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São Miguel dos Campos, Brazil

Nanotechnology Laboratory

São Miguel dos Campos, Brazil
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Tiny nanoparticles offer significant potential in detecting and treating disease - new review Exosomes - tiny biological nanoparticles which transfer information between cells - offer significant potential in detecting and treating disease, the most comprehensive overview so far of research in the field has concluded. Areas which could benefit include cancer treatment and regenerative medicine, say Dr Steven Conlan from Swansea University, Dr Mauro Ferrari of Houston Methodist Research Institute in Texas, and Dr Inês Mendes Pinto from the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory in Portugal. Their commissioned paper, Exosomes as Reconfigurable Therapeutic Systems, is published today by Cell Press in Trends in Molecular Medicine. Exosomes are particles produced by all cells in the body and are from 30-130 nanometres in size - a nanometre is one-billionth of a metre. They act as biological signalling systems, communicating between cells, carrying proteins, lipids, DNA and RNA. They drive biological processes, from modulating gene expression to transmitting information through breast milk. Though discovered in 1983, the full potential of exosomes is only gradually being revealed. The researchers show that the nanoparticles' possible medical benefits fall into three broad categories: One of the most useful properties of exosomes is that they are able to cross barriers such as the plasma membrane of cells, or the blood/brain barrier. This makes them well-suited to delivering therapeutic molecules in a very targeted way. The potential benefits of exosomes can be seen in the wide range of research projects - cited in the paper - already either completed or under way, in areas such as: The team caution that there is more to do before research into exosomes translates into new techniques and treatments. Side-effects need to be considered, and a standardised approach to isolating, characterising and storing exosomes will need to be developed. Researchers will also need to ensure that the properties of exosomes do not end up causing harm: for example they can transfer drug resistance and pacify the immune system. Nevertheless, the potential is very clear, with the team describing exosomes as "increasingly promising". Professor Steve Conlan of Swansea University Medical School, one of the authors of the paper, said: "Our survey of research into exosomes shows clearly that they offer enormous potential as a basis for detecting and treating disease. Further studies are necessary to turn this research into clinical outcomes, but researchers and funders should be very encouraged by our findings. Our own research in Swansea is investigating the use of exosomes and exosome-like synthetic nanoparticles in combatting ovarian and endometrial cancer. Progress in this field depends on partnership. As the authorship of our own paper illustrates, researchers in different countries are increasingly working together in nanohealth. Swansea University has wider links with Houston and Portuguese based researchers in the field. It's also important to build partnerships outside academia, in particular with government and companies in this fast-growing sector." Graphic: Exosomes can be produced by cells (left), altered before production or after purification (middle), and made in the laboratory (right) depending on their final use Paper published on 22 June in Trends in Molecular Medicine. The authors are: Professor Steve Conlan (Swansea University Medical School); Simone Pisano (Swansea University Medical School and University of Trieste); Dr Marta Oliveira and Dr Ines Mendes Pinto (International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Portugal); Dr Mauro Ferrari (Houston Methodist Research Institute, USA). Swansea University is a world-class, research-led, dual campus university. The University was established in 1920 and was the first campus university in the UK. It currently offers around 350 undergraduate courses and 350 postgraduate courses to circa 20,000 undergraduate and postgraduate students. The University's 46-acre Singleton Park Campus is located in beautiful parkland with views across Swansea Bay. The University's 65-acre science and innovation Bay Campus, which opened in September 2015, is located a few miles away on the eastern approach to the city. It has the distinction of having direct access to a beach and its own seafront promenade. Both campuses are close to the Gower Peninsula, the UK's first Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Swansea is ranked the top university in Wales and is currently The Times and The Sunday Times 'Welsh University of the Year'. It is also ranked within the top 350 best universities in the world in the Times Higher Education World University rankings. The results of the Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2014 showed the University has achieved its ambition to be a top 30 research University, soaring up the league table to 26th in the UK, with the 'biggest leap among research-intensive institutions' (Times Higher Education, December 2014) in the UK. The University has ambitious expansion plans as it moves towards its centenary in 2020, as it continues to extend its global reach and realising its domestic and international ambitions.


