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Nanospectra Biosciences, Inc.

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HOUSTON, TX, United States
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Gad S.C.,Gad Consulting Services | Sharp K.L.,Nanospectra Biosciences, Inc. | Montgomery C.,ComPath Biomedical | Payne J.D.,Nanospectra Biosciences, Inc. | Goodrich G.P.,Nanospectra Biosciences, Inc.
International Journal of Toxicology | Year: 2012

Gold nanoshells (155 nm in diameter with a coating of polyethylene glycol 5000) were evaluated for preclinical biocompatibility, toxicity, and biodistribution as part of a program to develop an injectable device for use in the photothermal ablation of tumors. The evaluation started with a complete good laboratory practice (GLP) compliant International Organization for Standardization (ISO)-10993 biocompatibility program, including cytotoxicity, pyrogenicity (US Pharmacopeia [USP] method in the rabbit), genotoxicity (bacterial mutagenicity, chromosomal aberration assay in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and in vivo mouse micronucleus), in vitro hemolysis, intracutaneous reactivity in the rabbit, sensitization (in the guinea pig maximization assay), and USP/ISO acute systemic toxicity in the mouse. There was no indication of toxicity in any of the studies. Subsequently, nanoshells were evaluated in vivo by intravenous (iv) infusion using a trehalose/water solution in a series of studies in mice, Sprague-Dawley rats, and Beagle dogs to assess toxicity for time durations of up to 404 days. Over the course of 14 GLP studies, the gold nanoshells were well tolerated and, when injected iv, no toxicities or bioincompatibilities were identified. © 2012 The Author(s).


Stern J.M.,Yeshiva University | Kibanov Solomonov V.V.,S.A. de C.V | Sazykina E.,S.A. de C.V | Schwartz J.A.,Nanospectra Biosciences, Inc. | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Toxicology | Year: 2016

To evaluate the clinical safety profile for the use of gold nanoshells in patients with human prostate cancer. This follows on the nonclinical safety assessment of the AuroShell particles reported previously. Twenty-two patients, with biopsy diagnosed prostate cancer, underwent nanoshell infusion and subsequent radical prostatectomy (RRP). Fifteen of these patients had prostates that were additionally irradiated by a single-fiber laser ablation in each prostate hemisphere prior to RRP. Patients in the study were assessed at 9 time points through 6 months postinfusion. Adverse events were recorded as reported by the patients and from clinical observation. Blood and urine samples were collected at each patient visit and subjected to chemical (16 tests), hematological (23 tests), immunological (3 tests, including total PSA), and urinalysis (8 tests) evaluation. Temperature of the anterior rectal wall at the level of the prostate was measured. The study, recorded 2 adverse events that were judged attributable to the nanoparticle infusion: (1) an allergic reaction resulting in itching, which resolved with intravenous antihistamines, and (2) in a separate patient, a transient burning sensation in the epigastrium. blood/hematology/urinalysis assays indicated no device-related changes. No change in temperature of the anterior rectal wall was recorded in any of the patients. The clinical safety profile of AuroShell particles is excellent, matching nonclinical findings. A recent consensus statement suggested that the published literature does not support a preference for any ablation technique over another.1 Now that clinical safety has been confirmed, treatment efficacy of the combined infusion plus laser ablation in prostate will be evaluated in future studies using imaging modalities directing the laser against identified prostate tumors. © The Author(s) 2015.


Wolfe T.,University of Houston | Chatterjee D.,University of Houston | Lee J.,University of Houston | Lee J.,Soonchunhyang University | And 6 more authors.
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine | Year: 2015

We report potent radiosensitization of prostate cancers in vitro and in vivo using goserelin-conjugated gold nanorods. Progressive receptor-mediated internalization of conjugated nanorods over time increases the radiation interaction cross-section of cells and contributes to the effects observed in vitro. The low concentrations of gold required, the long interval between injection of nanoparticles and radiation, and the use of megavoltage radiation to generate radiosensitization in vivo foretell the possibility of eventual clinical translation of this approach. From the Clinical Editor: The ability of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to enhance the effect of physical radiation dose on tumor cells is known. This radiosensitization effect is thought to result from an increased number of photoelectric absorption events and the increased number of electrons present in gold. The authors here sought to further increase the amount and specificity of gold accumulation in prostatic cancer cells by conjugating gold nanorods to goserelin, a synthetic luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analogue that would bind to the LHRH receptor overexpressed in prostate cancers. It was shown that tumour cells were more sensitive to megavoltage radiation therapy. It is hoped that there would be eventual clinical translation of this approach. © 2015.


