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Jian H.-L.,Beijing Forestry University | Jian H.-L.,Anhui Agricultural University | Lin X.-J.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhang W.-A.,Beijing Forestry University | And 3 more authors.
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2014

Three galactomannans of guar gum (GG), locust bean gum (LBG) and fenugreek gum (FG) were fractionally precipitated from pure solutions by the addition of either ethanol or isopropanol. The galactomannan precipitates were formed when the bulk solutions containing >18.6% (v/v) ethanol or 13.5% (v/v) isopropanol. The galactomannan recovery of GG, LBG and FG in 33.3% ethanol solvent was 93.1, 86.1 and 94.5%, respectively, while that in 28.8% isopropanol solvent was 94.1, 92.5 and 97.7%, respectively. To achieve the same precipitation efficiency, the usage amount of isopropanol was much lower than that of ethanol, owing to the low dielectric constant for isopropanol (20 vs. 25). It was demonstrated that the precipitation behavior of galactomannans in polar organic solvents was dependent on the molecular structure, such as molecular weight and galactose substitution. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


You Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Yang S.,Beijing Forestry University | Bu L.,State Grid Corporation of China | Jiang J.,Beijing Forestry University | Sun D.,Nanjing Institute for the Comprehensive Utilization of Wild Plant
RSC Advances | Year: 2016

Byproducts of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) from sugarcane bagasse using steam explosion (SE, 190°C for 10 min and 210°C for 5 min) and green liquor (GL) combined with hydrogen peroxide (GL-H2O2) or ethanol (GL-ethanol) pretreatments were compared. Results showed that SE pretreatments did not result in lactic acid because a majority of the glucose was consumed for yeast growth and ethanol production, and the ethanol yield of 93.86% (of the theoretical) at 190°C for 10 min and 94.33% at 210°C for 5 min were achieved. Most of the hemicelluloses were removed and more acetyl groups were generated after the SE pretreatment, so it always had the highest amount of acetic acid (1.22 g L-1 at 190°C for 10 min and 1.38 g L-1 at 210°C for 5 min). GL-ethanol pretreatment resulted in an ethanol yield of 80.56%. However, the existence of reactive lignin from organic solvent produced high amount of byproducts, especially for the maximum glycerol contents (0.818 g L-1). Deficient lignin removal and sugar degradation with GL-H2O2 pretreatment led to the lowest ethanol yield of 23.23%, which may be because some inhibitors generated from GL-H2O2 pretreatment affected hydrolysis efficiency and yeast activity in the SSF process. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


PubMed | Beijing Forestry University, GuangXi Key Laboratory of Chemistry and Engineering of Forest Products and Nanjing Institute for the Comprehensive Utilization of Wild Plant
Type: | Journal: Bioresource technology | Year: 2015

Green liquor (GL) combined with H2O2 (GL-H2O2) and green liquor (GL) combined with ethanol (GL-ethanol) were chosen for treating sugarcane bagasse. Results showed that the glucose yield (calculated from the glucose content as a percentage of the theoretical glucose available in the substrates)of sugarcane bagasse from GL-ethanol pretreatment (97.7%) was higher than that from GL-H2O2 pretreatment (41.7%) after 72h hydrolysis with 18 filter paper unit (FPU)/g-cellulose for cellulase, 27,175 cellobiase units (CBU)/g-cellulose for -glucosidase. Furthermore, about 94.1% of xylan was converted to xylose after GL-ethanol pretreatment without additional xylanase, while the xylose yield was only 29.2% after GL-H2O2 pretreatment. Scanning electron microscopy showed that GL-ethanol pretreatment could break up the fiber severely. Moreover, GL-ethanol pretreated substrate was more accessible to cellulase and more hydrophilic than that of GL-H2O2 pretreated. Therefore, GL-ethanol pretreatment is a promising method for improving the overall sugar (glucose and xylan) yield of sugarcane bagasse.


Tang J.-F.,Nanjing Institute for the Comprehensive Utilization of Wild Plant | Tang J.-F.,Nanjing University | Wen Q.,Nanjing Institute for the Comprehensive Utilization of Wild Plant | Wen Q.,Nanjing University | And 6 more authors.
Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is an intracellular signaling pathway, being important in apoptosis hence cancer such as breast cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer. It signaling axis controls cell proliferation and survival and has achieved major importance as a target for cancer therapy. The serine/threonine kinase Akt (also known as protein kinase B or PKB), since its initial discovery as a protooncogene, has become a major focus of attention because of its critical regulatory role in diverse cellular processes, including cancer progression and insulin metabolism. The Akt cascade is activated by receptor tyrosine kinases, integrins, B and T cell receptors, cytokine receptors, G protein coupled receptors and other stimuli that induce the production of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 triphosphates (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Therefore, PI3K plays an important role in in numerous cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking. In this review, we introduced the structure of the PI3K, and then focused on its biological activities. In addition, we reviewed the advances in the researches of PI3K as well as related inhibitors over the last couple of decades. Finally, we also discussed the prospect and developmental trend of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase as antitumor agents. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.