Exosomes - tiny biological nanoparticles which transfer information between cells - offer significant potential in detecting and treating disease, the most comprehensive overview so far of research in the field has concluded. Areas which could benefit include cancer treatment and regenerative medicine, say Dr Steven Conlan from Swansea University, Dr Mauro Ferrari of Houston Methodist Research Institute in Texas, and Dr Inês Mendes Pinto from the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory in Portugal. Their commissioned paper, Exosomes as Reconfigurable Therapeutic Systems, is published today by Cell Press in Trends in Molecular Medicine. Exosomes are particles produced by all cells in the body and are from 30-130 nanometres in size - a nanometre is one-billionth of a metre. They act as biological signalling systems, communicating between cells, carrying proteins, lipids, DNA and RNA. They drive biological processes, from modulating gene expression to transmitting information through breast milk. Though discovered in 1983, the full potential of exosomes is only gradually being revealed. The researchers show that the nanoparticles' possible medical benefits fall into three broad categories: One of the most useful properties of exosomes is that they are able to cross barriers such as the plasma membrane of cells, or the blood/brain barrier. This makes them well-suited to delivering therapeutic molecules in a very targeted way. The potential benefits of exosomes can be seen in the wide range of research projects - cited in the paper - already either completed or under way, in areas such as: The team caution that there is more to do before research into exosomes translates into new techniques and treatments. Side-effects need to be considered, and a standardised approach to isolating, characterising and storing exosomes will need to be developed. Researchers will also need to ensure that the properties of exosomes do not end up causing harm: for example they can transfer drug resistance and pacify the immune system. Nevertheless, the potential is very clear, with the team describing exosomes as "increasingly promising". Professor Steve Conlan of Swansea University Medical School, one of the authors of the paper, said: "Our survey of research into exosomes shows clearly that they offer enormous potential as a basis for detecting and treating disease. Further studies are necessary to turn this research into clinical outcomes, but researchers and funders should be very encouraged by our findings. Our own research in Swansea is investigating the use of exosomes and exosome-like synthetic nanoparticles in combatting ovarian and endometrial cancer. Progress in this field depends on partnership. As the authorship of our own paper illustrates, researchers in different countries are increasingly working together in nanohealth. Swansea University has wider links with Houston and Portuguese based researchers in the field. It's also important to build partnerships outside academia, in particular with government and companies in this fast-growing sector." Explore further: New approach for the capture of tumor-derived exosomes from a prostate cancer cell line More information: R. Steven Conlan et al. Exosomes as Reconfigurable Therapeutic Systems, Trends in Molecular Medicine (2017). DOI: 10.1016/j.molmed.2017.05.003


Exosomes -- tiny biological nanoparticles which transfer information between cells -- offer significant potential in detecting and treating disease, the most comprehensive overview so far of research in the field has concluded. Areas which could benefit include cancer treatment and regenerative medicine, say Dr Steven Conlan from Swansea University, Dr Mauro Ferrari of Houston Methodist Research Institute in Texas, and Dr Inês Mendes Pinto from the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory in Portugal. Their commissioned paper, Exosomes as Reconfigurable Therapeutic Systems, is published by Cell Press in Trends in Molecular Medicine. Exosomes are particles produced by all cells in the body and are from 30-130 nanometres in size -- a nanometre is one-billionth of a metre. They act as biological signalling systems, communicating between cells, carrying proteins, lipids, DNA and RNA. They drive biological processes, from modulating gene expression to transmitting information through breast milk. Though discovered in 1983, the full potential of exosomes is only gradually being revealed. The researchers show that the nanoparticles' possible medical benefits fall into three broad categories: One of the most useful properties of exosomes is that they are able to cross barriers such as the plasma membrane of cells, or the blood/brain barrier. This makes them well-suited to delivering therapeutic molecules in a very targeted way. The potential benefits of exosomes can be seen in the wide range of research projects -- cited in the paper -- already either completed or under way, in areas such as: The team caution that there is more to do before research into exosomes translates into new techniques and treatments. Side-effects need to be considered, and a standardised approach to isolating, characterising and storing exosomes will need to be developed. Researchers will also need to ensure that the properties of exosomes do not end up causing harm: for example they can transfer drug resistance and pacify the immune system. Nevertheless, the potential is very clear, with the team describing exosomes as "increasingly promising." Professor Steve Conlan of Swansea University Medical School, one of the authors of the paper, said: "Our survey of research into exosomes shows clearly that they offer enormous potential as a basis for detecting and treating disease. Further studies are necessary to turn this research into clinical outcomes, but researchers and funders should be very encouraged by our findings. Our own research in Swansea is investigating the use of exosomes and exosome-like synthetic nanoparticles in combatting ovarian and endometrial cancer. Progress in this field depends on partnership. As the authorship of our own paper illustrates, researchers in different countries are increasingly working together in nanohealth. Swansea University has wider links with Houston and Portuguese based researchers in the field. It's also important to build partnerships outside academia, in particular with government and companies in this fast-growing sector."


