Nanodiagnostics srl

Modena, Italy

Nanodiagnostics srl

Modena, Italy
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Olasagasti M.,Tecnalia | Gatti A.M.,CNR Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics | Gatti A.M.,Nanodiagnostics srl | Capitani F.,Nanodiagnostics srl | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Toxicology | Year: 2014

A variety of consumer products containing silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are currently marketed. However, their safety for humans and for the environment has not yet been established and no standard method to assess their toxicity is currently available. The objective of this work was to develop an effective method to test Ag NP toxicity and to evaluate the effects of ion release and Ag NP size on a vertebrate model. To this aim, the zebrafish animal model was exposed to a solution of commercial nanosilver. While the exposure of embryos still surrounded by the chorion did not allow a definite estimation of the toxic effects exerted by the compound, the exposure for 48 h of 3-day-old zebrafish hatched embryos afforded a reliable evaluation of the effects of Ag NPs. The effects of the exposure were detected especially at molecular level; in fact, some selected genes expressed differentially after the exposure. The Ag NP toxic performance was due to the combined effect of Ag+ ion release and Ag NP size. However, the effect of NP size was particularly detectable at the lowest concentration of nanosilver tested (0.01 mg l-1) and depended on the solubilization media. The results obtained indicate that in vivo toxicity studies of nanosilver should be performed with ad hoc methods (in this case using hatched embryos) that might be different depending on the type of nanosilver. Moreover, the addition of this compound to commercial products should take into consideration the Ag NP solubilization media. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Gambardella C.,University of Genoa | Aluigi M.G.,University of Genoa | Ferrando S.,University of Genoa | Gallus L.,University of Genoa | And 4 more authors.
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2013

The objective of this study is to examine the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) that are dispersed in sea water by using an in vivo model. Because many products of nanotechnology contain NPs and are commonly used and well-established in the market, the accidental release of NPs into the air and water is quite possible. Indeed, at the end of their life cycle, some NPs are inevitably released into waste water and can reach marine ecosystem and affect the organisms there. Although there are few data on the presence of NPs in the marine environment, our awareness of their potential impact on environmental and organismal health is growing. Shallow-water benthonic organisms such as sea urchins provide planktonic larvae as a trophic base for finfish juveniles and are exposed to water from estuaries and precipitation. Such organisms can therefore be directly affected by NPs that are dispersed into those media.We evaluated the effects of exposure to different concentrations of nanosilver, titanium oxide and cobalt NPs on the sperm of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus by analyzing the functionality and the morphology and biochemistry of the first developmental stages of the sea urchin.Sperm were exposed to sea water containing suspensions of NPs ranging from 0.0001. mg/L to 1. mg/L. Fertilization ability was not affected, but developmental anomalies were identified in embryos from the gastrula to pluteus stages, including morphological alterations of the skeletal rods. In addition, the enzymatic activity (cholinesterase, ChE) of the larvae was measured. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and propionylcholinesterase activity (PrChE) was affected in all of the exposed samples. The results did not vary consistently with the concentration of NP, but controls were significantly different from exposed samples. Exposure of sea urchin to these NPs may cause neurotoxic damage, and the altered ChE activity may be involved in skeletogenic aberrations. In conclusion, the sea urchin represents a suitable and sensitive model for testing the toxicity and effects of engineered NPs that are dispersed in sea water. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Gambardella C.,National Research Council Italy | Gambardella C.,University of Genoa | Gallus L.,University of Genoa | Gatti A.M.,Nanodiagnostics srl | And 5 more authors.
Chemistry and Ecology | Year: 2014

