Luo Y.,Jinling Institute of Technology |
Xie W.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012
The effect of dephytinisation, using an exogenous phytase under optimal conditions (pH 5.5, 37 °C), and subsequent removal of the soaking solution after processing, on the bioavailability of iron from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) flour was studied. Soaking of the faba bean flour led to a considerable reduction in the content of iron (39%), whereas a lower reduction in iron content (10%), was obtained after additional treatment with phytase, than in the soaked faba bean flour. The digestive utilisation of iron from the raw and soaked faba bean flours by growing rats was negligible, but increased significantly as a result of phytase treatment. The low iron absorption obtained for the former two treatments, during an experimental period of 10 days, was not reflected in any of the haematological indices (red blood count, haemoglobin, haematocrit) or tissues (femur, heart, kidney) studied, with the exception of the sternum. The latter appears to be a useful indicator of iron bioavailability. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shen W.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences |
Li H.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences |
Sun M.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences |
Jiang J.,University of Miami
Global and Planetary Change | Year: 2012
Aeolian sandy land in the Yarlung Zangbo River basin has attracted the attention of many researchers. However, its dynamics as well as its relevance to various factors has rarely been reported with integrated studies. In this paper, spatio-temporal dynamics of the aeolian sandy land in the basin was studied by interpreting Landsat images acquired from 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2008 with the help of geographic information system (GIS) technology. Spatially, the results showed a decreasing trend from west to east, which is from the Maquanhe wide valley in the headwater area to the middle and lower reaches of the river basin. Temporally, aeolian sandy lands in the basin showed a slow increasing trend, with an increase of 10.5% during the 1975-2008 period, spreading most quickly during the period of 1990-1999. The factors related to dynamics of aeolian sandy land were analyzed from the perspectives of two driving factors, climate changes and human activities. The climate-dominated natural factors are the internal driving forces for the development of aeolian sandy lands, and the human factors are the external driving forces responsible for the increase of the aeolian sandy land area. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..
Luo Y.-W.,Jinling Institute of Technology |
Xie W.-H.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences
CYTA - Journal of Food | Year: 2013
Effects of several physical treatments (soaking, dehulling, ordinary cooking, microwave cooking, and autoclaving) on the level of antinutrtional factors and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of green and white faba beans were investigated. The raw green and white faba bean seeds were found to contain phytic acid (PA), tannins, trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), and lectin activity, but aamylase inhibitor was absent. Dehulling significantly increased the levels of PA, TIA, decreased the level of tannins, but lectin activity was not changed. Cooking methods differently affected the levels of the antinutrtional factors. Thus, PA increased but tannins were not changed; on the other hand, TI and lectin activities were inactivated; ordinary cooking and autoclaving were the most effective in both seeds. For combination effect, soaking following cooking treatments significantly decreased PA, tannins, and lectin activity but increased TIA in both seeds. Moreover, dehulling following soaking and cooking methods resulted in a significant increase of PA and TIA. In vitro protein digestibility of raw green and white faba bean seeds were 72.65 and 73.28%, respectively, and it was improved by all processing methods; soaking-dehulling after autoclaving was the most effective in both seeds. Although some treatments increased the level of antinutrtional factors, they improved IVPD. Therefore, the studied antinutrients are not the only responsible factor for lowering IVPD. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.
