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Lexington, KY, United States

Wang S.,Nanobiotechnology Center | Haque F.,Nanobiotechnology Center | Rychahou P.G.,University of Kentucky | Evers B.M.,University of Kentucky | And 2 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2013

The ingenious design of the bacterial virus phi29 DNA packaging nanomotor with an elegant and elaborate channel has inspired its application for single molecule detection of antigen/antibody interactions. The hub of this bacterial virus nanomotor is a truncated cone-shaped connector consisting of 12 protein subunits. These subunits form a ring with a central 3.6-nm channel acting as a path for dsDNA to enter during packaging and to exit during infection. The connector has been inserted into a lipid bilayer. Herein, we reengineered an Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) peptide into the C-terminal of nanopore as a probe to specifically detect EpCAM antibody (Ab) in nanomolar concentration at the single molecule level. The binding of Abs sequentially to each peptide probe induced stepwise blocks in current. The distinctive current signatures enabled us to analyze the docking and undocking kinetics of Ab-probe interactions and determine the Kd. The signal of EpCAM antibody can be discriminated from the background events in the presence of nonspecific antibody or serum. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of generating a highly sensitive platform for detecting antibodies at extremely low concentrations in the presence of contaminants. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Shu Y.,Nanobiotechnology Center | Shu Y.,University of Kentucky | Shu D.,Nanobiotechnology Center | Shu D.,University of Kentucky | And 4 more authors.
Nature Protocols | Year: 2013

RNA nanotechnology is a term that refers to the design, fabrication and use of nanoparticles that are mainly composed of RNAs via bottom-up self-assembly. The packaging RNA (pRNA) of the bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor has been developed into a nanodelivery platform. This protocol describes the synthesis, assembly and functionalization of pRNA nanoparticles on the basis of three 'toolkits' derived from pRNA structural features: interlocking loops for hand-in-hand interactions, palindrome sequences for foot-to-foot interactions and an RNA three-way junction for branch extension. siRNAs, ribozymes, aptamers, chemical ligands, fluorophores and other functionalities can also be fused to the pRNA before the assembly of the nanoparticles, so as to ensure the production of homogeneous nanoparticles and the retention of appropriate folding and function of the incorporated modules. The resulting self-assembled multivalent pRNA nanoparticles are thermodynamically and chemically stable, and they remain intact at ultralow concentrations. Gene-silencing effects are progressively enhanced with increasing numbers of siRNAs in each pRNA nanoparticle. Systemic injection of the pRNA nanoparticles into xenograft-bearing mice has revealed strong binding to tumors without accumulation in vital organs or tissues. The pRNA-based nanodelivery scaffold paves a new way for nanotechnological application of pRNA-based nanoparticles for disease detection and treatment. The time required for completing one round of this protocol is 3-4 weeks when including in vitro functional assays, or 2-3 months when including in vivo studies. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

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