Nanoparticles (NPs) contained in commercial products are released and enter into the aquatic ecosystem, posing serious possible risks to the environment and affecting the food chain. Therefore, investigating the potential toxicity of NPs on aquatic organisms has become an important issue. This study assessed the toxicity and trophic transfer of metal oxide NPs from marine microalgae (Cricosphaera elongata) to the larvae of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Larvae (24 h old) were fed on 2000 cell mL-1 48 h of microalgae contaminated with 5 mg L-1 of several metal oxide NPs (SiO2, SnO2, CeO2, Fe3O4) for 15 days. Larval viability and development were monitored from the 4-arm stage to the 8-arm pluteus stage. A significant decrease in survival was observed in larvae fed with microalgae exposed to SiO2 and CeO2 NPs. Abnormal development, characterised by skeletal degeneration and altered rudiment growth, was observed in all larvae fed with contaminated NP algae. Our findings revealed that SiO2 and CeO2 NPs exerted a toxic effect in the trophic interaction analysed, by reducing sea urchin larval viability, and all metal oxide NPs induced toxicological effects. In conclusion, metal oxide NPs may enter the food chain and become bioavailable for marine organisms, affecting their development. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Vittori Antisari L.,University of Bologna | Carbone S.,University of Bologna | Gatti A.,Nanodiagnostics srl | Ferrando S.,University of Genoa | And 6 more authors.
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of silver and cobalt, supplied both as ions and nanoparticles (Ag+, Co2+, AgNPs, CoNPs) through contaminated food to earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus), on their health as well as on microbial community of both soil and earthworm faeces. Earthworms and microbes were exposed to the contaminants in laboratory microcosms with artificial soil. Contaminants were supplied once a week for 5 weeks by spiking them on horse manure. The accumulation of CoNPs and Co2+ in earthworm tissues was two and three times greater than AgNPs and Ag+, respectively. Except for AgNPs, contaminants significantly affected microbial community structure of earthworm faeces by increasing G- bacteria, thus also increasing the bacteria/fungi ratio while decreasing the G+/G- bacteria ratio. Such shift was also reflected on soil microbial community, thus suggesting a close relationship between microbial community of soil and of earthworm faeces. Neither of the Co treatments affected soil microbial basal respiration whereas they increased the microbial biomass specific respiration or metabolic quotient, suggesting some stress induction on soil microorganisms. Earthworm health was strongly affected as revealed by the reduced fluidity of fatty acids extracted from the body tissues. In addition, the histological investigations, after the depuration period, showed positive results about the NPs toxicity. In particular, TUNEL-positive nuclei in epidermis and in peritoneum, suggest the presence of toxicosis.The ESEM-EDS technique revealed the presence of Ca-P spherules (calcification) between mouth and clitellum of earthworms fed with Co2+ contaminated food. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Myrzakhanova M.,Kokshetau State University | Myrzakhanova M.,University of Genoa | Gambardella C.,University of Genoa | Falugi C.,University of Genoa | And 5 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2013

Metal nanosolicoparticles are suspected to cause diseases in a number of organisms, including man. In this paper, we report the effects of nanosilver (Ag, 1-20 nm particles) on the early development of the zebrafish, a well-established vertebrate model. Embryos at the midgastrula stage were exposed to concentrations ranging from 100 to 0.001 mg/L to verify the effects on different endpoints: lethality, morphology, expression of cholinergic molecules, and development of the immune system. (1) Relative risk of mortality was exponential in the range between 0.001 and 10 mg/L. Exposure to 100 mg/L caused 100% death of embryos before reaching the tail-bud stage. (2) Developmental anomalies were present in the 72 h larvae obtained from embryos exposed to nanosilver: whole body length, decreased eye dimension, and slow response to solicitation by gentle touch with a needle tip, with a significant threshold at 0.1 mg/L. (3) Dose-dependent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity was significant among the exposures, except between 1 mg/L and 10 mg/L. (4) The distribution of CD41+ cells and of CDF/LIF-like immunoreactivity was altered according to the Ag concentration. The possible effect of nanosilver in impairing immune system differentiation through the inhibition of molecules related to the cholinergic system is discussed. © 2013 Marzhan Myrzakhanova et al.

PubMed | Nanodiagnostics Srl, University of Genoa, Marche Polytechnic University, CNR Marine Science Institute and Italian Institute of Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental toxicology | Year: 2015

We describe the use of different life stages of the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus for the assessment of the possible risk posed by nanoparticles (NPs) in the coastal water. A first screening for the presence of NPs in sea water may be obtained by checking their presence inside tissues of organisms taken from the wild. The ability of NPs to pass from gut to the coelomic fluid is demonstrated by accumulation in sea urchin coelomocytes; the toxicity on sperms can be measured by embryotoxicity markers after sperm exposure, whereas the transfer through the food chain can be observed by developmental anomalies in larvae fed with microalgae exposed to NPs. The most used spermiotoxicity and embryotoxicity tests are described, as well as the biochemical and histochemical analyses of cholinesterase (ChE) activities, which are used to verify toxicity parameters such as inflammation, neurotoxicity, and interference in cell-to-cell communication. Morphological markers of toxicity, in particular skeletal anomalies, are described and classified. In addition, NPs may impair viability of the immune cells of adult specimens. Molecular similarity between echinoderm and human immune cells is shown and discussed. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1552-1562, 2016.

