Nanotechnology Patronas Group Inc.

Tallahassee, FL, United States

Nanotechnology Patronas Group Inc.

Tallahassee, FL, United States
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Shohag M.A.S.,High Performance Materials Institute | Hammel E.C.,High Performance Materials Institute | Olawale D.O.,High Performance Materials Institute | Olawale D.O.,Nanotechnology Patronas Group Inc. | Okoli O.I.,High Performance Materials Institute
Wind Engineering | Year: 2017

Wind blades are major structural elements of wind turbines, but they are prone to damage like any other composite component. Blade damage can cause sudden structural failure and the associated costs to repair them are high. Therefore, it is important to identify the causation of damage to prevent defects during the manufacturing phase, transportation, and in operation. Generally, damage in wind blades can arise due to manufacturing defects, precipitation and debris, water ingress, variable loading due to wind, operational errors, lightning strikes, and fire. Early detection and mitigation techniques are required to avoid or reduce damage in costly wind turbine blades. This article provides an extensive review of viable solutions and approaches for damage mitigation in wind turbine blades. © 2017, © The Author(s) 2017.


Dickens T.,Nanotechnology Patronas Group Inc. | Olawale D.,Nanotechnology Patronas Group Inc.
Journal of Luminescence | Year: 2015

This work reports the micro-emissions of triboluminescent (TL) concentrated composites and their evaluation at the onset of damage and crack propagation. Unreinforced vinyl ester resin and discontinuous glass-fiber reinforced non-prismatic beams were fabricated incorporating 10 wt% concentration of a highly triboluminescent material (ZnS:Mn). Triboluminescent observations were seen in both two- and three-phase composite systems throughout the failure loading-cycle. Results indicate emissions occur at various intensities corresponding to initial notch-length and imminent micro-matrix fracture. The fracturing or deformation energy was estimated by an experimental method of the J-integral analysis [1], where a lower threshold for excitation was found to be approximately less than 0.5 J m-2, below its respective critical composite fracture energy (~3 and 7 J m-2). Initiation of micro-cracks was observed for reinforced samples and were subjected to three-point bend tests in lieu of the multiple signatures of the transient signal response. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Joshi K.,High Performance Materials Institute | Joshi K.,Florida A&M University | Breaux Frketic J.,High Performance Materials Institute | Olawale D.,High Performance Materials Institute | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

With nearly 25% of bridge infrastructure deemed deficient, repair of concrete structures is a critical need. FRP materials as thin laminates or fabrics are appearing to be an ideal alternative to traditional repair technology, because of their high strength to weight ratios and stiffness to weight ratios. In addition, FRP materials offer significant potential for lightweight, high strength, cost-effective and durable retrofit. One drawback of using CFRP retrofitting is its brittle-type failure; caused by its nearly linear elastic nature of the stress-strain behavior. This causes a strength reduction of the retrofitted member, thus the health of the retrofit applied on the structure becomes equally important to sustain the serviceability of the structure. This paper provides a system to monitor damage on the CFRP retrofits through optical fiber sensors which are woven into the structure to provide damage sensing. Precracked reinforced concrete beams were retrofitted using CFRP laminates with the most commonly used FRP application technique. The beams were tested under constant stress to allow the retrofitting to fail while evaluating the performance of the sensing system. Debonding failure modes at a stress of 9 MPa were successfully detected by TL optical fiber sensors in addition to detection during flexural failure. Real-time failure detection of FRP strengthened beams was successfully achieved and the retrofit damage-monitoring scheme aims at providing a tool to reduce the response time and decision making involved in maintenance of deficient structures. © 2015 SPIE.


Grant
Agency: National Science Foundation | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 225.00K | Year: 2016

This Small Business Technology Transfer Phase I project is for the development of a triboluminescent sensor system (ITOFPress) for quasi-distributed load sensing along the length of a wind blade for active control of wind turbines. According to experts, this innovation could result in a 20% increase in wind turbine power generation through enhanced inputs for active turbine control and better understanding of the load profile along the span of a blade. Such knowledge is critical as wind blades become larger and are installed higher. This new system will also help to protect the blades and other expensive components from damage and overload, thereby reducing operation & maintenance (O&M) costs and making wind energy more attractive to investors. The installation of the ITOFPress system would increase the initial capital costs of a large wind turbine by a very small amount (about a half a percent), creating a strong value proposition for turbine manufacturers and operators. The estimated market potential for this system is expected to be $1.5 billion in 2018. The intellectual merit of this project addresses the technical hurdles in developing the proposed sensor system. The ITOFPress technology is highly sensitive to deformation-induced excitation and can withstand high loading cycles. The sensor combines the light-emitting property of ZnS:Mn with the highly desirable features of optical fibers (i.e. they are lightweight, smaller, immune to electromagnetic interference, and have the capacity for distributed sensing). The ITOFPress does not require external power at the sensing location or for signal transmission to the blade's hub, which makes it very attractive for use in wind turbines. The sensor can accurately detect loads that are not anticipated by models which rely on inputs from inflow sensors like anemometers. In this effort, increased sensor sensitivity will be achieved through experimental design studies involving critical design factors. The sensor's long term stability will be studied by subjecting samples to flexural and compressive load cycles. Finite element analysis will be performed to establish relationships between sensor response, sensor deformation and applied load. Strain gages and load sensors will be used for sensor calibration. A lab-sized wind blade will also be instrumented and tested under compressive cyclic loading to demonstrate quasi-distributed load sensing with the new sensor system.


