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Pistora J.,Nanotechnology Center | Halagaska L.,VSB - Technical University of Ostrava
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2016

We demonstrate the model specification of the MO-SPR coupling-prism system consisting of the Ag film deposited between two garnet layers; the water is supposed as an analyte. The bismuth-doped gallium-gadolinium iron garnet offers low optical losses as well as strong MO response from visible to near infrared optical region. We apply two different response functions that detect a change of analyte refractive index that operate either directly with reflectance change at appropriate incidence angle or with the magneto-optically highlighted SP resonance dip shift. Suggested sensitivity criteria lead to the sensitivity about 120 1/RIU or 75 deg/RIU with the resolution of the order 10-5 RIU by experimentally acceptable variation of response factors. © 2016 SPIE.


Prasad T.N.V.K.V.,Nanotechnology Center
IET Nanobiotechnology | Year: 2016

Wound healing requires a series of cellular events and a cascade of co-ordinated and systemic biochemical events. Silver nanoparticles possess many beneficial properties for wound management including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and pro-healing properties. In this study, the authors investigated the wound healing properties of Cinnamomum verum extract mediated nanosilver (CENS) particles in comparison with 1% povidone iodine, citrate mediate NS and CE treatments. The topical application of CENS showed good antibacterial activity and accelerated wound healing with complete epithelialisation and normal re-growth of hair in all three models of study: namely, excision, incision and dead space models in rats compared with all other treatments. CENS was also found to promote collagen synthesis, stabilise wound besides countering oxidative stress and stimulating cellular proliferation CENS could be a novel therapeutic agent for wound management. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2016.


PubMed | Nanotechnology Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: IET nanobiotechnology | Year: 2016

Wound healing requires a series of cellular events and a cascade of co-ordinated and systemic biochemical events. Silver nanoparticles possess many beneficial properties for wound management including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and pro-healing properties. In this study, the authors investigated the wound healing properties of


News Article | April 21, 2016
Site: www.nanotech-now.com

Abstract: Dynamic optoelectric trapping and deposition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes Avanish Mishra1, Katherine Clayton1, Vanessa Velasco2, Stuart J. Williams2 and Steven T. Wereley1 1Birck Nanotechnology Center, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA and 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Louisville, KY 40292, USA. Correspondence: Steven T. Wereley In the path toward the realization of carbon nanotube (CNT)-driven electronics and sensors, the ability to precisely position CNTs at well-defined locations remains a significant roadblock. Highly complex CNT-based bottom–up structures can be synthesized if there is a method to accurately trap and place these nanotubes. In this study, we demonstrate that the rapid electrokinetic patterning (REP) technique can accomplish these tasks. By using laser-induced alternating current (AC) electrothermal flow and particle–electrode forces, REP can collect and maneuver a wide range of vertically aligned multiwalled CNTs (from a single nanotube to over 100 nanotubes) on an electrode surface. In addition, these trapped nanotubes can be electrophoretically deposited at any desired location onto the electrode surface. Apart from active control of the position of these deposited nanotubes, the number of CNTs in a REP trap can also be dynamically tuned by changing the AC frequency or by adjusting the concentration of the dispersed nanotubes. On the basis of a calculation of the stiffness of the REP trap, we found an upper limit of the manipulation speed, beyond which CNTs fall out of the REP trap. This peak manipulation speed is found to be dependent on the electrothermal flow velocity, which can be varied by changing the strength of the AC electric field. A system that uses a laser and electrical current to precisely position and align carbon nanotubes represents a potential new tool for creating electronic devices out of the tiny fibers. Because carbon nanotubes have unique thermal and electrical properties, they may have future applications in electronic cooling and as devices in microchips, sensors and circuits. Being able to orient the carbon nanotubes in the same direction and precisely position them could allow these nanostructures to be used in such applications. However, it is difficult to manipulate something so small that thousands of them would fit within the diameter of a single strand of hair, said Steven T. Wereley, a professor of mechanical engineering at Purdue University. "One of the things we can do with this technique is assemble carbon nanotubes, put them where we want and make them into complicated structures," he said. New findings from research led by Purdue doctoral student Avanish Mishra are detailed in a paper that has appeared online March 24 in the journal Microsystems and Nanoengineering, published by the Nature Publishing Group. The technique, called rapid electrokinetic patterning (REP), uses two parallel electrodes made of indium tin oxide, a transparent and electrically conductive material. The nanotubes are arranged randomly while suspended in deionized water. Applying an electric field causes them to orient vertically. Then an infrared laser heats the fluid, producing a doughnut-shaped vortex of circulating liquid between the two electrodes. This vortex enables the researchers to move the nanotubes and reposition them. "When we apply the electric field, they are immediately oriented vertically, and then when we apply the laser, it starts a vortex, that sweeps them into little nanotube forests," Wereley said. The research paper was authored by Mishra; Purdue graduate student Katherine Clayton; University of Louisville student Vanessa Velasco; Stuart J. Williams, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Louisville and director of the Integrated Microfluidic Systems Laboratory; and Wereley. Williams is a former doctoral student at Purdue. The technique overcomes limitations of other methods for manipulating particles measured on the scale of nanometers, or billionths of a meter. In this study, the procedure was used for multiwalled carbon nanotubes, which are rolled-up ultrathin sheets of carbon called graphene. However, according to the researchers, using this technique other nanoparticles such as nanowires and nanorods can be similarly positioned and fixed in vertical orientation. The researchers have received a U.S. patent on the system. The experimental work was performed at the Birck Nanotechnology Center in Purdue's Discovery Park. Future research will explore using the technique to create devices. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