PubMed | Policlinico Hospital, National Research Council Italy, Nanodiagnostics srl and University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Journal of forensic sciences | Year: 2016

The need to implement novel techniques, able to support a causal link between exposure and pathology, has been emerged over the recent years. The application of scanning electron microscope coupled with probe X-ray microanalysis (by means of an energy-dispersive spectroscopy) has been developed by our research group for the bone remains investigation. It was aimed to testify the exposure to microsized and nanosized pollutions, due to military activities in the Quirra interforce firing range, of a Sardinian shepherd, died of acute leukemia. Metallic debris with a combustive morphology and with an oncogenic potential has been surely detected inside his bone marrow canal. This novel technique has proved to be able to bring to light a source of past exposure preserved over time within the bone marrow canal. It can be useful for postmortem analyses, delivering a new avant-garde approach to modern forensic science.

Gatti A.M.,CNR Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics | Montanari S.,Nanodiagnostics Srl | Capitani F.,Nanodiagnostics Srl
NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics | Year: 2013

The study deals with the military firing range of Perdasdefogu (Sardinia-Italy) called PISQ, the activities there performed and the impact that some activities could have on human and animal health. The research started from some occurrences of evidence of diseases (a.k.a. Quirra Syndrome) among a population of 2,500 human inhabitants and an unknown number of animals, and proposes a novel type of investigation to verify whether the effects of military activities can trigger pathologies in humans. The investigation takes as starting point the analyses of the pathological tissues of inhabitants who developed cancers of the blood and the soft tissues. This was done by means of a Field Emission Gun Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with an X-ray microprobe of an Energy Dispersion System in order to detect micro- and nano-sized foreign bodies and identify their chemical composition. This method indicates the exposure the patients underwent by inhaling polluted air or ingesting polluted food. The investigation is based on the fact that the explosion of weapons hitting a target implies a temperature rise within the volume involved. The higher the temperature, the thinner are the particles (bomb + target) produced and aerosolized, thus allowing a higher possibility of particle internalization in the body. So, the study of the internalized particles compared with those produced by the different military activities through an environmental 1-year-long survey carried out by the Italian Ministry of Defense can give an idea if there is a coincidence of chemical composition. The pollution detected in the urban area of Mantua (Italy) is taken as a reference or control. The results indicate that in the pathological tissues of ten civilians, two soldiers who worked in the PISQ and five malformed lambs born of ewes that pastured in the firing range that there is the presence of nano-sized foreign bodies with chemical compositions that can be the results of bomb explosions and not of a usual urban environmental pollution. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Gatti A.M.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Montanari S.,Nanodiagnostics Srl
NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2012

Nanotechnologies offer numerous, very promising possibilities to solve old problems due to the matter properties at nanolevel. The opportunities presented are far-reaching, novel and unprecedented. But the enthusiasm for this revolution is tarnished by some concerns about the safety of nanoparticles for human and environment health. Their ability to negotiate the physiological barriers has already been demonstrated. The present study shows that unintentional, not engineered, nanopollution is already present in the environment, particularly because of the use of high-temperature combustion processes (internal-combustion engines, incinerators, high-technology weapons' explosion, etc.) and that presence contaminates humans, animals and environment. The paper takes into considerations public worldwide-known events where unintentional important release of nanoparticles occurred and discusses the effects that they induced in humans and animals. Biological samples affected by lymphoma, leukemia, and cancer of soft tissues of soldiers who served during the Gulf War and Balkan War and of people exposed to the 9/11 pollution are considered and specific analyses have been carried out in those pathological samples by means of Field Emission Gun Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. These pieces of evidence induce to consider the role of nanoparticles and their impact on the human health with attention, also for their possible terroristic use. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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