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Choi Y.J.,Seoul National University | Lee J.Y.,Seoul National University | Lee J.Y.,Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation NIBEC | Park J.H.,Seoul National University | And 8 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2010

The presence of heparin binding has been become crucial in exerting growth factor related tissue formation. Receptor-mediated osteoblastic differentiation by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 and supportive function of its heparin binding has been proposed, direct role of the heparin binding site of BMP-4 on osteogenesis has not yet been fully investigated. If the binding site itself plays role on osteogenesis, the site domain can be useful in bone formation in combination with biomaterial. Herein, we synthesized a peptide sequence corresponding to residues 15-24 of BMP-4 (HBD, RKKNPNCRRH), as potential heparin binding sequence. The HBD peptide-induced ostoegenic differentiation by activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), one of the key regulators in hMSC. Also, treatment of cultured hMSCs with heparinase blocked both HBD peptide-induced osteogenic differentiation and GAG chain detection while abolishing the increased phospho-ERK level. These results suggest that the identified heparin binding domain peptide (HBD) stimulated osteoblastic differentiation via interaction with heparin and the ERK signaling. In vivo results further demonstrated that HBD, as a form of complex with alginate gel, was able to induce bone formation in the bone defect. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Park Y.S.,Ewha Womans University | Lee J.-Y.,Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation NIBEC | Suh J.S.,Seoul National University | Jin Y.M.,Ewha Womans University | And 5 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2014

Mineralization in mammalian cells is accomplished by concerted regulation of protein-based extracellular matrix (ECM) components, such as non-collagenous proteins and collagen fibrils. In this study, we investigated the ability of a collagen-binding motif (CBM) peptide derived from osteopontin to selectively affect osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo. In particular, increased osteogenic differentiation and decreased adipogenic differentiation were observed in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Osteocalcin (OCN) protein expression in MC3T3-E1 cells without osteogenic inducers was then investigated following treatment with the CBM peptide. In ovariectomized (OVX) mice, estrogen deficiency induced osteoporosis and increased fat tissue deposition. However, after the CBM peptide or estradiol was injected into the OVX mice for 2 months, the increased serum OCN concentration and alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity were decreased in the estradiol-treated group (OVX-E) and the high-concentration CBM peptide-treated group (OVX-HP). Significant bone loss was also observed in the ovariectomized mice (OVX-PBS). In particular, the bone volume per total volume (BV/TV) and bone mineral density (BMD) were significantly decreased in the OVX mice; however, both of these markers were restored in the OVX-HP group, which also had significantly well-developed bone structure and bone formation. In contrast to the bone structural change, adipose tissue was increased in the OVX-PBS. However, a significant decrease in total fat and subcutaneous fat was observed in the low-concentration CBM peptide-treated group (OVX-LP) and the estradiol-treated group (OVX-E). Taken together, these results suggest that the CBM peptide could be an effective therapeutic agent for osteoporosis due to its selective stimulation of osteogenic differentiation, rather than adipogenesis. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Choi Y.J.,Seoul National University | Lee J.Y.,Seoul National University | Lee J.Y.,Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation NIBEC | Lee S.J.,Ewha Womans University | And 5 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2011

Recent researches have indicated a role for antihypertensive drugs including alpha- or beta-blockers in the prevention of bone loss. Some epidemiological studies reported the protective effects of those agents on fracture risk. However, there is limited information on the association with those agents especially at the mechanism of action. In the present study, we investigated the effects of doxazosin, an alpha-blocker that is clinically used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) along with antihypertensive medication, on the osteogenic stem cell differentiation. We found that doxazosin increased osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells, detected by Alizarin red S staining and calcein. Doxazosin not only induced expression of alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, osteopontin, and osteocalcin, it also resulted in increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), a MAP kinase involved in osteoblastic differentiation. Treatment with U0126, a MAP kinase inhibitor, significantly blocked doxazosin-induced osteoblastic differentiation. Unrelated to activation of osteogenic differentiation by doxazosin, we found that there were no significant changes in adipogenic differentiation or in the expression of adipose-specific genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, aP2, or LPL. In this report, we suggest that doxazosin has the ability to increase osteogenic cell differentiation via ERK1/2 activation in osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells, which supports the protective effects of antihypertensive drug on fracture risk and according to our data doxazosin might be useful for application in the field of bone metabolism. © 2011 Elsevier Inc..