News Article | March 4, 2016
Site: www.rdmag.com

The IBM lab responsible for inventing the scanning tunneling microscope and the atomic force microscope has invented another critical tool for helping us understand the nanoworld. Accurately measuring the temperature of objects at the nanoscale has been challenging scientists for decades. Current techniques are not accurate and they typically generate artifacts, limiting their reliability. Motivated by this challenge and their need to precisely characterize the temperature of new transistor designs to meet the demand of future cognitive computers, scientists in Switzerland from IBM and ETH Zurich have invented a breakthrough technique to measure the temperature of nano- and macro-sized objects. The patent-pending invention is being disclosed for the first time today in the peer-review journal Nature Communications, "Temperature mapping of operating nanoscale devices by scanning probe thermometry." In the 1980s, IBM scientists Gerd Binnig and the late Heinrich Rohrer wanted to directly explore a surface's electronic structure and imperfections. The instrument they needed to take such measurements didn't exist, yet. So they did what any good scientist would do: they invented one. It became known as the scanning tunneling microscope (STM), opening the door to nanotechnology. Just a few years later, the invention was recognized with the highest of hMore than 30 years later IBM scientists continue to follow in the footsteps of Binnig and Rohrer and with their latest invention. Dr. Fabian Menges, an IBM postdoc and co-inventor of the technique said, "We started back in 2010 and simply never gave up. Previous research was focused on a nanoscale thermometer, but we should have been inventing a thermometer for the nanoscale—an important distinction. This adjustment led us to develop a technique which combines local thermal sensing with the measuring capability of a microscope—we call it scanning probe thermometry." The most common technique to measure temperature on the macroscale is to bring a thermometer into thermal contact with the sample. This is how a fever thermometer works. Once it's placed under our tongue it equilibrates to our body temperature so that we can determine our temperature at a healthy 37 degrees C. Unfortunately, it gets a little more challenging when using a thermometer to measure a nanoscopic objFor example, it would be impossible to use a typical thermometer to measure the temperature of an individual virus. The size of the virus is too small and the thermometer cannot equilibrate without significantly disturbing the virus temperature. To solve this challenge, IBM scientists developed a single scan non-equilibrium contact thermometry technique to measure the temperature of nanoscopic objects using a scanning probe. As the scanning probe thermometer and the object cannot thermally equilibrate at the nanoscale, two signals are measured simultaneously: a small heat flux, and its resistance to heat flow. Combining these two signal the temperature of nanoscopic objects can then be quantified for an accurate result. IBM scientist Dr. Bernd Gotsmann and co-inventor explains, "The technique is analogous to touching a hot plate and inferring its temperature from sensing the heat flux between our own body and the heat source. Essentially, the tip of the probe is our the hand. Our perception to hot and cold can be very helpful to get an idea of an objects temperature, but it can also be misleading if the resistance to heat flow is unknown." Previously, scientists weren't accurately including this resistance dependence; but only measuring the rate of the thermal energy transfer through the surface, know as heat flux. In the paper, the authors included the effects of local variations of thermal resistance to measure the temperature of an indium arsenide (InAs) nanowire, and a self-heated gold interconnect with a combination of a few-miliKelvin and few-nanometer spatial resolution. Menges adds, "Not only is the scanning probe thermometer accurate, it meets the trifecta for tools: it's easy to operate, simple to build, and very versatile, in that it can be used to measure the temperature of nano- and micro-sized hot spots that can locally effect the physical properties of materials or govern chemical reactions in devices such as transistors, memory cells, thermoelectric energy converters or plasmonic structures. The applications are endless." It's no coincidence that the team began to see improvements in the development of the scanning probe thermometer 18 months ago when they moved their research into the new Noise Free Labs—six meters underground at the Binnig and Rohrer Nanotechnology Center on the campus of IBM Research-Zurich. This unique environment, which shields the experiments from vibration, acoustic noise, electromagnetic signals and temperature fluctuations, helped the team achieve sub-milliKelvin precision. "While we had the benefit of this unique room, the technique can also produce reliable results in normal environment," said Menges. "We hope the paper will produce both a lot of excitement and relief for scientists, who like us, have been searching for such a tool," said Gotsmann. "Similar to the STM, we hope to license this technique to tool manufacturers who can then bring it to market as an additional function to their microscopy product line."