Yan J.,Nanotechnology Laboratory | Yan J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Liu X.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Yao M.,State University of New York at Buffalo | And 4 more authors.
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2015

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries suffer from major problems including poor cycle performance and low efficiency, mainly due to the high solubility of intermediate polysulfides and their side-reactions with the Li-anode. Here, we report the development of advanced, multilayered, sulfur cathodes composed of alternately arranged, negatively charged S-carbon nanotube layers and positively charged S-polyaniline layers that effectively immobilize polysulfides and reduce polysulfide migration onto the Li-anode. The use of a layer-by-layer nanoassembly technique leads to a binder-free, three-dimensional porous cathode via electrostatic attraction and enables the fabrication of Li-S cells with remarkably improved performance including a long cycle life exceeding 600 cycles and a high Coulombic efficiency of 97.5% at the 1 C rate. Moreover, these Li-S cells have presented a high-rate response up to 2.5 C with high sulfur utilization (a reversible capacity of 1100 mAhg-1, 900 mAhg-1, 700 mAhg-1, and 450 mAhg-1 of sulfur at 0.3, 0.6, 1, and 2.5 C rates, respectively). The results provide important progress toward the understanding of the role of multilayered cathodes and the realization of high-efficiency and long-term service life for Li-S batteries. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


News Article | April 23, 2014
Site: www.techtimes.com

U.S. researchers say they've used carbon structures just one atom thick to develop high-performance, low-cost energy-storing ultracapacitors. Combining two different carbon nanostructures possessing complementary properties -- single-walled nanotubes and graphene flakes -- yielded capacitors capable of containing large quantities of energy that can be quickly released to provide a power surge, the researchers at George Washington University say. Such ultracapacitors may provide increased performance in handheld electronics like smartphones and tablets, in electric vehicles, audio systems and other applications, they say. Excellent electronic, mechanical and thermal properties make both graphene and single-walled nanotubes attractive candidates for ultracapacitors, lead researcher Jian Li says; the trick was in bringing them together. Although both materials had been studied singly, few efforts had been made to combine them, Li's colleague Michael Keidar says. "In our lab we developed an approach by which we can obtain both single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene, so we came up with the idea to take advantage of the two promising carbon nanomaterials together," he says. Writing in the Journal of Applied Physics, the researchers describe how they combine the two different nanostructures to create ink capable of being rolled onto paper, a normal separator used in current capacitor designs. The resulting specific capacitance -- defined as the energy performance of the capacitor compared with its weight -- was as much as three times that of a capacitor made from the carbon nanotubes by themselves, they reported. While the graphene flakes contribute good conductivity and a large surface area, the nanotubes hold the structure tougher in a uniformly spaced network, Li explained. The carbon nanotubes act as reinforcing bars, making the single-atom graphene flakes much easier work with. The resulting capacitor is inexpensive, since the desirable mix of nanostructures is simple to create in large amounts. The researchers said they were able to synthesize the graphene flakes and nanotubes simultaneously by vaporizing a hollow graphite rod filled with metallic catalyst powder with an electric arc. In addition to being cheap to produce, because the ultracapacitor is light and small it will lead to ever smaller and more efficient electronic devices, they researchers said. The research was conducted in the Micro-propulsion and Nanotechnology Laboratory at George Washington University.


