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Wu C.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization Ministry of Agriculture | Xiao S.,Hefei Academy of Agricultural science | Jin M.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization Ministry of Agriculture
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2014

In order to find out the differences between two methods of rape harvest, i.e. combine harvesting and two-stage harvesting and to provide a reasoning basis for choosing mechanized harvesting method, the simulation contrast experiments of the two harvesting methods were carried out in this paper, and the economic coefficient, grain water content, stalk moisture content, loss rate and seed quality were tested at different harvesting times. Artificial simulation of combine harvesting means artificial direct harvesting (ADH). First, the rape was cut down from a randomized plot of 5 square meters in the field, moved to a threshing ground, and then threshed and separated by manual labor immediately. The total loss was the sum of those occurred in oilseed rape due to natural shedding, crop disturbance by human being, and threshing and separation losses. The artificial two-stage harvesting (ATH) means cutting down the rapes and picking up them in different periods. The rape should be aired for 4~5 days after cutting down, then threshed and cleaned by manual labor. The artificial simulation experiments showed that the seed loss of ADH got to 3.2%, 50.8% lower than that of ATH, 6.51%, and the oilseed qualities of the two harvesting methods had no obvious difference, however the oil content of ADH was slightly higher than ATH, while its protein content was slightly lower. Besides, the two kinds of mechanized harvesting experiments were carried out. Fifteen types of combine harvesters produced by 12 enterprises were put in use in the two-stage harvesting. The loss rate, broken rate, impurity rate and operation efficiency were measured. Except the impurity rate, the measurements of mechanized two-stage harvesting (MTH) were better than mechanized combine harvesting (MCH). Further more, economic efficiencies of the two harvesting modes were analyzed. The fuel cost, labor cost, workload in life period, depreciation cost, income of yield increase and comprehensive benefit in the lifetime were compared. The results indicated that the economic benefit of MTH was 361 yuan/hm2 higher than that of MCH. In addition, the two harvesting methods were comparatively analyzed based on the machinery performance, adaptability and some other aspects. The time of vacating field for the next crop could be about 4.8 days earlier in MTH. And it had widespread adaptability to various rapes and different harvest conditions, also had superiority in seeds storage and straw chopping because of the lower moisture content. However, finishing the swathing and picking up in two operations was one of the imperfections, and another was its relatively poor ability of adapting to cloudy day or continuous rain. MCH was relatively more convenient and had higher efficiency for it could finish harvesting in shorter time, but it didn't well adapt to different crop morphologies, and had high loss rate if the rape of improper breed was not gathered in time. The analyses indicate that the two harvesting methods have their own advantages and disadvantages and adapt to different regions and conditions, so the two methods will have further development in China, and should be chosen and used in accordance with local conditions. Source


Xiao L.L.,Chuzhou University | Xiao L.L.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization Ministry of Agriculture | Hu Z.C.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization Ministry of Agriculture | Zhang H.J.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization Ministry of Agriculture | Wang W.,Chuzhou University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

According to exist technical problems and requirements of the air-suction peanut precision mulching film and punching planter, the new air-suction peanut precision dibbler of the planter' key working part was researched. It was introduced the composition and working principle of the dibbler. According to functional and technical requirements of the dibbler' main parts, the structural design and analyze were done. The dibbler mainly consists of roller body, cavitations' components, transmission system, and the air suction metering device. In the peanut growing typical region, field trial of the dibbler showed that overall performance is relatively stable, each component are operating smoothly, and the operating indicators can better meet the technical requirements. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source


Jin C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jin C.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization Ministry of Agriculture | Yin W.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization Ministry of Agriculture | Wu C.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization Ministry of Agriculture
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2012

The rape windrower was a dynamic system that including many input and output variables. Windrow quality mathematical model was used to describe the correlation of windrowing and transporting. An analysis on the relationship of biological morphology, the maturity when rape windrowing, the structure parameters of transporting mechanism and windrowing mechanism were given. The effect degree of exhaust straw port on windrow quality during the winding was analyzed. The correlations of windrow quality with the velocity of machine moving, transportin device parameter and exhaust straw port parameters were made. The results of field test showed that rape in the height of 1.3-1.7 meters, and in the yellow ripe stage was much suitable for cutting. The ratio of reel pad peripheral speed and machine moving speed should be chosen in the range of 1.1-1.5. The ratio of conveyor belt speed and machine moving speed should be chosen in the range of 3.2-5.0. The working rhythm and speed of stalk on the conveyor belt controlled by the transverse stir device must be coordination with transporting speed of the conveyor belt. Under those conditions that mentioned above, the windrower could get the total loss of windrowing was less than 1%, the windrowing angle of rape stalk was less than 30°, the windrowing angle difference was less than 15°, and the windrowing quality could meet the requirements of the agronomy. Source


Zhou L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhou L.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization Ministry of Agriculture | Fu X.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization Ministry of Agriculture | Ding W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2015