Bhakta D.H.,High Performance Materials Institute | Olawale D.O.,High Performance Materials Institute | Olawale D.O.,Nanotechnology Patronas Group Inc. | Dickens T.,High Performance Materials Institute | And 3 more authors.
International SAMPE Technical Conference | Year: 2015

The need for an improved and affordable process for the production of polymer composites led to the development of the Resin Infusion between Double Flexible Tooling (RIDFT) process. The RIDFT process involves a 2-dimensional, even and effortless resin flow that facilitate fast and economical production of composites while ensuring environmental and personnel safety. A major drawback however, to the wide adoption of this promising process is the high cost in terms of time for preparing the silicone mold for the next production cycle, and the high cost associated with frequent replacement of the flexible tooling material (silicone sheet). In order to mitigate these problems, the low-cost Stretchlon bagging was introduced into the RIDFT process. This paper reports on the study of the effect of the use of the Stretchlon bagging on the RIDFT process in regards to: the fabrication of parts with different complexity; the production cycle time; and the thermo-mechanical properties of the fabricated parts. Glass fiber reinforced polymer panels were fabricated and tested for this study. Copyright 2015. Used by the Society of the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering with permission.


Shohag M.A.S.,High Performance Materials Institute | Hammel E.C.,Nanotechnology Patronas Group Inc. | Olawale D.O.,High Performance Materials Institute | Olawale D.O.,Nanotechnology Patronas Group Inc. | Okoli O.O.,High Performance Materials Institute
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2016

One of the most severe damage modes in modern wind turbines is the failure of the adhesive joints in the trailing edge of the large composite blades. The geometrical shape of the blade and current manufacturing techniques make the trailing edge of the wind turbine blade more sensitive to damage. Failure to timely detect this damage type may result in catastrophic failures, expensive system downtime, and high repair costs. A novel sensing system called the In-situ Triboluminescent Optical Fiber (ITOF) sensor has been proposed for monitoring the initiation and propagation of disbonds in composite adhesive joints. The ITOF sensor combines the triboluminescent property of ZnS:Mn with the many desirable features of optical fiber to provide in-situ and distributed damage sensing in large composite structures like the wind blades. Unlike other sensor systems, the ITOF sensor does not require a power source at the sensing location or for transmitting damage-induced signals to the hub of the wind turbine. Composite parts will be fabricated and the ITOF integrated within the bondline to provide in-situ and real time damage sensing. Samples of the fabricated composite parts with integrated ITOF will be subjected to tensile and flexural loads, and the response from the integrated sensors will be monitored and analyzed to characterize the performance of the ITOF sensor as a debonding damage monitoring system. In addition, C-scan and optical microscopy will be employed to gain greater insights into the damage propagation behavior and the signals received from the ITOF sensors. © COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.


Olawale D.O.,High Performance Materials Institute | Olawale D.O.,Nanotechnology Patronas Group Inc. | Kliewer K.,High Performance Materials Institute | Okoye A.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Luminescence | Year: 2014

The in-situ triboluminescent optical fiber (ITOF) sensor has an integrated sensing and transmission component that converts the energy from damage events like impacts and crack propagation into optical signals that are indicative of the magnitude of damage in composite structures like concrete bridges. Utilizing the triboluminescence (TL) property of ZnS:Mn, the ITOF sensor has been successfully integrated into unreinforced cementitious composite beams to create multifunctional smart structures with in-situ failure detection capabilities. The fabricated beams were tested under flexural loading, and real time failure detection was made by monitoring the TL signals generated by the integrated ITOF sensor. Tested beam samples emitted distinctive TL signals at the instance of failure. In addition, we report herein a new and promising approach to damage characterization using TL emission profiles. Analysis of TL emission profiles indicates that the ITOF sensor responds to crack propagation through the beam even when not in contact with the crack. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that fracto-triboluminescence was responsible for the TL signals observed at the instance of beam failure. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Olawale D.O.,High Performance Materials Institute | Olawale D.O.,Nanotechnology Patronas Group Inc. | Dickens T.,High Performance Materials Institute | Dickens T.,Nanotechnology Patronas Group Inc. | Okoli O.I.,High Performance Materials Institute
CAMX 2014 - Composites and Advanced Materials Expo: Combined Strength. Unsurpassed Innovation. | Year: 2014

