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Qin P.,Nanjing University | Han R.-M.,Nanjing Normal University | Zhou M.-X.,Nanjing University | Zhang H.-S.,Nanjing University | And 4 more authors.
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2015

Over the past 20 years since its introduction, Kosteletzkya virginica has proved to be one of the optimal halophytes for saline land restoration in China. In six seashore mallow plantations, its well-developed perennial root system promoted the growth of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in the rhizosphere, where the fungus's activity produced total glomalin (TG, ranging from 0.85 to 2.43mgg-1 soil), with a high ratio of TG/SOC (soil organic carbon) up to 53.29% in six-year-old seashore mallow plantation. K. virginica ameliorated the condition of saline soils, promoted native species growth, and increased plant diversity in the plantation sites. Seashore mallow contains many bioactive compounds, e.g., polysaccharides, saponins, flavonoids, etc. which have high bioactivity, and could be used as a fodder additive or for the development of health foods. The leaf, flower, stem and root of K. virginica, serve as raw materials for hierachical development of useful products according to their different properties. This study reviews and summarizes research on K. virginica in China during the past 20 years since its introduction from the USA. Also, we present guidelines for the planting and use of seashore mallow in China, in terms of an ecological engineering roadmap, which illustrates the process and strategy for the restoration of saline soils and designs for biomass industries based on its production. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Peng W.,Jiangsu University | Jiang X.-Y.,Jiangsu University | Zhu Y.,Jiangsu University | Omari-Siaw E.,Jiangsu University | And 4 more authors.
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica | Year: 2015

Aim:To prepare a biodegradable polymeric carrier for oral delivery of a water-insoluble drug capsaicin (CAP) and evaluate its quality.Methods:CAP-loaded methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (CAP/NPs) were prepared using a modified emulsification solvent diffusion technique. The quality of CAP/NPs were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared techniques. A dialysis method was used to analyze the in vitro release profile of CAP from the CAP/NPs. Adult male rats were orally administered CAP/NPs (35 mg/kg), and the plasma concentrations of CAP were measured with a validated HPLC method. The morphology of rat gastric mucosa was studied with HE staining.Results:CAP/NPs had an average diameter of 82.54±0.51 nm, high drug-loading capacity of 14.0%±0.13% and high stability. CAP/NPs showed a biphasic release profile in vitro: the burst release was less than 25% of the loaded drug within 12 h followed by a more sustained release for 60 h. The pharmacokinetics study showed that the mean maximum plasma concentration was observed 4 h after oral administered of CAP/NPs, and approximately 90 ng/mL of CAP was detected in serum after 36 h. The area under the curve for the CAP/NPs group was approximately 6-fold higher than that for raw CAP suspension. Histological studies showed that CAP/NPs markedly reduced CAP-caused gastric mucosa irritation.Conclusion:CAP/NPs significantly enhance the bioavailability of CAP and markedly reduce gastric mucosa irritation in rats. © 2015 CPS and SIMM. Source

Sun L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Sun L.,Nanjing Institute for Comprehensive Utilization of Wild Plants | Ren H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ren H.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | Year: 2010

Various thioredoxin (Trx) proteins have been identified in plants. However, many of the physiological roles played by these proteins remain to be elucidated. We cloned a TRXh- like gene predicted to encode an h-type Trx in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and designated it NtTRXh3, based on the biochemical activity of the NtTRXh3 protein. Overex- pression of NtTRXh3 conferred resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus, both of which showed reduced multiplication and pathogenicity in NtTRXh3- overexpressing plants compared with controls. NtTRXh3 overexpression also enhanced tobacco resistance to oxida- tive stress induced by paraquat, an herbicide that inhibits the production of reducing equivalents by chloroplasts. The NtTRXh3 protein localized exclusively to chloroplasts in coordination with the maintenance of cellular reducing conditions, which accompanied an elevation in the glu- tathione/glutathione disulfide couple ratio. NtTRXh3 gene expression and NtTRXh3 protein production were necessary for these defensive responses, because they were all arrested when NtTRXh3 was silenced and the production of NtTRXh3 protein was abrogated. These results suggest that NtTRXh3 is involved in the resistance of tobacco to virus infection and abiotic oxidative stress. © 2010 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

Qin F.,Nanjing University | Qin F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Tang B.,Yancheng Teachers University | Zhang H.,Nanjing Institute for Comprehensive Utilization of Wild Plants | And 4 more authors.
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2016

This study evaluates the potential use of halophyte Spartina alterniflora (SA) as forage for ruminants by detecting the effect of plant maturity on organic and mineral compositions as well as the effect of increasing dietary inclusion of S. alterniflora on rumen fermentation in dairy cattle. Crude protein (CP), ash content, and in vitro dry matter (DM) digestion of S. alterniflora exhibited a negative correlation with increasing maturity; however, biomass, DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content, and acid detergent fiber (ADF) content showed a positive correlation. Mineral composition drastically changed with increasing plant maturity. Compared with conventional diets, S. alterniflora mixed diets showed higher ash, NDF, ADF, ether extract, and Na, Ca, and P contents, and similar organic matter (OM), CP, and gross energy contents. DM and water intake of dairy cattle linearly increased from 0% to 25% SA in the diet. The mean values of the concentration of total volatile fatty acids (TVFA); the molar percentage of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and isobutyrate; and the acetate-to-propionate ratio did not significantly change at 12:00 h with increasing inclusion level of S. alterniflora in the diet. The initial findings obtained from the feed and rumen fermentation analysis of dairy cattle demonstrate that S. alterniflora can be utilized as potential forage for dairy cattle at less than 25% of the animal's diet. Overall, S. alterniflora could be provided with the potential to improve the sustainability of ruminant production as alternative feeds to replace partially common roughages, alleviate feeding cost and partially control the rapid spread of the invasive plant in salt marsh of China. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.. Source

Zhao Y.,Jiangsu University | Sun C.,Jiangsu University | Shi F.,Jiangsu University | Firempong C.K.,Jiangsu University | And 3 more authors.
Pharmaceutical Biology | Year: 2016

Context: Capsaicin (CAP) is an effective drug in the treatment of pain and cancer. However, its practical administration has been limited due to poor aqueous solubility and bioavailability, as well as strong gastrointestinal irritation. Objective: The objective of this study is to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of CAP by reducing irritation via hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) inclusion complex formulation, in vitro and in vivo analysis. Materials and methods: The complex (CAP-HP-β-CD) was developed via the magnetic stirring method and characterized using ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrometry, infrared radiation (IR) spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Rats were treated with CAP (90 mg × kg-1) or CAP-HP-β-CD (corresponding to 90 mg × kg-1 CAP) by gavage, and all the plasma samples were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: The results of UV, IR, and DSC showed that an acceptable CAP-HP-β-CD (encapsulation efficiency, 75.83%; drug loading, 7.44%) was formulated. In vitro release study of CAP-HP-β-CD revealed that the cumulative release of CAP from HP-β-CD encapsulation was obviously enhanced (above 80% increases). Similarly, the in vivo pharmacokinetics parameters also increased, Cmax (from 737.94 to 1117.57 ng × mL-1), AUC0- (from 5285.9 to 7409.8 ng × h × mL-1) or relative bioavailability (139.38%). The gastric irritation bioassay further showed that the CAP-HP-β-CD was far better than free CAP.Discussion and conclusion: CAP exhibited significant aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability, as well as minimal irritation effect after forming inclusion complex with HP-β-CD. Therefore, these findings could provide an equally important alternative option for the clinical use of CAP. © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted. Source

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