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Szakal C.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Tsytsikova L.,Center for Risk Science Innovation and Application | Carlander D.,Nanotechnology Industries Assoc | Duncan T.V.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2014

This article is one of a series of 4 that report on a task of the NanoRelease Food Additive (NRFA) project of the International. Life Science Institute Center for Risk Science Innovation and Application. The project aims are to identify, evaluate, and develop methods that are needed to confidently detect, characterize, and quantify intentionally produced engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) released from food along the alimentary tract. This particular article offers an overview of the NRFA project, describing the project scope and goals, as well as the strategy by which the task group sought to achieve these goals. A condensed description of the general challenge of detecting ENMs in foods and a brief review of available and emerging methods for ENM detection is provided here, paying particular attention to the kind of information that might be desired from an analysis and the strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches that might be used to attain this information. The article concludes with an executive summary of the task group's broad findings related to the 3 topic areas, which are covered in more detail in 3 subsequent articles in this series. The end result is a thorough evaluation of the state of ENM measurement science specifically as it applies to oral uptake of ENMs from human dietary sources. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


Alger H.,The Pew Charitable Trusts | Alger H.,American Heart Association | Momcilovic D.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Carlander D.,Nanotechnology Industries Assoc | Duncan T.V.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2014

This article is one of a series of 4 that report on a task of the NanoRelease Food Additive project of the International Life Science Institute Center for Risk Science Innovation and Application to identify, evaluate, and develop methods that are needed to confidently detect, characterize, and quantify intentionally produced engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) released from food along the alimentary tract. This particular article focuses on the problem of detecting and characterizing ENMs in the various compartments of the alimentary tract after they have been ingested from dietary sources. An in depth analysis of the literature related to oral toxicity of ENMs is presented, paying particular attention to analytical methodology and sample preparation. The review includes a discussion of model systems that can be used to study oral uptake of ENMs in the absence of human toxicological data or other live-animal studies. The strengths and weaknesses of various analytical and sample preparation techniques are discussed. The article concludes with a summary of findings and a discussion of potential knowledge gaps and targets for method development in this area. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


Singh G.,Food Research Div | Stephan C.,Perkin Elmer Corporation | Westerhoff P.,Arizona State University | Carlander D.,Nanotechnology Industries Assoc | Duncan T.V.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2014

This article is one of a series of 4 that reports on a task of the NanoRelease Food Additive project of the International Life Science Institute Center for Risk Science Innovation and Application to identify, evaluate, and develop methods that are needed to confidently detect, characterize, and quantify intentionally produced engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) released from food along the alimentary tract. This particular article focuses on the problem of detecting ENMs in food, paying special attention to matrix interferences and how to deal with them. In this review, an in-depth analysis of the literature related to detection of ENMs in complex matrices is presented. The literature review includes discussions of sampling methods, such as centrifugation and ENM extraction. Available analytical methods, as well as emerging methods, are also presented. The article concludes with a summary of findings and an overview of potential knowledge gaps and targets for method development in this area. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


Noonan G.O.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Whelton A.J.,University of South Alabama | Carlander D.,Nanotechnology Industries Assoc | Duncan T.V.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2014

This article is one of a series of 4 that report on a task of the NanoRelease Food Additive project of the Intl. Life Science Inst. Center for Risk Science Innovation and Application to identify, evaluate, and develop methods that are needed to confidently detect, characterize, and quantify intentionally produced engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) released from food along the alimentary tract. This particular article focuses on the problem of detecting ENMs that become released into food indirectly from food contact materials. In this review, an in-depth analysis of the release literature is presented and relevant release mechanisms are discussed. The literature review includes discussion of articles related to the release phenomenon in general, as experimental methods to detect ENMs migrating from plastic materials into other (nonfood) complex matrices were determined to be relevant to the focus problem of food safety. From the survey of the literature, several "control points" were identified where characterization data on ENMs and materials may be most valuable. The article concludes with a summary of findings and a discussion of potential knowledge gaps and targets for method development in this area. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

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