Bickford L.R.,Rice University | Bickford L.R.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Langsner R.J.,Rice University | Chang J.,University of California at San Francisco | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Oncology | Year: 2012

Tumor margin detection for patients undergoing breast conservation surgery primarily occurs postoperatively. Previously, we demonstrated that gold nanoshells rapidly enhance contrast of HER2 overexpression in ex vivo tissue sections. Our ultimate objective, however, is to discern HER2 overexpressing tissue from normal tissue in whole, nonsectioned, specimens to facilitate rapid diagnoses. Here, we use targeted nanoshells to quickly and effectively visualize HER2 receptor expression in intact ex vivo human breast tissue specimens. Punch biopsies of human breast tissue were analyzed after a brief 5-minute incubation with and without HER2-targeted silica-gold nanoshells using two-photon microscopy and stereomicroscopy. Labeling was subsequently verified using reflectance confocal microscopy, darkfield hyperspectral imaging, and immunohistochemistry to confirm levels of HER2 expression. Our results suggest that anti-HER2 nanoshells used in tandem with a near-infrared reflectance confocal microscope and a standard stereomicroscope may potentially be used to discern HER2-overexpressing cancerous tissue from normal tissue in near real time and offer a rapid supplement to current diagnostic techniques. © 2012 Lissett R. Bickford et al.


PubMed | Soonchunhyang University, University of Houston, University of Sao Paulo and Nanospectra Biosciences, Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nanomedicine : nanotechnology, biology, and medicine | Year: 2015

We report potent radiosensitization of prostate cancers in vitro and in vivo using goserelin-conjugated gold nanorods. Progressive receptor-mediated internalization of conjugated nanorods over time increases the radiation interaction cross-section of cells and contributes to the effects observed in vitro. The low concentrations of gold required, the long interval between injection of nanoparticles and radiation, and the use of megavoltage radiation to generate radiosensitization in vivo foretell the possibility of eventual clinical translation of this approach.The ability of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to enhance the effect of physical radiation dose on tumor cells is known. This radiosensitization effect is thought to result from an increased number of photoelectric absorption events and the increased number of electrons present in gold. The authors here sought to further increase the amount and specificity of gold accumulation in prostatic cancer cells by conjugating gold nanorods to goserelin, a synthetic luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analogue that would bind to the LHRH receptor overexpressed in prostate cancers. It was shown that tumour cells were more sensitive to megavoltage radiation therapy. It is hoped that there would be eventual clinical translation of this approach.


PubMed | Gad Consulting Services, Nanospectra Biosciences, Inc. and Yeshiva University
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: International journal of toxicology | Year: 2016

To evaluate the clinical safety profile for the use of gold nanoshells in patients with human prostate cancer. This follows on the nonclinical safety assessment of the AuroShell particles reported previously. Twenty-two patients, with biopsy diagnosed prostate cancer, underwent nanoshell infusion and subsequent radical prostatectomy (RRP). Fifteen of these patients had prostates that were additionally irradiated by a single-fiber laser ablation in each prostate hemisphere prior to RRP. Patients in the study were assessed at 9 time points through 6 months postinfusion. Adverse events were recorded as reported by the patients and from clinical observation. Blood and urine samples were collected at each patient visit and subjected to chemical (16 tests), hematological (23 tests), immunological (3 tests, including total PSA), and urinalysis (8 tests) evaluation. Temperature of the anterior rectal wall at the level of the prostate was measured. The study, recorded 2 adverse events that were judged attributable to the nanoparticle infusion: (1) an allergic reaction resulting in itching, which resolved with intravenous antihistamines, and (2) in a separate patient, a transient burning sensation in the epigastrium. blood/hematology/urinalysis assays indicated no device-related changes. No change in temperature of the anterior rectal wall was recorded in any of the patients. The clinical safety profile of AuroShell particles is excellent, matching nonclinical findings. A recent consensus statement suggested that the published literature does not support a preference for any ablation technique over another.(1) Now that clinical safety has been confirmed, treatment efficacy of the combined infusion plus laser ablation in prostate will be evaluated in future studies using imaging modalities directing the laser against identified prostate tumors.