The United States' critical civil infrastructure systems (CIS) such as bridges, dams and tunnels are aging and overloaded, thereby exposing millions of users to danger daily. While over 50% of the nearly 600,000 US bridges are more than 60 years old, the average daily vehicular crossings is about 4 billion vehicles. Adding to the risks commuters are exposed to is the effect of vehicular impacts these structures are continually being subjected to. Bridge overload and lateral impact forces from trucks, barges/ships, and trains were responsible for 20% of total bridge failures. By utilizing the triboluminescent (TL) property of ZnS:Mn, our group has developed the in-situ triboluminescent optical fiber (ITOF) sensor that will enable real time and distributed impact damage monitoring of the CIS. The sensor consists of ZnS:Mn and UV-cured acrylated urethane composite coating on polymer optical fiber. The durability of the ITOF sensor under repeated impact loading is however critical for its effective deployment in CIS. The durability of the triboluminescent material under different impact load levels will be investigated. The repeatability and degradation of the triboluminescent responses of the sensor under many cycles of impact loading will be reported. Optical and scanning electron microscopes will be employed to characterize the level of damage of the sensor after the impact events.


Olawale D.O.,High Performance Materials Institute | Olawale D.O.,Nanotechnology Patronas Group Inc. | Kliewer K.,High Performance Materials Institute | Okoye A.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | And 4 more authors.
Structural Health Monitoring | Year: 2014

Triboluminescent damage sensors comprising highly efficient triboluminescent materials could allow simple, real-time monitoring of both the magnitude and location of damage. The inability to effectively capture and transmit the triboluminescent optical signals generated within opaque composites like concrete has, however, limited their damage monitoring applications. The in situ triboluminescent optical fiber sensor has been developed to enable the detection and transmission of damage-provoked triboluminescent emissions without having to position triboluminescent crystals in the host material. Flexural tests were performed on mortar and reinforced concrete beams having the in situ triboluminescent optical fiber sensor integrated into them. The intrinsic triboluminescent signals generated in the beams under loading were successfully transmitted through the optical fibers to the photomultiplier tube by side coupling. Successful side coupling will make a truly distributed in situ triboluminescent optical fiber sensor possible when the entire length of the sensor is mostly covered with the triboluminescent composite coating. The results show the viability of the in situ triboluminescent optical fiber sensor for the structural health monitoring of cementitious composites. Real-time failure detection was demonstrated in unreinforced mortar beams, while real-time damage (crack) detection was demonstrated in reinforced concrete beams. Preliminary work on reinforced concrete beams showed that the integrated in situ triboluminescent optical fiber sensor was able to detect multiple cracks caused by loading, thereby providing early warning of structural degradation before failure. © The Author(s) 2013.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 225.00K | Year: 2016

This Small Business Technology Transfer Phase I project is for the development of a triboluminescent sensor system (ITOFPress) for quasi-distributed load sensing along the length of a wind blade for active control of wind turbines. According to experts, this innovation could result in a 20% increase in wind turbine power generation through enhanced inputs for active turbine control and better understanding of the load profile along the span of a blade. Such knowledge is critical as wind blades become larger and are installed higher. This new system will also help to protect the blades and other expensive components from damage and overload, thereby reducing operation & maintenance (O&M) costs and making wind energy more attractive to investors. The installation of the ITOFPress system would increase the initial capital costs of a large wind turbine by a very small amount (about a half a percent), creating a strong value proposition for turbine manufacturers and operators. The estimated market potential for this system is expected to be $1.5 billion in 2018.

The intellectual merit of this project addresses the technical hurdles in developing the proposed sensor system. The ITOFPress technology is highly sensitive to deformation-induced excitation and can withstand high loading cycles. The sensor combines the light-emitting property of ZnS:Mn with the highly desirable features of optical fibers (i.e. they are lightweight, smaller, immune to electromagnetic interference, and have the capacity for distributed sensing). The ITOFPress does not require external power at the sensing location or for signal transmission to the blades hub, which makes it very attractive for use in wind turbines. The sensor can accurately detect loads that are not anticipated by models which rely on inputs from inflow sensors like anemometers. In this effort, increased sensor sensitivity will be achieved through experimental design studies involving critical design factors. The sensors long term stability will be studied by subjecting samples to flexural and compressive load cycles. Finite element analysis will be performed to establish relationships between sensor response, sensor deformation and applied load. Strain gages and load sensors will be used for sensor calibration. A lab-sized wind blade will also be instrumented and tested under compressive cyclic loading to demonstrate quasi-distributed load sensing with the new sensor system.

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