Li X.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences |
Li X.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science |
Liu B.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Transgenic insect-resistant cotton has been released into the environment for more than a decade in China to effectively control the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and other Lepidoptera. Because of concerns about undesirable ecological side-effects of transgenic crops, it is important to monitor the potential environmental impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton after commercial release. Our 2-year study included 1 cotton field where non-transgenic cotton had been planted continuously and 2 other cotton fields where transgenic insect-resistant cotton had been planted for different lengths of time since 1997 and since 2002. In 2 consecutive years (2009 and 2010), we took soil samples from 3 cotton fields at 4 different growth stages (seedling, budding, boll-forming and boll-opening stages), collected soil nematodes from soil with the sugar flotation and centrifugation method and identified the soil nematodes to the genus level. The generic composition, individual densities and diversity indices of the soil nematodes did not differ significantly between the 2 transgenic cotton fields and the non-transgenic cotton field, but significant seasonal variation was found in the individual densities of the principal trophic groups and in the diversity indices of the nematodes in all 3 cotton fields. The study used a comparative perspective to monitor the impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton grown in typical 'real world' conditions. The results of the study suggested that more than 10 years of cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cotton had no significant effects-adverse or otherwise-on soil nematodes. This study provides a theoretical basis for ongoing environmental impact monitoring of transgenic plants. © 2013 Li, Liu.
Zhou H.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences |
Gao C.,Nanjing University
Environmental Management | Year: 2011
Agricultural nonpoint phosphorus (P) pollution is a primary cause of eutrophication in many freshwater systems. Identifying areas that are at high risk for P loss in a watershed and concentrating management efforts on these smaller sections is a more effective method for limiting P loss than implementing general strategies over a broad area. A modified P index scheme was used to assess the risk of P loss and identify critical source areas in the Chaohu Lake watershed on a regional scale. In the new P ranking scheme, soil P sorption index (PSI) and degree of P saturation (DPS) were introduced as source factors to represent the inherent ability of P transport in the soil-water interface. Distance from P sources to Chaohu Lake was also considered as a transport factor to take into account P degradation from source to the final receiving water. The ranking scheme was modified to use available data on the regional scale. P index calculation results showed high spatial variation of P loss risk in the Chaohu Lake watershed. The highest risk areas focused on the downstream parts of the main rivers that discharge into Chaohu Lake. The induction of new components into the P index calculation makes it possible to identify critical source areas of nonpoint P loss on a regional scale, thus allowing decision makers to implement best management practices (BMPs) in such a manner as to minimize P loss to sensitive watercourses. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Cao W.,Xuzhou Institute of Technology |
Zhang H.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences |
Wang Y.,Xuzhou Institute of Technology |
Pan J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2012
Polluted surface water was remediated in a bioreactor using biofilms on filamentous bamboo in batch and continuous flow modes. The COD cr (Chemical Oxygen Demand, using K 2Cr 2O 7 as oxidizer) removal rate of the enhanced systems increased more than 13% relative to a controlled system. In the batch reactor with 4-h cycles, the COD cr was mainly removed by the biofilm on the filamentous bamboo. The removal rate of the COD Mn (permanganate index), NH 4 +-N (ammonia nitrogen), turbidity, and total bacteria were 11.2-74.3%, 2.2-56.1%, 20-100%, and more than 88.6% in a continuous flow biofilm reactor with a 3.5h retention time. The biofilms contained diverse organisms including protozoa and metazoa. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Yu L.,Huazhong Agricultural University |
Han Z.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences |
Liu C.,Huazhong Agricultural University
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2015
The objective of this review was to summarize and discuss the effects of Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on thyroid and reproduction systems in fish. We reviewed the evidences and mechanisms for PBDEs-induced thyroid and reproduction disruption, as well as the cross-talk between the two systems in fish. In thyroid disruption, we mainly paid attention to the effects of PBDEs on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, thyroid hormones (THs) transport and metabolism, thyroid receptors (TRs) and thyroid follicle histology. In reproduction disruption, we focused on the effects of PBDEs on steroid hormone production, expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis, and gonadal development. Despite that there is an interaction between thyroid and reproductive systems in fish, it is still remains unclear that PBDE-induced reproductive impairments are caused by direct effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) functioning or by indirect action through cross-talk between the two systems. Future studies are needed to explore the relationships between reproductive toxicity and thyroid system disruption after PBDEs exposure. © 2015 Elsevier Inc..
