficient process and quality control. The following technology and methodology gaps for addressing these challenges were identified: Efficient disturbance rejection and systems stability; robustness and longevity of probes; short time to data (i.e. high-speed measurements and data handling); and traceability of the measurement. The project aim4np strives at solving this problem by combining measuring techniques developed in nanoscience with novel control techniques from mechatronics and procedures from traceable metrology. Goal and Deliverable The main deliverable will be a fast robotic metrology platform and operational procedures for measuring with nanometer resolution and in a traceable way the topography, morphology, roughness, micro- and nano-hardness, and adhesive properties of large samples in a production environment.


Patent
Nanotools Gmbh and Carl Zeiss GmbH | Date: 2012-02-09

A tip of an electron beam source includes a core carrying a coating. The coating is formed from a material having a greater electrical conductivity than a material forming the surface of the core.


Patent
French Atomic Energy Commission and Nanotools GmbH | Date: 2013-10-30

The invention concerns a structure (40) for the characterization of a tip of an atomic force microscope. The structure (40) is produced on a substrate (41) and comprises: a first support element (42) located above the substrate (41); a first characterization element (45) with a constant thickness (e1), said first characterization element (45) being located above said first support element (42) and having an upper flat surface (46) and a lower flat surface (47) covering the upper surface of said first support element (42) with at least one zone (P1, P2) extending beyond said upper surface of said first support element (42), said zone (P1, P2) having a characterization surface (48, 49) at one end which is capable of coming into contact with a tip to be characterized, the upper surface (46) and the lower surface (47) of said first characterization element (45) being parallel to the upper surface (52) of said substrate (41).


Patent
Nanotools Gmbh | Date: 2013-04-24

A structure for the characterization of a tip of an atomic force microscope, the structure being produced on a substrate and including a first support element located above the substrate; a first characterization element with a constant thickness, the first characterization element being located above the first support element and having an upper flat surface and a lower flat surface covering the upper surface of the first support element with two zones extending beyond the upper surface of the first support element, each zone having a characterization surface at one end which is capable of coming into contact with a tip to be characterized, the upper surface and the lower surface of said first characterization element being parallel to the upper surface of the substrate.


Patent
Nanotools GmbH | Date: 2013-10-30

The invention concerns a structure (40) for the characterization of a tip of an atomic force microscope. The structure (40) is produced on a substrate (41) and comprises: a first support element (42) located above the substrate (41); a first characterization element (45) with a constant thickness (e1), said first characterization element (45) being located above said first support element (42) and having an upper flat surface (46) and a lower flat surface (47) covering the upper surface of said first support element (42) with at least one zone (P1, P2) extending beyond said upper surface of said first support element (42), said zone (P1, P2) having a characterization surface (48, 49) at one end which is capable of coming into contact with a tip to be characterized, the upper surface (46) and the lower surface (47) of said first characterization element (45) being parallel to the upper surface (52) of said substrate (41).


News Article | February 21, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

For the first time ever, scientists have captured images of terahertz electron dynamics of a semiconductor surface on the atomic scale. The successful experiment indicates a bright future for the new and quickly growing sub-field called terahertz scanning tunneling microscopy (THz-STM), pioneered by the University of Alberta in Canada. THz-STM allows researchers to image electron behaviour at extremely fast timescales and explore how that behaviour changes between different atoms. "We can essentially zoom in to observe very fast processes with atomic precision and over super fast time scales," says Vedran Jelic, PhD student at the University of Alberta and lead author on the new study. "THz-STM provides us with a new window into the nanoworld, allowing us to explore ultrafast processes on the atomic scale. We're talking a picosecond, or a millionth millionth of a second. It's something that's never been done before." Jelic and his collaborators used their scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to capture images of silicon atoms by raster scanning a very sharp tip across the surface and recording the tip height as it follows the atomic corrugations of the surface. While the original STM can measure and manipulate single atoms--for which its creators earned a Nobel Prize in 1986--it does so using wired electronics and is ultimately limited in speed and thus time resolution. Modern lasers produce very short light pulses that can measure a whole range of ultra-fast processes, but typically over length scales limited by the wavelength of light at hundreds of nanometers. Much effort has been expended to overcome the challenges of combining ultra-fast lasers with ultra-small microscopy. The University of Alberta scientists addressed these challenges by working in a unique terahertz frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum that allows wireless implementation. Normally the STM needs an applied voltage in order to operate, but Jelic and his collaborators are able to drive their microscope using pulses of light instead. These pulses occur over really fast timescales, which means the microscope is able to see really fast events. By incorporating the THz-STM into an ultrahigh vacuum chamber, free from any external contamination or vibration, they are able to accurately position their tip and maintain a perfectly clean surface while imaging ultrafast dynamics of atoms on surfaces. Their next step is to collaborate with fellow material scientists and image a variety of new surfaces on the nanoscale that may one day revolutionize the speed and efficiency of current technology, ranging from solar cells to computer processing. "Terahertz scanning tunneling microscopy is opening the door to an unexplored regime in physics," concludes Jelic, who is studying in the Ultrafast Nanotools Lab with University of Alberta professor Frank Hegmann, a world expert in ultra-fast terahertz science and nanophysics. Their findings, "Ultrafast terahertz control of extreme tunnel currents through single atoms on a silicon surface," appeared in the February 20 issue of Nature Physics.


