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ANN ARBOR, MI, United States

Fattom A.,Nanobio Corporation | Matalon A.,New York University | Buerkert J.,Columbia Nephrology | Taylor K.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | And 2 more authors.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2015

In a previous study in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) hemodialysis patients, a single dose of Staphylococcus aureus type 5 and 8 capsular polysaccharides (T5/T8) conjugated to nontoxic recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A investigational vaccine showed no efficacy against S. aureus bacteremia 1 year post-vaccination, but a trend for efficacy was observed over the first 40 weeks post-vaccination. Vaccine efficacy (VE) of 2 vaccine doses was therefore evaluated. In a double-blind trial 3359 ESRD patients were randomized (1:1) to receive vaccine or placebo at week 0 and 35. VE in preventing S. aureus bacteremia was assessed between 3-35 weeks and 3-60 weeks post-dose-1. Anti-T5 and anti-T8 antibodies were measured. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded for 42 days post-vaccination and deaths until study end. No significant difference in the incidence of S. aureus bacteremia was observed between vaccine and placebo groups between weeks 3-35 weeks post-dose 1 (VE -23%, 95%CI: -98;23, p = 0.39) or at 3-60 weeks post-dose- 1 (VE -8%, 95%CI: -57;26, p = 0.70). Day 42 geometric mean antibody concentrations were 272.4 mg/ml and 242.0 mg/ml (T5 and T8, respectively) in vaccinees. SAEs were reported by 24%/25.3% of vaccinees/placebo recipients. These data do not show a protective effect of either 1 or 2 vaccine doses against S. aureus bacteremia in ESRD patients. The vaccine induced a robust immune response and had an acceptable safety profile. Further investigation suggested possible suboptimal vaccine quality (manufacturing) and a need to expand the antigen composition of the vaccine. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00071214. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Wahid R.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Simon J.K.,Nanobio Corporation | Picking W.L.,Oklahoma State University | Kotloff K.L.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Immunology | Year: 2013

The role of Shigella-specific B memory (BM) in protection has not been evaluated in human challenge studies. We utilized cryopreserved pre- and post-challenge peripheral blood mononuclear cells and sera from wild-type Shigella flexneri 2a (wt-2457T) challenges. Challenged volunteers were either naïve or subjects who had previously ingested wt-2457T or been immunized with hybrid Escherichia coli-Shigella live oral candidate vaccine (EcSf2a-2). BM and antibody titers were measured against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and recombinant invasion plasmid antigen B (IpaB); results were correlated with disease severity following challenge. Pre-challenge IgA IpaB-BM and post-challenge IgA LPS-BM in the previously exposed subjects negatively correlated with disease severity upon challenge. Similar results were observed with pre-challenge IgG anti-LPS and anti-IpaB titers in vaccinated volunteers. Inverse correlations between magnitude of pre-challenge IgG antibodies to LPS and IpaB, as well as IgA IpaB-BM and post-challenge IgA LPS-BM with disease severity suggest a role for antigen-specific BM in protection. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Solodushko V.,University of South Alabama | Bitko V.,Nanobio Corporation | Fouty B.,University of South Alabama
Gene Therapy | Year: 2014

We describe novel transposon piggyBac vectors engineered to deliver transgenes as efficiently as currently available piggyBac systems, but with significantly less helper DNA co-delivered into the host genome. To generate these plasmids, we identified a previously unreported aspect of transposon biology, that the full-length terminal domains required for successful plasmid-to-chromatin transgene delivery can be removed from the transgene delivery cassette to other parts of the plasmid without significantly impairing transposition efficiency. This is achieved by including in the same plasmid, an additional helper piggyBac sequence that contains both long terminal domains, but is modified to prevent its transposition into the host genome. This design decreases the size of the required terminal domains within the delivered gene cassette of the piggyBac vector from about 1500 to just 98 base pairs. By removing these sequences from the delivered gene cassette, they are no longer incorporated into the host genome which may reduce the risk of target cell transformation. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source


Lindell D.M.,Seattle Childrens Research Institute | Morris S.B.,University of Michigan | White M.P.,Seattle Childrens Research Institute | Kallal L.E.,University of Michigan | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in young children worldwide, and no vaccine is currently available. Inactivated RSV vaccines tested in the 1960's led to vaccine-enhanced disease upon viral challenge, which has undermined RSV vaccine development. RSV infection is increasingly being recognized as an important pathogen in the elderly, as well as other individuals with compromised pulmonary immunity. A safe and effective inactivated RSV vaccine would be of tremendous therapeutic benefit to many of these populations. Principal Findings: In these preclinical studies, a mouse model was utilized to assess the efficacy of a novel, nanoemulsion-adjuvanted, inactivated mucosal RSV vaccine. Our results demonstrate that NE-RSV immunization induced durable, RSV-specific humoral responses, both systemically and in the lungs. Vaccinated mice exhibited increased protection against subsequent live viral challenge, which was associated with an enhanced Th1/Th17 response. In these studies, NE-RSV vaccinated mice displayed no evidence of Th2 mediated immunopotentiation, as has been previously described for other inactivated RSV vaccines. Conclusions: These studies indicate that nanoemulsion-based inactivated RSV vaccination can augment viral-specific immunity, decrease mucus production and increase viral clearance, without evidence of Th2 immune mediated pathology. © 2011 Lindell et al. Source


Patent
Nanobio Corporation and University of Michigan | Date: 2013-09-30

The present invention provides methods and compositions for the stimulation of immune responses. In particular, the present invention provides immunogenic nanoemulsion compositions and methods of administering the same (e.g., via a heterologous prime/boost protocol (e.g., utilizing the same nanoemulsion in each the prime and boost administrations)) to induce immune responses (e.g., innate and/or adaptive immune responses (e.g., for generation of host immunity against an environmental pathogen)). Compositions and methods of the present invention find use in, among other things, clinical (e.g. therapeutic and preventative medicine (e.g., vaccination)) and research applications.

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