Choi Y.J.,Seoul National University | Lee J.Y.,Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation NIBEC | Lee S.J.,Ewha Womans University | Chung C.-P.,Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation NIBEC | And 3 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2012

Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a mineralized, tissue-specific, non-collagenous protein that is normally expressed only in mineralized tissues such as bone, dentin, cementum, and calcified cartilage, and at sites of new mineral formation. The binding of BSP to collagen is thought to be important for initiating bone mineralization and bone cell adhesion to the mineralized matrix.Several recent studies have isolated stem cells from muscle tissue, but their functional properties are still unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of a synthetic collagen-binding peptide (CBP) on the differentiation efficiency of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs). The CBP sequence (NGVFKYRPRYYLYKHAYFYPHLKRFPVQ) corresponds to residues 35-62 of bone sialoprotein (BSP), which are located within the collagen-binding domain in BSP. Interestingly, this synthetic CBP inhibited adipogenic differentiation but increased osteogenic differentiation in MDSCs. The CBP also induced expression of osteoblastic marker proteins, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and osteocalcin; prevented adipogenic differentiation in MDSCs; and down-regulated adipose-specific mRNAs, such as adipocyte protein 2 (aP2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. The CBP increased Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 protein phosphorylation, which is important in lineage determination. These observations suggest that this CBP determines the osteogenic or adipogenic lineage in MDSCs by activating ERK1/2. Taken together, a novel CBP could be a useful candidate for regenerating bone and treating osteoporosis, which result from an imbalance in osteogenesis and adipogenesis differentiation. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Choi Y.J.,Seoul National University | Lee J.Y.,Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation NIBEC | Chung C.-P.,Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation NIBEC | Park Y.J.,Seoul National University | Park Y.J.,Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation NIBEC
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A | Year: 2013

Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a mineralized, tissuespecific, and noncollagenous protein. The binding of BSP to collagen is thought to be important for the initiation of bone mineralization and formation. In this study, we elucidated the osteogenic efficiency of the collagen-binding (CB) peptide derived from BSP in vitro and in vivo. The CB peptide increased osteoblastic differentiation marker gene and protein expression without affecting cell proliferation. The osteoblastic differentiation by the CB peptide is performed by the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt). Notably, the activation of CB peptide-induced osteogenic differentiation was completely blocked to the basal level by the specific inhibitors for ERK1/2 (U0126) and Akt (LY294002). In vivo results further demonstrated that the CB peptide-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold was able to induce bone formation in the bone defect. Taken together, the CB peptide can be developed as an osteoblastic differentiation agent as well as a fusion biomaterial for bone regeneration therapy. © 2012 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.


Choi Y.S.,Seoul National University | Lee J.Y.,NanoIntelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation NIBEC | Suh J.S.,Seoul National University | Lee G.,Seoul National University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A | Year: 2013

Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) has been shown to play a primary role in the formation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals in an extracellular matrix of hard tissue such as bone and teeth. We hypothesized that the mineralization ability of DSPP might depend on a specific domain within it. Three peptides, which have hydroxyapatite (HA) binding affinity, denoted as mineralization inducing peptide (MIP1, MIP2, and MIP3) were identified from DSPP. The both of MIP2 and MIP3 had HA nucleation activity demonstrated by XRD. Among three MIPs, MIP3 significantly supported the human bone marrow stromal cell differentiation into osteoblastic cells. An immunoblot with antibodies specific for the phosphorylated forms of ERK was conducted with cells treated by MIP3. MIP3 transduced intracellular signals via the ERK pathways and was able to induce osteoblastic differentiation, as seen by high expression of ALP, type 1 collagen, OC, OPN, and Runx2 in accordance with applied MIP3 concentration. The Asp, Glu, and Ser residues in MIP3 play important roles for the affinity of calcium in HA bone mineral. Further animal experiment with MIP3 in combination with hydroxyapatite mineral induced marked new bone formation for 4 weeks at rabbit calvarial defect model. The new bone area was much higher in test group, implying that the peptide modified group had excellent biocompatibility when compared with the unmodified group. Taken together, the MIP from DSPP has potential to enhance mineralization followed by to enhance osteoblastic differentiation and bone regeneration. © 2012 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.