Vedran Jelic, PhD student at the University of Alberta and lead author on a new paper pioneering microscopy at terahertz frequencies. Credit: John Ulan for the University of Alberta. For the first time ever, scientists have captured images of terahertz electron dynamics of a semiconductor surface on the atomic scale. The successful experiment indicates a bright future for the new and quickly growing sub-field called terahertz scanning tunneling microscopy (THz-STM), pioneered by the University of Alberta in Canada. THz-STM allows researchers to image electron behaviour at extremely fast timescales and explore how that behaviour changes between different atoms. "We can essentially zoom in to observe very fast processes with atomic precision and over super fast time scales," says Vedran Jelic, PhD student at the University of Alberta and lead author on the new study. "THz-STM provides us with a new window into the nanoworld, allowing us to explore ultrafast processes on the atomic scale. We're talking a picosecond, or a millionth millionth of a second. It's something that's never been done before." Jelic and his collaborators used their scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to capture images of silicon atoms by raster scanning a very sharp tip across the surface and recording the tip height as it follows the atomic corrugations of the surface. While the original STM can measure and manipulate single atoms—for which its creators earned a Nobel Prize in 1986—it does so using wired electronics and is ultimately limited in speed and thus time resolution. Modern lasers produce very short light pulses that can measure a whole range of ultra-fast processes, but typically over length scales limited by the wavelength of light at hundreds of nanometers. Much effort has been expended to overcome the challenges of combining ultra-fast lasers with ultra-small microscopy. The University of Alberta scientists addressed these challenges by working in a unique terahertz frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum that allows wireless implementation. Normally the STM needs an applied voltage in order to operate, but Jelic and his collaborators are able to drive their microscope using pulses of light instead. These pulses occur over really fast timescales, which means the microscope is able to see really fast events. By incorporating the THz-STM into an ultrahigh vacuum chamber, free from any external contamination or vibration, they are able to accurately position their tip and maintain a perfectly clean surface while imaging ultrafast dynamics of atoms on surfaces. Their next step is to collaborate with fellow material scientists and image a variety of new surfaces on the nanoscale that may one day revolutionize the speed and efficiency of current technology, ranging from solar cells to computer processing. "Terahertz scanning tunneling microscopy is opening the door to an unexplored regime in physics," concludes Jelic, who is studying in the Ultrafast Nanotools Lab with University of Alberta professor Frank Hegmann, a world expert in ultra-fast terahertz science and nanophysics. Their findings, "Ultrafast terahertz control of extreme tunnel currents through single atoms on a silicon surface," appeared in the February 20 issue of Nature Physics. Explore further: Researchers demonstrate way to shape electron beams in time through interaction with terahertz electromagnetic fields More information: Vedran Jelic et al. Ultrafast terahertz control of extreme tunnel currents through single atoms on a silicon surface, Nature Physics (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nphys4047


Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "The Maturing Nanotechnology Market: Products and Applications" report to their offering. The global nanotechnology market should reach $90.5 billion by 2021 from $39.2 billion in 2016 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 18.2%, from 2016 to 2021. The global market for nanotechnology applications will be addressed. Nanotechnology applications are defined comprehensively as the creation and use of materials, devices and systems through the manipulation of matter at scales of less than 100 nanometers. The study covers nanomaterials (nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanostructured materials and nanocomposites), nanotools (nanolithography tools and scanning probe microscopes) and nanodevices (nanosensors and nanoelectronics). A pragmatic decision was made to exclude certain types of materials and devices from the report that technically fit the definition of nanotechnology. These exceptions include carbon black nanoparticles used to reinforce tires and other rubber products; photographic silver and dye nanoparticles; and activated carbon used for water filtration. These materials were excluded because they have been used for decades, long before the concept of nanotechnology was born, and their huge volumes (especially carbon black and activated carbon) would tend to swamp the newer nanomaterials in the analysis. In the case of pharmaceutical applications, this report measures the value of the particles that the particle manufacturer receives. Research dollars invested into designing better particles, or better delivery approaches, are not included. The value created through clinical trial success and eventual Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and entrance as a prescription drug are not included. Nanoscale semiconductors are also excluded from the study, although the tools used to create them are included. Unlike carbon black and activated carbon, nanoscale semiconductors are a relatively new development. However, they have been analyzed comprehensively elsewhere and, like carbon black and activated carbon, would tend to overwhelm other nanotechnologies by their sheer volume in the out-years toward 2021. Key Topics Covered: 1: Introduction 2: Executive Summary 3: Overview 4: Solid Nanoparticles 5: Hollow Nanoparticles 6: Nanoscale Thin Films And Coatings 7: Nanostructured Monolithics 8: Nanocomposites 9: Nanotools 10: Nanodevices 11: Patent Analysis 12: Developments That Could Influence The Nanotechnology Market 13: Nanotechnology Industry Structure 14: Company Profiles For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/lngnlc/the_maturing Research and Markets Laura Wood, Senior Manager press@researchandmarkets.com For E.S.T Office Hours Call +1-917-300-0470 For U.S./CAN Toll Free Call +1-800-526-8630 For GMT Office Hours Call +353-1-416-8900 U.S. Fax: 646-607-1907 Fax (outside U.S.): +353-1-481-1716

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