Venkata Ramana M.,Nanotechnology Laboratory | Venkata Ramana M.,Sri Krishnadevaraya University | Ramamanohar Reddy N.,Nanotechnology Laboratory | Siva Kumar K.V.,Nanotechnology Laboratory
Physics Research International | Year: 2012

Two series of NiMgCuZn ferrites, that is, (1) Ni x Mg 0.6-x Cu 0.1Zn 0.3Fe 2O 4 and sample G: Ni 0.3Mg 0.3y Cu 0.1Zn 0.5y Fe 2O 4 with x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and (2) Ni xMg 0.6-xCu 0.1Zn 0.3Fe 2O 4 with y = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2 were synthesized and prepared by conventional ceramic double-sintering process and to use them as core materials for microinductor applications. The formation of single phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The temperature and compositional variation of DC, AC electrical conductivities () and thermoelectric power () were studied on these two series of polycrystalline ferrospinels. The studies were carried out in wide range of temperature from 30 to 350°C. On the basis of thermoelectric study, the ferrites under present work were found to be shown as n-type and p-type transition. The electrical conduction in these ferrospinels is explained in the light of polaron hopping mechanism. These ferrite compositions have been developed for their use as core materials for microinductor applications. © 2012 M. Venkata Ramana et al.


Vadivelan V.,Bharathiar University | Chandar Shekar B.,Nanotechnology Laboratory
Springer Proceedings in Physics | Year: 2015

Visible spectrum of solar light concentration on wavelength depended solar cell is to enhance the diffraction efficiency of the solar cell is our prime aim. Initial step of successful recording of high diffraction efficiency and good visible transmission holographic optical element were recorded. For this, we used ultra fine grain visible wavelength responsive silver halide holographic emulsion from Ultimate holography. The novelty of this work is three different laser sources of 442, 532 and 633 nm were used to record a single holographic transmission lens by using multiplex technique. The detail study of the holographic optical element recording is explained. © Springer India 2015.


Salem N.M.,University of Jordan | Albanna L.S.,University of Jordan | Awwad A.M.,Nanotechnology Laboratory
Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring and Management | Year: 2016

Sulfur nanoparticles (SNPs) have been successfully prepared from sodium thiosulfate in the presence of Punica granatum peels aqueous extract at room temperature. The resulting sulfur nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Highly crystalline synthesized sulfur nanoparticles exhibiting high purity, spherical shape with average particle size of about 50 nm applied at a rate of 100 ppm, 200 ppm, and 300 ppm as foliar spray for tomato leaves. The obtained results revealed that the foliar spraying tomato leaves with 200 ppm sulfur nanoparticles are very beneficial to plant growth and produced healthy plant with greener leaves and high quality of tomato fruits compared with control. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Lee J.-C.,Nanotechnology Laboratory | Lee D.-W.,Nanotechnology Laboratory
Microelectronic Engineering | Year: 2010

This paper presents a novel design of tactile sensing arrays with integrated strain gauges for the measurement of contact force. Surface stress or strain changes on the sensor area due to applied force are measured by the encapsulated Au gauges. The fabricated tactile sensors are highly flexible and durable so that they can conform to more complex surfaces without damaging the skin structure and the metal interconnects on the sensing array. The experimental results show the output characteristics are linear with contact force from 0 to 700 gf and a sensitivity of 3%/100 gf within the full scale range of 700 gf. The effect of electrode structure and position on the enhancement of sensitivity are also numerically simulated by a finite element method and verified experimentally. The measured tactile sensors are robust enough for direct contact with human and contaminants without undue care. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Varadarajan V.,Bharathiar University | Bellan C.S.,Nanotechnology Laboratory
2015 2nd International Conference on Opto-Electronics and Applied Optics: Advances in Optical Sciences and Engineering II, IEM OPTRONIX 2015 | Year: 2015

Holography has been utilized for fabrication of optical elements in Silver halide photosensitive emulsion. The main drawback of transmission phase holograms in silver halide emulsion is getting darkens or discolor over the period of time, whenexposed to the ambient light, known as print-out effect. Hence this is unsuitable for out-door applications. In this study, holographic optical elements were fabricated in commercially available silver halide fine grain emulsion, almost completely controlled the darkening or discoloring effect by new chemical technique and it is practically examined by three different testing methods. Fabricated transmission phase holographic lenses have unique property of diffracting, focusing and concentrating of particularwavelength solar spectrumon wavelength dependable solar cells. © 2015 IEEE.

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