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Tallahassee, FL, United States

Grant
Agency: National Science Foundation | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 225.00K | Year: 2016

This Small Business Technology Transfer Phase I project is for the development of a triboluminescent sensor system (ITOFPress) for quasi-distributed load sensing along the length of a wind blade for active control of wind turbines. According to experts, this innovation could result in a 20% increase in wind turbine power generation through enhanced inputs for active turbine control and better understanding of the load profile along the span of a blade. Such knowledge is critical as wind blades become larger and are installed higher. This new system will also help to protect the blades and other expensive components from damage and overload, thereby reducing operation & maintenance (O&M) costs and making wind energy more attractive to investors. The installation of the ITOFPress system would increase the initial capital costs of a large wind turbine by a very small amount (about a half a percent), creating a strong value proposition for turbine manufacturers and operators. The estimated market potential for this system is expected to be $1.5 billion in 2018. The intellectual merit of this project addresses the technical hurdles in developing the proposed sensor system. The ITOFPress technology is highly sensitive to deformation-induced excitation and can withstand high loading cycles. The sensor combines the light-emitting property of ZnS:Mn with the highly desirable features of optical fibers (i.e. they are lightweight, smaller, immune to electromagnetic interference, and have the capacity for distributed sensing). The ITOFPress does not require external power at the sensing location or for signal transmission to the blade's hub, which makes it very attractive for use in wind turbines. The sensor can accurately detect loads that are not anticipated by models which rely on inputs from inflow sensors like anemometers. In this effort, increased sensor sensitivity will be achieved through experimental design studies involving critical design factors. The sensor's long term stability will be studied by subjecting samples to flexural and compressive load cycles. Finite element analysis will be performed to establish relationships between sensor response, sensor deformation and applied load. Strain gages and load sensors will be used for sensor calibration. A lab-sized wind blade will also be instrumented and tested under compressive cyclic loading to demonstrate quasi-distributed load sensing with the new sensor system.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 225.00K | Year: 2016

This Small Business Technology Transfer Phase I project is for the development of a triboluminescent sensor system (ITOFPress) for quasi-distributed load sensing along the length of a wind blade for active control of wind turbines. According to experts, this innovation could result in a 20% increase in wind turbine power generation through enhanced inputs for active turbine control and better understanding of the load profile along the span of a blade. Such knowledge is critical as wind blades become larger and are installed higher. This new system will also help to protect the blades and other expensive components from damage and overload, thereby reducing operation & maintenance (O&M) costs and making wind energy more attractive to investors. The installation of the ITOFPress system would increase the initial capital costs of a large wind turbine by a very small amount (about a half a percent), creating a strong value proposition for turbine manufacturers and operators. The estimated market potential for this system is expected to be $1.5 billion in 2018.

The intellectual merit of this project addresses the technical hurdles in developing the proposed sensor system. The ITOFPress technology is highly sensitive to deformation-induced excitation and can withstand high loading cycles. The sensor combines the light-emitting property of ZnS:Mn with the highly desirable features of optical fibers (i.e. they are lightweight, smaller, immune to electromagnetic interference, and have the capacity for distributed sensing). The ITOFPress does not require external power at the sensing location or for signal transmission to the blades hub, which makes it very attractive for use in wind turbines. The sensor can accurately detect loads that are not anticipated by models which rely on inputs from inflow sensors like anemometers. In this effort, increased sensor sensitivity will be achieved through experimental design studies involving critical design factors. The sensors long term stability will be studied by subjecting samples to flexural and compressive load cycles. Finite element analysis will be performed to establish relationships between sensor response, sensor deformation and applied load. Strain gages and load sensors will be used for sensor calibration. A lab-sized wind blade will also be instrumented and tested under compressive cyclic loading to demonstrate quasi-distributed load sensing with the new sensor system.


Dickens T.,Nanotechnology Patronas Group Inc. | Olawale D.,Nanotechnology Patronas Group Inc.
Journal of Luminescence | Year: 2015

This work reports the micro-emissions of triboluminescent (TL) concentrated composites and their evaluation at the onset of damage and crack propagation. Unreinforced vinyl ester resin and discontinuous glass-fiber reinforced non-prismatic beams were fabricated incorporating 10 wt% concentration of a highly triboluminescent material (ZnS:Mn). Triboluminescent observations were seen in both two- and three-phase composite systems throughout the failure loading-cycle. Results indicate emissions occur at various intensities corresponding to initial notch-length and imminent micro-matrix fracture. The fracturing or deformation energy was estimated by an experimental method of the J-integral analysis [1], where a lower threshold for excitation was found to be approximately less than 0.5 J m-2, below its respective critical composite fracture energy (~3 and 7 J m-2). Initiation of micro-cracks was observed for reinforced samples and were subjected to three-point bend tests in lieu of the multiple signatures of the transient signal response. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Joshi K.,High Performance Materials Institute | Joshi K.,Florida A&M University | Breaux Frketic J.,High Performance Materials Institute | Olawale D.,High Performance Materials Institute | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

With nearly 25% of bridge infrastructure deemed deficient, repair of concrete structures is a critical need. FRP materials as thin laminates or fabrics are appearing to be an ideal alternative to traditional repair technology, because of their high strength to weight ratios and stiffness to weight ratios. In addition, FRP materials offer significant potential for lightweight, high strength, cost-effective and durable retrofit. One drawback of using CFRP retrofitting is its brittle-type failure; caused by its nearly linear elastic nature of the stress-strain behavior. This causes a strength reduction of the retrofitted member, thus the health of the retrofit applied on the structure becomes equally important to sustain the serviceability of the structure. This paper provides a system to monitor damage on the CFRP retrofits through optical fiber sensors which are woven into the structure to provide damage sensing. Precracked reinforced concrete beams were retrofitted using CFRP laminates with the most commonly used FRP application technique. The beams were tested under constant stress to allow the retrofitting to fail while evaluating the performance of the sensing system. Debonding failure modes at a stress of 9 MPa were successfully detected by TL optical fiber sensors in addition to detection during flexural failure. Real-time failure detection of FRP strengthened beams was successfully achieved and the retrofit damage-monitoring scheme aims at providing a tool to reduce the response time and decision making involved in maintenance of deficient structures. © 2015 SPIE. Source


Yan J.,High Performance Materials Institute | Uddin M.J.,High Performance Materials Institute | Dickens T.,High Performance Materials Institute | Dickens T.,Nanotechnology Patronas Group Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Structural Health Monitoring 2013: A Roadmap to Intelligent Structures - Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, IWSHM 2013 | Year: 2013

This paper reports on work developing an efficient 3D photosensor using Ti microwires and carbon nanotube yarns (CNYs). The 3D PV sensor construction is the basis of ongoing work towards embedded smart composites with intrinsic triboluminescent/mechanoluminescent (TL/ML) features. Nano-TiO2coated microwires were used as working electrodes (WE). CNYs were twisted around the coated Ti microwire, which functioned to collect and transmit the photogenerated electrons from the completed WE. Attempts were made to optimize the interface between Ti-microwire and TiO2microfilm with differing numbers of CNYs. The optimized TiO2thickness was found to be approximately 20 µm. A silver wire was used as a control experiment to compare with the CNYs operating as the counter electrode (CE). The developed 3D photovoltaic (PV) microsensor displayed a photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 0.49[%]. Source

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