Suh J.S.,Seoul National University | Lee J.Y.,Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation NIBEC | Choi Y.S.,Seoul National University | Chong P.C.,Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation NIBEC | And 2 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2013

Stem cell differentiation is modulated by several key molecules, including cytokines, hormones, and engineered peptides. Emerging evidence suggests that microRNA has potential applications in stem cell engineering, such as in osteoblastic differentiation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) bind to the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) sequence of target mRNA, thereby attenuating protein synthesis. Our goal was to evaluate the delivery of miRNA, i.e., miRNA-29b, to stem cells to promote osteoblastic differentiation because this miRNA is known to target anti-osteogenic factors gene expression. Despite the important role of miRNAs, their application has been limited due to poor cell/tissue penetration. The authors attempted to overcome this limitation by using a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) carrier. Herein, the arginine-rich CPP, called the lowmolecular weight protamine (LMWP), is the sequence from natural protamine. We worked out the difficult problem to transfect into hMSCs by the complex with LMWP, and then we investigated synthetic double-stranded miR-29b could be induced osteoblast differentiation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Lee J.-Y.,Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation NIBEC | Seo Y.-N.,Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation NIBEC | Park H.-J.,Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation NIBEC | Park Y.-J.,Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation NIBEC | And 3 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2012

A heparin-binding peptide (HBP) sequence from human heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) was identified and was shown to exhibit cell penetration activity. This cell penetration induced an anti-inflammatory reaction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. HBP penetrated the cell membrane during the 10. min treatment and reduced the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, HBP inhibited the LPS-induced upregulation of cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-6, and decreased the interstitial infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in a lung inflammation model. HBP inhibited NF-κB-dependent inflammatory responses by directly blocking the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα and by subsequently inhibiting the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB. Taken together, this novel HBP may be potentially useful candidate for anti-inflammatory treatments and can be combined with other drugs of interest to transport attached molecules into cells. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Suh J.S.,Seoul National University | Lee J.Y.,Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation NIBEC | Lee G.,Seoul National University | Chung C.P.,Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation NIBEC | And 2 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2014

Targeting tissues/cells using probing materials to detect diseases such as cancer and inflammatory disease has been attempted with some success. Most of the molecular targets used in diagnosis and therapy were identified through the discovery of intracellular signaling pathways. Among intracellular signaling processes, the ubiquitination of proteins, and thereby their proteasomal degradation, is important because it plays a role in most diseases involving alterations to a component of the ubiquitination system, particularly E3 ligases, which have selective target-binding affinity and are key to the success of regulating the disorder. The regulation and monitoring of E3 ligases can be achieved using peptides containing protein-protein binding motifs. We generated a human protein-derived peptide that could target Smurf1, a member of the E3 ligase family, by competitively binding to osteo-Smads. To effectively deliver it into cells, the peptide was further modified with a cell-penetrating peptide. The peptide contains two fluorescent dyes: fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC; absorbance/emission wavelengths: 495/519nm) as a fluorophore and black hole quencher-1 (BHQ-1) as a fluorescence quencher. When the target Smurf1 combined with complementary sequences in the peptide probe, the distance between the fluorophore and BHQ-1 increased via a conformational change, resulting in the recovery of the fluorescence signal. Simultaneously, the degradation of Smad1/5/8 was blocked by the binding of the peptide probe to Smurf1, leading to the potentiation of the osteogenic pathway, which was reflected by an increase in the expression of osteoinductive genes, such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. Possible future applications of the peptide probe include its integration into imaging tools for the diagnosis of Smurf1-overexpressing diseases. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation NIBEC and Seoul National University
Type: | Journal: International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2015

Human beta-defensins (hBDs) are crucial factors of intrinsic immunity that function in the immunologic response to a variety of invading enveloped viruses, bacteria, and fungi. hBDs can cause membrane depolarization and cell lysis due to their highly cationic nature. These molecules participate in antimicrobial defenses and the control of adaptive and innate immunity in every mammalian species and are produced by various cell types. The C-terminal 15-mer peptide within hBD3, designated as hBD3-3, was selected for study due to its cell- and skin-penetrating activity, which can induce anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. hBD3-3 penetrated both the outer membrane of the cells and mouse skin within a short treatment period. Two other peptide fragments showed poorer penetration activity compared to hBD3-3. hBD3-3 inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, and secretory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, hBD3-3 reduced the interstitial infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in a lung inflammation model. Further investigation also revealed that hBD3-3 downregulated nuclear factor kappa B-dependent inflammation by directly suppressing the degradation of phosphorylated-IB and by downregulating active nuclear factor kappa B p65. Our findings indicate that hBD3-3 may be conjugated with drugs of interest to ensure their proper translocation to sites, such as the cytoplasm or nucleus, as hBD3-3 has the ability to be used as a carrier, and suggest a potential approach to effectively treat inflammatory diseases.

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