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Nanning, China

Huang S.,Nanning Museum | Huang S.,Wuhan University | Wang W.,Guangxi Museum of Nationalities | Bae C.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | And 2 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2012

Paleolithic stone artifacts, including bifacial handaxes, are extensively distributed in the Bose basin, an area of about 800 km 2. Previous surveys and excavations identified about 57 Paleolithic sites in the basin. Unfortunately, the understanding of the basin-scale distribution of Paleolithic sites was still incomplete due to the lack of systematic archaeological field investigations. Thus, from 2009 to 2010, a comprehensive investigation of the distribution of Paleolithic sites across the entire basin was conducted. As a result, 56 new localities were identified, which brought the total number of Paleolithic sites in the basin to 113. These discoveries provide more integrated data on early hominin behavior during the Middle Pleistocene in the basin. In general, the site and artifact densities decline when moving from northwest to southeast along the Youjiang River inside the basin. A total of 747 stone artifacts, including 65 handaxes, were surface collected during these field surveys. Handaxes are found in higher densities in the northwest part of the basin, whereas they are rare in the southeast. Utilized raw materials also vary between the two regions within the basin. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Xu G.,Guangxi Mechanical and Electronic Industry School | Wang W.,Guangxi Museum of Nationalities | Bae C.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Huang S.,Nanning Museum | Mo Z.,Guangxi Mechanical and Electronic Industry School
Quaternary International | Year: 2012

The Paleolithic stone tool industry from the Bose Basin (Guangxi, China) is best known for the presence of Acheulean-like bifacially and unifacially-worked handaxes found in the same horizon with tektites dated to 803,000 BP. One point that is often not included in discussion of the Bose lithics is the variability in the distribution of sites and artifacts across the basin. This paper reports the results of an analysis of the spatial distribution of the lithics and sites in the Bose Basin based on a multidisciplinary approach utilizing geomorphological observations, Geographic Information Systems, remote sensing, and computer graphics. Analyses include data collected during a comprehensive systematic archaeological field survey conducted in the basin between 2009 and 2010. The results indicate that the density of sites and stone artifacts per site decrease when moving from the northwest to the southeast. Perhaps the most interesting finding is that the handaxes are concentrated in only certain areas of the basin, a pattern similar to the typical western Old World Acheulean, rather than the Oldowan, where the artifact types appear to be more evenly distributed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Bae C.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Wang W.,Guangxi Museum of Nationalities | Zhao J.,University of Queensland | Huang S.,Nanning Museum | And 3 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

We present two previously unreported hominin permanent teeth [one right upper second molar (M2), one left lower second molar (m2)] from Lunadong ("dong"="cave"), Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. The teeth are important because: 1) they were found in situ; 2) at least one (M2) can be confidently assigned to modern Homo sapiens, while the other (m2) is likely modern H.sapiens; and 3) the teeth can be securely dated between 126.9±1.5ka and 70.2±1.4ka, based on multiple MC-ICP-MS uranium-series dates of associated flowstones in clear stratigraphic context. The Lunadong modern H.sapiens teeth contribute to growing evidence (e.g., Callao Cave, Huanglongdong, Zhirendong) that modern and/or transitional humans were likely in eastern Asia between the crucial 120-50ka time span, a period that some researchers have suggested no hominins were present in the region. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Wang W.,Guangxi Museum of Nationalities | Bae C.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Huang S.,Nanning Museum | Huang X.,Youjiang District | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2014

The Bose (also Baise) Basin in Guangxi, southern China is well known for the presence of Paleolithic bifacially worked implements. The Bose Basin handaxes came to the attention of the international scientific community primarily for two reasons: 1) the age at 803 ka (thousands of years), places it at the Early to Middle Pleistocene transition; and 2) the presence of bifaces tests the validity of the Movius Line and whether it was time to simply discard the model. However, questions were almost immediately raised because the age was based on the supposed association of Australasian tektites that may or may not have been redeposited, and at the time of the initial publications all of the Bose Basin handaxes were surface collected. Thus, whether the Bose bifaces can necessarily be associated with the tektites and whether the tektites themselves were redeposited are important considerations. Here, we report the findings from recent excavations from the Fengshudao site located in the Bose Basin. The primary findings are: 1) the in situ excavation of tektites, which do not appear to have been redeposited, in association with bifaces from one stratigraphic level from one site indicates that the age of these stone tools should be around 803 ka; 2) the Fengshudao hominins were utilizing locally-available quartz, quartzite, and sandstone river cobbles; and 3) in a number of aspects, the Fengshudao handaxe morphology differs from the typical western Acheulean, and are quite large and thick compared with even the bifaces from other regions of eastern Asia (e.g., Luonan Basin, China; Imjin/Hantan River Basins, Korea). Although Fengshudao may be a case of western Acheulean hominins dispersing into the Bose Basin from nearby South Asia, it is quite possible that the Fengshudao bifaces can be considered an example of convergent evolution. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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