Ji Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University |
Dong C.,Nanjing Agricultural University |
Kong D.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences |
Lu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2015
The widespread occurrence of atrazine in waters poses potential risk to ecosystem and human health. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms and transformation pathways of atrazine degradation by cobalt catalyzed peroxymonosulfate (Co(II)/PMS). Co(II)/PMS was found to be more efficient for ATZ elimination in aqueous solution than Fe(II)/PMS process. ATZ oxidation by Co(II)/PMS followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the reaction rate constant (kobs) increased appreciably with increasing Co(II) concentration. Increasing initial PMS concentration favored the decomposition of ATZ, however, no linear relationship between kobs and PMS concentration was observed. Higher efficiency of ATZ oxidation was observed around neutral pH, implying the possibility of applying Co(II)/PMS process under environmental realistic conditions. Natural organic matter (NOM), chloride (Cl-) and bicarbonate (HCO3 -) showed detrimental effects on ATZ degradation, particularly at higher concentrations. Eleven products were identified by applying solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-LC/MS) techniques. Major transformation pathways of ATZ included dealkylation, dechlorination-hydroxylation, and alkyl chain oxidation. Detailed mechanisms responsible for these transformation pathways were discussed. Our results reveal that Co(II)/PMS process might be an efficient technique for remediation of groundwater contaminated by ATZ and structurally related s-triazine herbicides. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Qian H.,University of Illinois at Springfield |
Chen S.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences |
Chen S.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences |
Mao L.,CAS Institute of Botany |
And 2 more authors.
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2013
Aim: Ecologists have generally agreed that β-diversity is driven at least in part by ecological processes and mechanisms of community assembly and is a key determinant of global patterns of species richness. This idea has been challenged by a recent study based on an individual-based null model approach, which aims to account for the species pool. The goal of the present study is twofold: (1) to analyse data sets from different parts of the world to determine whether there are significant latitude-β-diversity gradients after accounting for the species pool, and (2) to evaluate the validity of the null model. Location: Global. Methods: A total of 257 forest plots, each being 0.1 ha in size and having 10 0.01-ha subplots, were used. We conducted four sets of analyses. A modified version of Whittaker's β-diversity index was used to quantify β-diversity for each forest plot. A randomization procedure was used to determine expected β-diversity. Results: The number of individuals per species, which characterizes species abundance distribution, alone explains 56.8-84.2% of the variation in observed β-diversity. Species pool (γ-diversity) explained only an additional 2.6-15.2% of the variation in observed β-diversity. Latitude explains 18.6% of the variation in raw β deviation in Gentry's global data set, and explains 11.0-11.6% of the variation in standardized β deviation in the global and three regional analyses. Latitude explains 33.2-46.2% of the variation in the number of individuals per species. Main conclusions: Species abundance distribution, rather than species pool size, plays a key role in driving latitude-β-diversity gradients for β-diversity in local forest communities. The individual-based null model is not a valid null model for investigating β-diversity gradients driven by mechanisms of local community assembly because the null model incorporates species abundance distributions, which are driven by mechanisms of local community assembly and in turn generate β-diversity gradients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Luo Y.,Jinling Institute of Technology |
Xie W.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014
The changes in phytate, phytase activity and in vitro availability of iron and zinc during soaking and sprouting of green and white faba bean (Vicia faba L.) were investigated. Faba bean were soaked for 24 h and germinated for 72 h after soaking for 24 h to reduce phytate content and increase iron and zinc in vitro availability. The results revealed that iron and zinc content was significantly reduced from 28.2 to 39.8 % and 12.5 to 27.6 % for soaking treatment and 38.2 to 38.9 % and 24.5 to 29.2 % for sprouting treatment, respectively. Phytate content was significantly reduced from 26.9 to 32.5 % for soaking treatment and 28.0 to 34.9 % for sprouting treatment, respectively. The results proved that the main distinct point is the change of phytase activity as well as specific activity during different treatment which showed no significant differences between the green and white faba bean. The in vitro availability of iron and zinc were significantly improved as a result of soaking and sprouting treatments. © 2013, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).