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Nehra A.,Nanobiotechnology Research Laboratory | Pal Singh K.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2015

Recently, as metal-, polymer-, and carbon-based biocompatible nanomaterials have been increasingly incorporated into biosensing applications, with various nanostructures having been used to increase the efficacy and sensitivity of most of the detecting devices, including field effect transistor (FET)-based devices. These nanomaterial-based methods also became the ideal for the amalgamation of biomolecules, especially for the fabrication of ultrasensitive, low-cost, and robust FET-based biosensors; these are categorically very successful at binding the target specified entities in the confined gated micro-region for high functionality. Furthermore, the contemplation of nanomaterial-based FET biosensors to various applications encompasses the desire for detection of many targets with high selectivity, and specificity. We assess how such devices have empowered the achievement of elevated biosensor performance in terms of high sensitivity, selectivity and low detection limits. We review the recent literature here to illustrate the diversity of FET-based biosensors, based on various kinds of nanomaterials in different applications and sum up that graphene or its assisted composite based FET devices are comparatively more efficient and sensitive with highest signal to noise ratio. Lastly, the future prospects and limitations of the field are also discussed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Akhavan O.,Sharif University of Technology | Ghaderi E.,Nanobiotechnology Research Laboratory | Rahighi R.,Sharif University of Technology | Abdolahad M.,University of Tehran
Carbon | Year: 2014

Mg2+-charged spongy graphene electrodes (SGEs) were fabricated by using electrophoretic deposition of chemically exfoliated graphene oxide sheets on graphite rods. The SGEs were able to present two distinguishable signals (originated from electrochemical oxidation of guanine) in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) of leukemia and normal blood cells, in contrast to glassy carbon electrodes giving only one overlapped peak. Hence, the SGEs were applied in fast (60 min) and ultra sensitive detection of leukemia (single abnormal cells in ∼109 normal cells) in a blood serum. The sensitivity obtained by the SGEs was three orders of magnitude better than that of the best available and current technologies (e.g., specific mutations by polymerase chain reaction with detection limit of one abnormal cell in ∼106 normal cells) which not only are expensive, but also require several days for incubation. Significant variations in DPV signals of the SGEs after the first electrochemical cycle indicated that the best performance of the SGEs can be achieved only at the first cycle. The linear dynamic detection behavior of the SGEs was investigated in wide concentration range of 1.0 × 105-0.1 cell/mL. The lower detection limit was estimated ∼0.02 cell/mL, based on the current resolution obtained by the SGEs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Akhavan O.,Sharif University of Technology | Ghaderi E.,Nanobiotechnology Research Laboratory | Hashemi E.,Iran National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | Rahighi R.,Sharif University of Technology
Nanoscale | Year: 2014

Graphene oxide nanoplatelets (GONPs) with extremely sharp edges (lateral dimensions ∼20-200 nm and thicknesses <2 nm) were applied in extraction of the overexpressed guanine synthesized in the cytoplasm of leukemia cells. The blood serums containing the extracted guanine were used in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) with reduced graphene oxide nanowall (rGONW) electrodes to develop fast and ultra-sensitive electrochemical detection of leukemia cells at leukemia fractions (LFs) of ∼10-11 (as the lower detection limit). The stability of the DPV signals obtained by oxidation of the extracted guanine on the rGONWs was studied after 20 cycles. Without the guanine extraction, the DPV peaks relating to guanine oxidation of normal and abnormal cells overlapped at LFs <10-9, and consequently, the performance of rGONWs alone was limited at this level. As a benchmark, the DPV using glassy carbon electrodes was able to detect only LFs ∼ 10-2. The ultra-sensitivity obtained by this combination method (guanine extraction by GONPs and then guanine oxidation by rGONWs) is five orders of magnitude better than the sensitivity of the best current technologies (e.g., specific mutations by polymerase chain reaction) which not only are expensive, but also require a few days for diagnosis. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Akhavan O.,Sharif University of Technology | Ghaderi E.,Nanobiotechnology Research Laboratory | Shirazian S.A.,Sharif University of Technology | Rahighi R.,Sharif University of Technology
Carbon | Year: 2016

Graphene oxide foam (GOF) layers with thicknesses of ∼15-50 μm and density of ∼10 graphene oxide (GO) sheets/μm were fabricated by precipitation of chemically exfoliated GO sheets in an aqueous suspension at ∼80 °C under UV irradiation. Then, rolled GOFs with desirable scales were developed as electrically conductive 3D-scaffolds and applied in directional growth of neural fibers, through differentiation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) into neurons under an electrical stimulation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the UV irradiation resulted in partial deoxygenation of the layers. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of multilayer GO sheets in the foam structure. The electrical sheet resistance of the GOFs was found low enough to produce the electrical stimulation currents used in differentiation of the neural cells, under low voltages. Rolling the GOFs (with hydrophilic surfaces) resulted in formation of cross-sections with superhydrophilic characteristics, inducing effective proliferation and differentiation of the hNSCs throughout the pores and interfaces of the scaffold. The electrical stimulation induced more proliferation of the cells and acceleration of the differentiation into neurons (rather than glia). These results suggest the GOFs as flexible and conductive scaffolds for regeneration of nervous systems and tissue engineering. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Akhavan O.,Sharif University of Technology | Ghaderi E.,Nanobiotechnology Research Laboratory | Hashemi E.,Iran National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | Akbari E.,Sharif University of Technology
Carbon | Year: 2015

In vivo dose-dependent effects of nanoscale graphene oxide (NGO) sheets on reproduction capability of Balb/C mice were investigated. Biodistribution study of the NGO sheets (intravenously injected into male mice at dose of ∼2000 μg/mL or 4 mg/kg of body weight) showed a high graphene uptake in testis. Hence, in vivo effects of the NGO sheets on important characteristics of spermatozoa (including their viability, morphology, kinetics, DNA damage and chromosomal aberration) were evaluated. Significant in vivo effects was found at the injected concentrations ≥200 μg/mL after (e.g., ∼45% reduction in sperm viability and motility at 2000 μg/mL). Observation of remarkable DNA fragmentations and chromosomal aberrations of the spermatozoa after ∼8 weeks from the first weekly injection were assigned to the involvement of the NGO in spermatogenesis of the mice. The uptake of the NGO in the testis could also increase the generation of reactive oxygen species in semen of the mice. Moreover, semen of the NGO-treated mice (containing the damaged spermatozoa) might disturb the hormone secretion and pregnant functionality of female mice (∼44, 35 and 59% reduction in fertility, gestation ability and multi-production capability) and also viability of the next generation (∼15% reduction in postnatal viability of delivered pups). © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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