PubMed | Nanjing University of Science and Technology and Nanjing Institute for the Comprehensive Utilization of Wild Plant
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied microbiology and biotechnology | Year: 2016

Salecan, a soluble -1,3-D-glucan produced by a salt-tolerant strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, has been the subject of considerable interest in recent years because of its multiple bioactivities and unusual rheological properties in solution. In this study, both succinyl and pyruvyl substituent groups on salecan were identified by an enzymatic hydrolysis following nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), HPLC, and MS analysis. The putative succinyltransferase gene (sleA) and pyruvyltransferase gene (sleV) were determined and cloned. Disruption of the sleA gene resulted in the absence of succinyl substituent groups on salecan. This defect could be complemented by expressing the sleA cloned in a plasmid. Thus, the sleA and sleV genes located in a 19.6-kb gene cluster may be involved in salecan biosynthesis. Despite the lack of succinyl substituents, the molecular mass of salecan generated by the sleA mutant did not substantially differ from that generated by the wild-type strain. Loss of succinyl substituents on salecan changed its rheological characteristics, especially a decrease in intrinsic viscosity.


PubMed | Jiangsu University, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing University and Nanjing Institute for the Comprehensive Utilization of Wild Plant
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

DNA methylation is one of the best-characterized epigenetic modifications and has an important biological relevance. Here we showed that global DNA methylation level in mouse livers displayed a daily variation where the peak phases occurred during the end of the day and the lowest level at the beginning of the day in the light-dark or dark-dark cycles. Typical repeat sequence long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) had a similar methylation rhythm to global DNA. DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) and ratio of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) brought a relative forward daily variation to global DNA methylation, and the temporary change in ratio of SAM to SAH had no influence on the DNA methylation level. The rhythm of global DNA methylation was lost and DNA methylation level was increased in Per1-/-Per2-/- double knockout mice, which were in accordance with changes of Dnmt3a mRNA levels and its rhythm. Our results suggest that the daily variation in global DNA methylation was associated with the change of Dnmt3a expression rather than ratio of SAM to SAH.


Jian H.-L.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhu L.-W.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhang W.-M.,Nanjing Institute for the Comprehensive Utilization of Wild Plant | Sun D.-F.,Nanjing Institute for the Comprehensive Utilization of Wild Plant | Jiang J.-X.,Beijing Forestry University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2013

Enzymatic hydrolysis of Gleditsia sinensis gum was performed to produce manno-oligosaccharides having functional applications as dietary fiber and prebiotics. The optimum hydrolysis conditions, including enzyme loading, temperature and time, from response surface methodology were 8.1. U/g, 57.4 °C and 34.1. h, respectively. The yield of DP 1-5 oligosaccharides was 75.9% (29.1. g/L). The Michaelis-Menten kinetics and molecular weight distribution were determined. The obtained oligosaccharides were further separated by HPLC and SEC, and the galactose distribution of G. sinensis gum was elucidated. Results indicated that G. sinensis gum has potential to produce value-added oligosaccharides in food industries. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Beijing Forestry University and Nanjing Institute for the Comprehensive Utilization of Wild Plant
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC biotechnology | Year: 2016

As the most abundant renewable resources, lignocellulosic materials are ideal candidates as alternative feedstock for bioethanol production. Cassava residues (CR) are byproducts of the cassava starch industry which can be mixed with lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production. The presence of lignin in lignocellulosic substrates can inhibit saccharification by reducing the cellulase activity. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of furfural residues (FR) pretreated with green liquor and hydrogen peroxide (GL-H2O2) with CR saccharification liquid was investigated. The final ethanol concentration, yield, initial rate, number of live yeast cells, and the dead yeast ratio were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of combining delignificated lignocellulosic substrates and starchy substrates for ethanol production.Our results indicate that 42.0% of FR lignin removal was achieved on FR using of 0.06g H2O2/g-substrate and 9mL GL/g-substrate at 80C. The highest overall ethanol yield was 93.6% of the theoretical. When the ratio of 0.06g/g-H2O2-GL-pretreated FR to CR was 5:1, the ethanol concentration was the same with that ratio of untreated FR to CR of 1:1. Using 0.06g/g-H2O2-GL-pretreated FR with CR at a ratio of 2:1 resulted in 51.9g/L ethanol concentration. Moreover, FR pretreated with GL-H2O2 decreased the concentration of byproducts in SSF compared with that obtained in the previous study.The lignin in FR would inhibit enzyme activity and GL-H2O2 is an advantageous pretreatment method to treat FR and high intensity of FR pretreatment increased the final ethanol concentration. The efficiency of ethanol fermentation of was improved when delignification increased. GL-H2O2 is an advantageous pretreatment method to treat FR. As the pretreatment dosage of GL-H2O2 on FR increased, the proportion of lignocellulosic substrates was enhanced in the SSF of the substrate mixture of CR and FR as compared with untreated FR. Moreover, the final ethanol concentration was increased with a high ethanol yield and lower byproduct concentrations.


PubMed | Beijing Forestry University and Nanjing Institute for the Comprehensive Utilization of Wild Plant
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2016

The seeds of


PubMed | Beijing Forestry University and Nanjing Institute for the Comprehensive Utilization of Wild Plant
Type: | Journal: International journal of biological macromolecules | Year: 2016

The apparent viscosity, molecular weight, and molecular weight distribution are important physical properties that determine the functional properties of galactomannan gum. Gleditsia sinensis gum (GSG) in semi-solid state was pressure cell treated over a range of temperature (30-110 C) under nitrogen maintained at a pressure of 1.0-4.0 MPa. Physicochemical properties of GSG samples both before and after the pressure cell treatment were characterized. These include measurements of rheological properties by LVDV-III Ultra Rheometer, molecular weight and radius of gyration by light scattering, and changes in surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy. GSG had the highest apparent viscosity at a treatment temperature of 30 C; further increase in temperature led to decrease in apparent viscosity. The apparent viscosity of GSG can be efficiently improved at room temperature and low pressure. The process of pressure cell treatment of GSG in semi-solid state could be industrialized for enhancement of rheological properties of galactomannan gum.

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