News Article | March 4, 2016
Site: www.cemag.us

The IBM lab responsible for inventing the scanning tunneling microscope and the atomic force microscope has invented another critical tool for helping us understand the nanoworld. Accurately measuring the temperature of objects at the nanoscale has been challenging scientists for decades. Current techniques are not accurate and they typically generate artifacts, limiting their reliability. Motivated by this challenge and their need to precisely characterize the temperature of new transistor designs to meet the demand of future cognitive computers, scientists in Switzerland from IBM and ETH Zurich have invented a breakthrough technique to measure the temperature of nano- and macro-sized objects. The patent-pending invention is being disclosed for the first time today in the peer-review journal Nature Communications, "Temperature mapping of operating nanoscale devices by scanning probe thermometry.” In the 1980s, IBM scientists Gerd Binnig and the late Heinrich Rohrer wanted to directly explore a surface’s electronic structure and imperfections. The instrument they needed to take such measurements didn’t exist, yet. So they did what any good scientist would do: they invented one. It became known as the scanning tunneling microscope (STM), opening the door to nanotechnology. Just a few years later, the invention was recognized with the highest of honors, the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1986. More than 30 years later IBM scientists continue to follow in the footsteps of Binnig and Rohrer and with their latest invention. Dr. Fabian Menges, an IBM postdoc and co-inventor of the technique, says, “We started back in 2010 and simply never gave up. Previous research was focused on a nanoscale thermometer, but we should have been inventing a thermometer for the nanoscale — an important distinction. This adjustment led us to develop a technique which combines local thermal sensing with the measuring capability of a microscope — we call it scanning probe thermometry.” The most common technique to measure temperature on the macroscale is to bring a thermometer into thermal contact with the sample. This is how a fever thermometer works. Once it’s placed under our tongue it equilibrates to our body temperature so that we can determine our temperature at a healthy 37 C. Unfortunately, it gets a little more challenging when using a thermometer to measure a nanoscopic object. For example, it would be impossible to use a typical thermometer to measure the temperature of an individual virus. The size of the virus is too small and the thermometer cannot equilibrate without significantly disturbing the virus temperature. To solve this challenge, IBM scientists developed a single scan non-equilibrium contact thermometry technique to measure the temperature of nanoscopic objects using a scanning probe. As the scanning probe thermometer and the object cannot thermally equilibrate at the nanoscale, two signals are measured simultaneously: a small heat flux, and its resistance to heat flow. Combining these two signal the temperature of nanoscopic objects can then be quantified for an accurate result. IBM scientist Dr. Bernd Gotsmann and co-inventor explains, “The technique is analogous to touching a hot plate and inferring its temperature from sensing the heat flux between our own body and the heat source. Essentially, the tip of the probe is the hand. Our perception to hot and cold can be very helpful to get an idea of an objects temperature, but it can also be misleading if the resistance to heat flow is unknown.” Previously, scientists weren’t accurately including this resistance dependence; but only measuring the rate of the thermal energy transfer through the surface, know as heat flux. In the paper, the authors included the effects of local variations of thermal resistance to measure the temperature of an indium arsenide (InAs) nanowire, and a self-heated gold interconnect with a combination of a few-miliKelvin and few-nanometer spatial resolution. Menges adds, "Not only is the scanning probe thermometer accurate, it meets the trifecta for tools: it's easy to operate, simple to build, and very versatile, in that it can be used to measure the temperature of nano- and micro-sized hot spots that can locally effect the physical properties of materials or govern chemical reactions in devices such as transistors, memory cells, thermoelectric energy converters or plasmonic structures. The applications are endless.” It’s no coincidence that the team began to see improvements in the development of the scanning probe thermometer 18 months ago when they moved their research into the new Noise Free Labs — six meters underground at the Binnig and Rohrer Nanotechnology Center on the campus of IBM Research-Zurich. This unique environment, which shields the experiments from vibration, acoustic noise, electromagnetic signals and temperature fluctuations, helped the team achieve sub-milliKelvin precision. “While we had the benefit of this unique room, the technique can also produce reliable results in normal environment,” says Menges. “We hope the paper will produce both a lot of excitement and relief for scientists, who like us, have been searching for such a tool,” says Gotsmann. “Similar to the STM, we hope to license this technique to tool manufacturers who can then bring it to market as an additional function to their microscopy product line.” Source: IBM