Carpin L.B.,Rice University | Bickford L.R.,Rice University | Agollah G.,Nanospectra Biosciences, Inc. | Yu T.-K.,Rice University | And 4 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

Trastuzumab is a FDA-approved drug that has shown clinical efficacy against HER2+ breast cancers and is commonly used in combination with other chemotherapeutics. However, many patients are innately resistant to trastuzumab, or will develop resistance during treatment. Alternative treatments are needed for trastuzumab-resistant patients. Here, we investigate gold nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapies as a potential alternative treatment for chemotherapy-resistant cancers. Gold nanoshell photothermal therapy destroys the tumor cells using heat, a physical mechanism, which is able to overcome the cellular adaptations that bestow trastuzumab resistance. By adding anti-HER2 to the gold surface of the nanoshells as a targeting modality, we increase the specificity of the nanoshells for HER2+ breast cancer. Silica-gold nanoshells conjugated with anti-HER2 were incubated with both trastuzumab-sensitive and trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cells. Nanoshell binding was confirmed using two-photon laser scanning microscopy, and the cells were then ablated using a near-infrared laser. We demonstrate the successful targeting and ablation of trastuzumab-resistant cells using anti-HER2-conjugated silica-gold nanoshells and a near-infrared laser. This study suggests potential for applying gold nanoshell-mediated therapy to trastuzumab-resistant breast cancers in vivo. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Bickford L.R.,Rice University | Agollah G.,Nanospectra Biosciences, Inc. | Drezek R.,Rice University | Yu T.-K.,Rice University | Yu T.-K.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2010

Obtaining negative margins is critical for breast cancer patients undergoing conservation therapy in order to reduce the reemergence of the original cancer. Currently, breast cancer tumor margins are examined in a pathology lab either while the patient is anesthetized or after the surgical procedure has been terminated. These current methods often result in cancer cells present at the surgical resection margin due to inadequate margin assessment at the point of care. Due to such limitations evident in current diagnoses, tools for increasing the accuracy and speed of tumor margin detection directly in the operating room are still needed. We are exploring the potential of using a nano-biophotonics system to facilitate intraoperative tumor margin assessment ex vivo at the cellular level. By combining bioconjugated silica-based gold nanoshells, which scatter light in the near-infrared, with a portable FDAapproved reflectance confocal microscope, we first validate the use of gold nanoshells as effective reflectance-based imaging probes by evaluating the contrast enhancement of three different HER2-overexpressing cell lines. Additionally, we demonstrate the ability to detect HER2-overexpressing cells in human tissue sections within 5 min of incubation time. This work supports the use of targeted silica-based gold nanoshells as potential real-time molecular probes for HER2-overexpression in human tissue.


Elliott A.M.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Shetty A.M.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Wang J.,Nanospectra Biosciences, Inc. | Hazle J.D.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Stafford R.J.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center
International Journal of Hyperthermia | Year: 2010

Purpose: To investigate the impact of intravenously injected gold nanoparticles on interstitially delivered laser induced thermal therapy (LITT) in the liver. Methods: 3D finite element modelling, ex vivo canine liver tissue containing gold nanoparticles absorbing at 800 nm, and agar gel phantoms were used to simulate the presence of nanoparticles in the liver during LITT. Real-time magnetic resonance temperature imaging (MRTI) based on the temperature sensitivity of the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) was used to map the spatiotemporal distribution of heating in the experiments and validate the predictions of 3D finite element simulations of heating. Results: Experimental results show good agreement with both the simulation and the ex vivo experiments. Average discrepancy between simulation and experiment was shown to be 1.6°C or less with the maximum difference being 3.8°C due to a small offset in laser positioning. Conclusion: A high nanoshell concentration in the surrounding liver parenchyma, such as that which would be expected from an intravenous injection of gold nanoshells (∼120 nm) acts as both a beam stop for the laser and secondary heat source for the treatment, helping to better heat the lesions and confine the treatment to the lesion. This indicates a potential to use nanoparticles to enhance both the safety and efficacy of LITT procedures in the liver. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved.


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