NanoInk Inc.

Skokie, IL, United States

NanoInk Inc.

Skokie, IL, United States
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George S.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Chaudhery V.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Lu M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Takagi M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | And 5 more authors.
Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2013

Enhancement of the fluorescent output of surface-based fluorescence assays by performing them upon nanostructured photonic crystal (PC) surfaces has been demonstrated to increase signal intensities by >8000×. Using the multiplicative effects of optical resonant coupling to the PC in increasing the electric field intensity experienced by fluorescent labels ("enhanced excitation") and the spatially biased funneling of fluorophore emissions through coupling to PC resonances ("enhanced extraction"), PC enhanced fluorescence (PCEF) can be adapted to reduce the limits of detection of disease biomarker assays, and to reduce the size and cost of high sensitivity detection instrumentation. In this work, we demonstrate the first silicon-based PCEF detection platform for multiplexed biomarker assay. The sensor in this platform is a silicon-based PC structure, comprised of a SiO2 grating that is overcoated with a thin film of high refractive index TiO2 and is produced in a semiconductor foundry for low cost, uniform, and reproducible manufacturing. The compact detection instrument that completes this platform was designed to efficiently couple fluorescence excitation from a semiconductor laser to the resonant optical modes of the PC, resulting in elevated electric field strength that is highly concentrated within the region <100 nm from the PC surface. This instrument utilizes a cylindrically focused line to scan a microarray in <1 min. To demonstrate the capabilities of this sensor-detector platform, microspot fluorescent sandwich immunoassays using secondary antibodies labeled with Cy5 for two cancer biomarkers (TNF-α and IL-3) were performed. Biomarkers were detected at concentrations as low as 0.1 pM. In a fluorescent microarray for detection of a breast cancer miRNA biomarker miR-21, the miRNA was detectable at a concentration of 0.6 pM. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

Bett C.K.,Louisiana State University | Ngunjiri J.N.,NanoInk Inc. | Serem W.K.,Louisiana State University | Fontenot K.R.,Louisiana State University | And 3 more authors.
ACS Chemical Neuroscience | Year: 2010

Neuronal cytotoxicity observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is linked to the aggregation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) into toxic forms. Increasing evidence points to oligomeric materials as the neurotoxic species, not Aβ fibrils; disruption or inhibition of Aβ self-assembly into oligomeric or fibrillar forms remains a viable therapeutic strategy to reduce Aβ neurotoxicity. We describe the synthesis and characterization of amyloid aggregation mitigating peptides (AAMPs) whose structure is based on the Aβ "hydrophobic core" Aβ17?20, with α,α- disubstituted amino acids (ααAAs) added into this core as potential disrupting agents of fibril self-assembly. The number, positional distribution, and side-chain functionality of ααAAs incorporated into the AAMP sequence were found to influence the resultant aggregate morphology as indicated by ex situ experiments using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For instance, AAMP-5, incorporating a sterically hindered ααAA with a diisobutyl side chain in the core sequence, disrupted Aβ1?40 fibril formation. However, AAMP-6, with a less sterically hindered ααAA with a dipropyl side chain, altered fibril morphology, producing shorter and larger sized fibrils (compared with those of Aβ1?40). Remarkably, ααAA-AAMPs caused disassembly of existing Aβ fibrils to produce either spherical aggregates or protofibrillar structures, suggesting the existence of equilibrium between fibrils and prefibrillar structures. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Jang J.-W.,Northwestern University | Jang J.-W.,NanoInk Inc. | Zheng Z.,Northwestern University | Zheng Z.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University | And 5 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2010

Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymer lens arrays are made by using dip-pen nanolithography to deposit nanoscale PEG features on hydrophobically modified quartz glass. The dimensions of the PEG lenses are controlled by tuning dwell time and polymer molecular weight. The PEG polymer lenses on the quartz substrate act as a phase-shift photomask for fabricating subwavelength scale features, ∼100 nm in width. Depending upon UV irradiation time during the photolithography, the photoresist nanostructures can be transitioned from well-shaped (short time) to ring-shaped (long time) features. The technique can be used to pattern large areas through the use of cantilever arrays. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Jang J.-W.,Pukyong National University | Park B.,Pukyong National University | Nettikadan S.,NanoInk Inc.
Nanoscale | Year: 2014

The fabrication and characterization of over millimeter (mm)-scale Au plasmonic structures are reported. Fishnet structures of Au are fabricated by the "bottom-up (direct deposition of alkanethiol)" and "top-down (wet-etching of Au)" combined approach using massively parallel dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). An array of two-dimensional (2D) parallel 55000 pens was used for the DPN writing of 1-octadecanethiol (ODT) on an Au film in an area of 10 mm × 10 mm. The plasmonic resonance of the over millimeter-scale Au fishnet structures is shown at the visible region around 500 nm, which is measured by ellipsometrical experiments and theoretical finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculation. It was demonstrated that massive metal plasmonic structures can be conveniently obtained by using DPN, complementary with both e-beam lithography and nanoimprint lithography. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Jang J.-W.,NanoInk Inc. | Smetana A.,NanoInk Inc. | Stiles P.,NanoInk Inc.
Scanning | Year: 2010