In order to mechanize the pesticide application of fence-type fruit tree, enhance the droplet deposition in canopy and improve work efficiency, a combined disc air-assisted orchard sprayer was developed. The mechanism design theory and virtual prototyping technology were adopted to design the disc atomizer and combined spray execution device. Single impeller was put to use in disc atomizer design, and the diameter of impeller was 0.4 m. Six-step motors were included in the combined spray execution device for lifting, rotating and contraction, the rotating and lifting speed were 4 rad/s and 0.12 m/s, respectively. The adjustable range of spray height was from 3 to 4 m, and the hemi-spray width was adjustable from 2 to 3 m. So it was suitable for the fence-type orchard with row spacing of from 4 to 6 m. The container's capacity was 1000 L, and the spray volume was 51.63 L under the rated working pressure of 0.4 MPa. The distance of the run was up to 1500 m, and the work efficiency was 2 times of single spray. The average spray volumes of the 8 nozzles of disc atomizer were 807, 894 and 1020 mL/min under the pressures of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 MPa respectively, while the standard deviations were 7.4, 8.2 and 7.8. It showed that spray volumes of different nozzles had small change, while spray volume increased with the increasing of spray pressure. The droplet diameters at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 m along the direction of range were measured by DP-02 laser particle size analyzer under the pressures of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 MPa. The droplet diameters were 140, 135 and 122 μm in the distance of 2 m from the nozzle. The maximum diameter was in the distance of 4 m from the nozzle. The diameter decreased as the distance increased when the distance was greater than 4 m, while the diameter increased as the distance increased when the distance was less than 4 m. Spray deposition in vertical direction was mainly between 1 and 2 m above floor, and the maximum deposition was between 1.4 and 1.6 m. The data offered the basis to confirm the spray distance and guide the installation of disc atomizer. The fan property was tested and the performance curve graphic was drawn. Frequency transformer, torque meter and wind velocity indicator were used. The results showed that air volume was greater than 1 m3/s, and static pressure was greater than 60 Pa when the speed was greater than 1300 r/min. The highest efficiency was 89% at 1400 r/min. Execution time of each executive unit per stroke was 51.3 s for up and down, 50.5 s for stretch and draw and 26.5 s for rotation. The field experiment was conducted in Taizhou, which strictly followed the quality standard of air-assisted orchard sprayer (GB/T 24683-2009). The row space was 4 m×2 m, the crown diameter of the tree was 0.7 m, and the height of the tree was 1.9 m. Three trees were randomly selected as sample trees. The intersection points of 3 horizontal layers and 3 vertical layers of each tree were set as sample points, with a total of 9 sample points for one tree. The result showed the pesticide was evenly distributed in the exterior of canopy, and the average coverage of the left and right were 55.13% and 52.60% respectively for the front of the leaf, and 6.57% and 7.14% respectively for the back of the leaf. The interior deposition was less than the exterior, but the spraying coverage was relatively even in the front and rear of the leaf, 12.77% and 9.74%, respectively. This study proposes a new machine of plant protection for the fence-type fruit tree, and also provides the reference for optimum design of orchard air-assisted sprayer. ©, 2015, Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved. Source


Zhou L.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization Ministry of Agriculture | Zhou L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang L.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization Ministry of Agriculture | Ding W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2015

It is difficult to transport pesticide droplet into tree canopy and deposit onto opposite of foliage. In order to solve these problems, air-assisted and electrostatic spraying was proposed. Air-assisted electrostatic spraying is a new pesticide application technology combined air-assisted spraying and electrostatic spraying technology. The charged droplets transport and deposit under theair drag force and electrostatic force, which improved the charged droplet penetration ability and deposition within the crop canopy. The influencing factors of air-assisted electrostatic spray include induced voltage, spray distance, air velocity and spray pressure. To clarify the factors influence on spray coverage. Induced voltage was set 0, 3 and 6 kV; Spray distance was 0.5, 1, 1.5 m; Axial fan frequency was 30, 40, 50 Hz; Spray pressure was 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 MPa. CCD (central composite design) and RSM (response surface methodology) were employed to analysis the four factors at three levels. 29 group tests were conducted, which include 24 group analytical factors, 5 group error estimations. Design Expert Version 8 software (Stat-Ease Inc., USA) was used for experimental design, data processing and statistics. Response include positive coverage, opposite coverage and the ratio of opposite and positive coverage. The three response surface models were established by quadratic regression, model determination coefficient was 95.14%, 93.68%, 93.95% respectively. Aiming at the ratio of opposite and positive coverage and opposite coverage maximum, positive coverage less than or equal to 50%. Response surface model was adopted to optimize the working parameters at the constraint condition of induced voltage X1=6 kV, fan frequency X2 ∈ [30, 50] Hz, spray distance X3 ∈ [0.5, 1.5] m and spray pressure X4 ∈ [0.3, 1.5] MPa. At the same time, the models were validated at this condition, and the positive predictive coverage was 50%, the negative coverage rate was 3.69%, the ratio of opposite and positive coverage was 7.52%. The relative error was 4%, 9.25%, 16.26%, respectively. The results showed the ratio of opposite and positive coverage's influence factors ranked from large to small wasthe induced voltage, fan frequency, spray distance and spray pressure. Opposite coverage's influencing factors ranked from large to small wasinduced voltage, spray distance, spray pressure and fan frequency. Positive coverage's influencing factors ranked from large to small was spray distance, spray pressure, fan frequency and induced voltage. The charged droplets were mainly affected by the air drag force and electrostatic force. The interaction among fan frequency, induction voltage, spray distance had significant effects on the response surface model. Reasonable working parameters can improve negative droplet coverage. The study can provide the basis data for design of air-assisted electrostatic spraying machine and operating parameters choose. © 2015, Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved. Source

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