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Luo Y.,Jinling Institute of Technology | Xie W.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The effect of dephytinisation, using an exogenous phytase under optimal conditions (pH 5.5, 37 °C), and subsequent removal of the soaking solution after processing, on the bioavailability of iron from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) flour was studied. Soaking of the faba bean flour led to a considerable reduction in the content of iron (39%), whereas a lower reduction in iron content (10%), was obtained after additional treatment with phytase, than in the soaked faba bean flour. The digestive utilisation of iron from the raw and soaked faba bean flours by growing rats was negligible, but increased significantly as a result of phytase treatment. The low iron absorption obtained for the former two treatments, during an experimental period of 10 days, was not reflected in any of the haematological indices (red blood count, haemoglobin, haematocrit) or tissues (femur, heart, kidney) studied, with the exception of the sternum. The latter appears to be a useful indicator of iron bioavailability. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zhou H.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences | Gao C.,Nanjing University
Environmental Management | Year: 2011

Agricultural nonpoint phosphorus (P) pollution is a primary cause of eutrophication in many freshwater systems. Identifying areas that are at high risk for P loss in a watershed and concentrating management efforts on these smaller sections is a more effective method for limiting P loss than implementing general strategies over a broad area. A modified P index scheme was used to assess the risk of P loss and identify critical source areas in the Chaohu Lake watershed on a regional scale. In the new P ranking scheme, soil P sorption index (PSI) and degree of P saturation (DPS) were introduced as source factors to represent the inherent ability of P transport in the soil-water interface. Distance from P sources to Chaohu Lake was also considered as a transport factor to take into account P degradation from source to the final receiving water. The ranking scheme was modified to use available data on the regional scale. P index calculation results showed high spatial variation of P loss risk in the Chaohu Lake watershed. The highest risk areas focused on the downstream parts of the main rivers that discharge into Chaohu Lake. The induction of new components into the P index calculation makes it possible to identify critical source areas of nonpoint P loss on a regional scale, thus allowing decision makers to implement best management practices (BMPs) in such a manner as to minimize P loss to sensitive watercourses. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Luo Y.-W.,Jinling Institute of Technology | Xie W.-H.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences
CYTA - Journal of Food | Year: 2013

Effects of several physical treatments (soaking, dehulling, ordinary cooking, microwave cooking, and autoclaving) on the level of antinutrtional factors and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of green and white faba beans were investigated. The raw green and white faba bean seeds were found to contain phytic acid (PA), tannins, trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), and lectin activity, but aamylase inhibitor was absent. Dehulling significantly increased the levels of PA, TIA, decreased the level of tannins, but lectin activity was not changed. Cooking methods differently affected the levels of the antinutrtional factors. Thus, PA increased but tannins were not changed; on the other hand, TI and lectin activities were inactivated; ordinary cooking and autoclaving were the most effective in both seeds. For combination effect, soaking following cooking treatments significantly decreased PA, tannins, and lectin activity but increased TIA in both seeds. Moreover, dehulling following soaking and cooking methods resulted in a significant increase of PA and TIA. In vitro protein digestibility of raw green and white faba bean seeds were 72.65 and 73.28%, respectively, and it was improved by all processing methods; soaking-dehulling after autoclaving was the most effective in both seeds. Although some treatments increased the level of antinutrtional factors, they improved IVPD. Therefore, the studied antinutrients are not the only responsible factor for lowering IVPD. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

Cao W.,Xuzhou Institute of Technology | Zhang H.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences | Wang Y.,Xuzhou Institute of Technology | Pan J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2012

Polluted surface water was remediated in a bioreactor using biofilms on filamentous bamboo in batch and continuous flow modes. The COD cr (Chemical Oxygen Demand, using K 2Cr 2O 7 as oxidizer) removal rate of the enhanced systems increased more than 13% relative to a controlled system. In the batch reactor with 4-h cycles, the COD cr was mainly removed by the biofilm on the filamentous bamboo. The removal rate of the COD Mn (permanganate index), NH 4 +-N (ammonia nitrogen), turbidity, and total bacteria were 11.2-74.3%, 2.2-56.1%, 20-100%, and more than 88.6% in a continuous flow biofilm reactor with a 3.5h retention time. The biofilms contained diverse organisms including protozoa and metazoa. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Qian H.,University of Illinois at Springfield | Chen S.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences | Chen S.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Mao L.,CAS Institute of Botany | And 2 more authors.
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2013

Aim: Ecologists have generally agreed that β-diversity is driven at least in part by ecological processes and mechanisms of community assembly and is a key determinant of global patterns of species richness. This idea has been challenged by a recent study based on an individual-based null model approach, which aims to account for the species pool. The goal of the present study is twofold: (1) to analyse data sets from different parts of the world to determine whether there are significant latitude-β-diversity gradients after accounting for the species pool, and (2) to evaluate the validity of the null model. Location: Global. Methods: A total of 257 forest plots, each being 0.1 ha in size and having 10 0.01-ha subplots, were used. We conducted four sets of analyses. A modified version of Whittaker's β-diversity index was used to quantify β-diversity for each forest plot. A randomization procedure was used to determine expected β-diversity. Results: The number of individuals per species, which characterizes species abundance distribution, alone explains 56.8-84.2% of the variation in observed β-diversity. Species pool (γ-diversity) explained only an additional 2.6-15.2% of the variation in observed β-diversity. Latitude explains 18.6% of the variation in raw β deviation in Gentry's global data set, and explains 11.0-11.6% of the variation in standardized β deviation in the global and three regional analyses. Latitude explains 33.2-46.2% of the variation in the number of individuals per species. Main conclusions: Species abundance distribution, rather than species pool size, plays a key role in driving latitude-β-diversity gradients for β-diversity in local forest communities. The individual-based null model is not a valid null model for investigating β-diversity gradients driven by mechanisms of local community assembly because the null model incorporates species abundance distributions, which are driven by mechanisms of local community assembly and in turn generate β-diversity gradients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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