Multiplexed patterns of hydrogels and phospholipids with fluorescent dyes are accomplished by dip-pen nanolithography® (DPN®). For example, four different dye-labeled hydrogel dot arrays are DPN® patterned within 50x50 μm2 area, and two different dye-doped phospholipids dots and letters with less than 1 μm line-width are also DPN® patterned. We demonstrate that multiink patterns with precise alignment are able to be printed by DPN® within a micron-scale. Moreover, this multi-ink DPN® patterning methodology can be extended to delicate bio-materials printing in a subcellular scale with accurate positioning control. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Curran J.M.,University of Liverpool | Stokes R.,University of Strathclyde | Irvine E.,University of Strathclyde | Graham D.,University of Strathclyde | And 4 more authors.
Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2010

Reproducible control of stem cell populations, regardless of their original source, is required for the true potential of these cells to be realised as medical therapies, cell biology research tools and in vitro assays. To date there is a lack of consistency in successful output when these cells are used in clinical trials and even simple in vitro experiments, due to cell and material variability. The successful combination of single chemistries in nanoarray format to control stem cell, or any cellular behaviour has not been previously reported. Here we report how homogenously nanopatterned chemically modified surfaces can be used to initiate a directed cellular response, particularly mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation, in a highly reproducible manner without the need for exogenous biological factors and heavily supplemented cell media. Successful acquisition of these data should lead to the optimisation of cell selective properties of materials, further enhancing the role of nanopatterned substrates in cell biology and regenerative medicine. The successful design and comparison of homogenously molecularly nanopatterned surfaces and their direct effect on human MSC adhesion and differentiation are reported in this paper. Planar gold surfaces were patterned by dip pen nanolithography (DPN®) to produce arrays of nanodots with optimised fixed diameter of 70 nanometres separated by defined spacings, ranging from 140 to 1000 nm with terminal functionalities of simple chemistries including carboxyl, amino, methyl and hydroxyl. These nanopatterned surfaces exhibited unprecedented control of initial cell interactions and subsequent control of cell phenotype and offer significant potential for the future. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Collins J.M.,NanoInk Inc. | Lam R.T.S.,NanoInk Inc. | Yang Z.,NanoInk Inc. | Semsarieh B.,NanoInk Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2012

The heterogeneous nature of cells can be an issue for in vitro analysis of cell function due to cell type differences within a population. Observations are most often averaged and dependent on the homogeneity or lack thereof for most cell types. Patterning of features at the sub-cellular scale (< 10 μm) allows for single cell manipulation. Additionally, the ability to pattern multiple materials simultaneously with nanoscale precision enables facile fabrication of multiplexed cellular microenvironment arrays. Here we use this ability to deliver different materials to single or few cells within hundreds of microns of each other on the same substrate. Calcein AM, Calcein Red AM and quantum dots are delivered to live single or few cells. This allows for exposing limited cell numbers to many well defined conditions, thus opening the possibility of single cell based assays. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

Jang J.-W.,Pukyong National University | Collins J.M.,NanoInk Inc. | Nettikadan S.,NanoInk Inc.
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2013

A new method for subcellular-sized protein patterning on a SiOx substrate is demonstrated by dip-pen nanolithography printed aldehyde-terminated alkylsilane template. The aldehyde-silane template is stable and durable; for example, subcellular scaled IgG protein array can be obtained using one-year old aldehyde-silane template. Moreover, single cell patterning is successfully carried out by extracellular material (ECM) protein microarray and nanoarray fabricated on an aldehyde-silane template. With more than half of chance, single- or double-cells are successfully attached on fibronectin protein nanoarrays in 21 × 21 μm 2 (7 × 7 dot array) and 42 × 42 μm2 (14 × 14 dot array). The fibronectin nanoarray with small area (21 × 21 μm2) shows the more rate of single cell attachment. Therefore, it is also demonstrated that cell patterning can be controlled by adjusting the nanostructure of ECM materials. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

NanoInk Inc. | Date: 2012-10-02

Computer software for the operation of equipment for use in the field of pharmaceutical anti-counterfeiting and manuals therefor.

NanoInk Inc. | Date: 2012-09-21

Methods and apparatus for the accurate quantitation of biomarkers in dried blood spots (DBS), including providing a substrate comprising at least one DBS, wherein the DBS comprises at least one biomolecule distributed on the substrate in a gradient pattern; excising at least one sector-shaped sample from the DBS; and assaying the biomolecule in the sector-shaped sample.

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