Marinello F.,University of Padua | Marinello F.,Nanotechnology Center | Schiavuta P.,Nanotechnology Center | Carmignato S.,University of Padua | Savio E.,University of Padua
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy (AFAM) is a scanning probe technique for advanced research in nanomechanical properties, using local elasticity to provide direct and non-destructive mapping of Young's modulus and related surface parameters.In this work, an experimental study is presented, addressing the performance of quantitative AFAM characterization. Different influencing factors are analysed, mainly arising from probe characteristics (such as cantilever geometry, force constant and ultimately resonance frequency) and scan settings (speed and sample vibration frequency). Investigations encompassed a commercial instrument equipped with three different probes, featuring different dimensions and mechanical properties. © 2010 CIRP.


Shahbazian H.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences | Mohtashami A.Z.,Golestan Hospital | Ghorbani A.,Golestan Hospital | Abbaspour M.R.,Nanotechnology Center | And 3 more authors.
Nefrologia | Year: 2011

Background: Recently, nicotinamide has been suggested as an effective drug for hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients. The authors assessed the efficacy and safety of nicotinamide in these patients with lower doses and longer duration than other studies. Methods: Forty eight patients with fasting serum phosphorus ≥5 mg/dl enrolled in this randomized clinical trial study and were randomly assigned to two equal-sized groups of nicotinamide or placebo. The study lasted 8 weeks. In the first four weeks, nicotinamide was administered at 500 mg/day, and in the second four weeks at 1,000 mg/day. Blood samples were tested at baseline, week 4, and week 8. Results: In nicotinamide group, the mean phosphorus level decreased from 5.9±0.58 mg/dl to 4.77±1.43 mg/dl in week 4 (P=0.002) and to 4.66±1.06 mg/dl in week 8 (P=0.000). The mean calciumphosphorus product decreased significantly with the same pattern as phosphorus. High-density lipoprotein level increased from 42.46±8.01 mg/dl to 55.71±11.88 mg/dl in week 4 (P = 0.000) and to 65.25±20.18 mg/dl in week 8 (P = 0.000). Levels of serum calcium, uric acid, SGOT, SGPT, and iPTH didn't change significantly. Compared to baseline, the platelet counts were decreased in both week 4 and week 8. No significant changes were observed in placebo group. Conclusions: In our patients, nicotinamide effectively decreased phosphorus, increased high-density lipoprotein, and caused thrombocytopenia. Since nicotinami de lowered platelet counts and caused thrombocytopenia in lower doses than other studies in these patients, it is necessary to plan other studies for assessing the safety of the drug especially in different populations. © 2011 Revista Nefrología. Official Publication of the Spanish Nephrology Society.


Rieder M.,Nanotechnology Center
Mineralogical Magazine | Year: 2016

Data based on end-member formulae of 4872 minerals (4975 entries) were subjected to numerical treatment and plotting. Most conspicuous among the findings is the hydration trend that spans the whole mineralogical system - something that may be related to the geological history of mineral formation on Earth. Interesting negative relationships were confirmed for pairs O and F, O and Cl, and Al and Si, while the O vs. S graph documents the dual nature of the behaviour of sulfur. Determinations of Al and Si have the potential of alarming the analyst that his phase might contain hydrogen. The dataset available also permitted the plotting of histograms that illustrate the preferred concentration distribution of individual elements throughout the mineral kingdom. © 2016 The Mineralogical Society.


Rieder M.,Nanotechnology Center
European Journal of Mineralogy | Year: 2014

All minerals in the mineralogical system can be projected onto a plane using four pairs of functions: each pair consists of the InfEnt function and one of four Qual functions. InfEnt is the information entropy (a function of the stoichiometry of a mineral formula), and Qual-1... Qual-4 are different but related functions of the atomic numbers of the elements present. The InfEnt vs. Qual plots for mineral groups or for the whole system offer a new insight into the behavior of chemical elements in minerals. They also permit plotting of scalar physical properties as a third dimension. The InfEnt and Qual data for 4872 mineral end-members are stored in a file that can be searched and used to identify unidentified or new mineral phases. © 2014 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, D-70176 Stuttgart.

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