Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
Zhu M.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
River Sedimentation - Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on River Sedimentation, ISRS 2016 | Year: 2017
Sediment deposition is an inevitable problem during the construction of hydraulic and navigation projects in the sub-branchs of tidal river reaches. For sub-branchs along Jiangsu coastal area, researchers have done a lot of works during recent decades. Reciprocating flows were formed due to tidal effects in this area and sediment deposition differs with the intersection angle between mainstream and sub-branch. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London.
Yang X.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering | Year: 2017
Plunging breaker slamming pressures on vertical or sloping sea dikes are one of the most severe and dangerous loads that sea dike structures can suffer. Many studies have investigated the impact forces caused by breaking waves for maritime structures including sea dikes and most predictions of the breaker forces are based on empirical or semi-empirical formulae calibrated from laboratory experiments. However, the wave breaking mechanism is complex and more research efforts are still needed to improve the accuracy in predicting breaker forces. This study proposes a semi-empirical formula, which is based on impulse–momentum relation, to calculate the slamming pressure due to plunging wave breaking on a sloping sea dike. Compared with some measured slamming pressure data in two literature, the calculation results by the new formula show reasonable agreements. Also, by analysing probability distribution function of wave heights, the proposed formula can be converted into a probabilistic expression form for convenience only. © 2016 Society of Naval Architects of Korea
Yang S.-Q.,University of Wollongong |
Dou G.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
Journal of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2010
Friction factor of drag-reducing flow with presence of polymers in a rough pipe has been investigated based on the eddy diffusivity model, which shows that the ratio of effective viscosity caused by polymers to kinematic viscosity of fluid should be proportional to the Reynolds number, i.e. uR/ and the proportionality factor depends on polymer's type and concentration. A formula of flow resistance covering all regions from laminar, transitional and fully turbulent flows has been derived, and it is valid in hydraulically smooth, transitional and fully rough regimes. This new formula has been tested against Nikuradse and Virk's experimental data in both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid flows. The agreement between the measured and predicted friction factors is satisfactory, indicating that the addition of polymer into Newtonian fluid flow leads to the non-zero effective viscosity and it also thickens the viscous sublayer, subsequently the drag is reduced. The investigation shows that the effect of polymer also changes the velocity at the top of roughness elements. Both experimental data and theoretical predictions indicate that, if same polymer solution is used, the drag reduction (DR) in roughened pipes becomes smaller relative to smooth pipe flows at the same Reynolds number. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.
Zhu D.,Nanjing Southeast University |
Zhu D.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
Coastal Engineering | Year: 2011
The present paper extends the impedance analytical method to the study of the interaction of regular plane waves with a row of rectangular piles. The dissipative energy is estimated from the flow resistance for the row of piles. Formulas of wave reflection and transmission coefficients and the wave force for the row of piles are derived. Predictions obtained using the present model agree with experimental data in the literature. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Zhan C.-S.,CAS Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research |
Song X.-M.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute |
Xia J.,CAS Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research |
Tong C.,Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2013
Efficient sensitivity analysis, particularly for the global sensitivity analysis (GSA) to identify the most important or sensitive parameters, is crucial for understanding complex hydrological models, e.g., distributed hydrological models. In this paper, we propose an efficient integrated approach that integrates a qualitative screening method (the Morris method) with a quantitative analysis method based on the statistical emulator (variance-based method with the response surface method, named the RSMSobol' method) to reduce the computational burden of GSA for time-consuming models. Using the Huaihe River Basin of China as a case study, the proposed approach is used to analyze the parameter sensitivity of distributed time-variant gain model (DTVGM). First, the Morris screening method is used to qualitatively identify the parameter sensitivity. Subsequently, the statistical emulator using the multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS) method is chosen as an appropriate surrogate model to quantify the sensitivity indices of the DTVGM. The results reveal that the soil moisture parameter WM is the most sensitive of all the responses of interest. The parameters Kaw and g1 are relatively important for the water balance coefficient (WB) and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS), while the routing parameter RoughRss is very sensitive for the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS) and correlation coefficient (RC) response of interest. The results also demonstrate that the proposed approach is much faster than the brute-force approach and is an effective and efficient method due to its low CPU cost and adequate degree of accuracy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Fu Z.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute |
Chen S.,Chinese Ministry of Water Resources |
Peng C.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
International Journal of Geomechanics | Year: 2014
Typical triaxial compression experiments were revisited to investigate the essential mechanical behavior of rockfill materials to be reflected in constitutive modeling, such as the nonlinear dependence of the strength and the dilation on the confining pressure and the accumulation of permanent strains during cyclic loading. The mathematical descriptions of the axial stress-strain behavior during initial loading, unloading, and reloading were formulated, respectively, which enables us to represent the hysteresis loops directly without recourse to complex concepts and parameters. The axial stress-strain model was then incorporated into the constitutive framework of generalized plasticity for the modeling of cyclic behavior of rockfill materials. This task was fulfilled by defining the elastic modulus, the plastic flow direction tensor, the loading direction tensor, and the plastic modulus for different loading conditions. In particular, the plastic flow direction tensor was derived based on a stress-dilatancy equation considering the influence of loading direction, and the representation of the plastic modulus was established in terms of the tangential modulus and the elastic modulus by using the special constitutive equations under axisymmetric stress states. The cyclic model proposed in this study has three distinct features. First, the hysteresis behavior and the accumulation of permanent strains were unified and described under the framework of generalized plasticity. Second, all the loading phases were treated as elastoplastic processes so that no purely elastic regions exist in the principal stress space. Third, the introduction of two aging functions for the consideration of the hardening effect facilitates the controlling of the magnitudes of permanent strains. There are in total 13 parameters in the model, all of which can be determined easily from (cyclic) triaxial compression experiments. To check the capabilities of the model in reproducing the monotonic and cyclic behavior, typical triaxial compression experiments were simulated with the constitutive equation. Satisfactory agreement between the experimental results and the corresponding model predictions lent sufficient creditability to the effectiveness of the proposed model, which further motivates us to extend the model for more complex stress paths and apply the model in practical engineering in the future. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Shaowei H.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
Automation in Construction | Year: 2014
At present, there is no design specification for the pre-stressed composite beam. To research the bending mechanical behaviors of pre-stressed steel-concrete composite box beams and provide corresponding design specification and requirements, the tests of ten pre-stressed composite box beams were finished, and the effects on flexural behaviors were given for different initial pre-stress levels, the forms of reinforcement placement and loading method and so on. Design calculation methods under serviceability and bearing capacity limits were mainly discussed. Test results indicated that the pre-stressed composite beam displays a lot of advantages compared with ordinary composite beams. The flexural capacity of the composite beams through using pre-stressed technology was greatly increased. The elastic-plastic analysis of the pre-stressed composite beams was finished; what's more, the equations of deflection and elastic bearing capacity with consideration of interface slip were derived out. Calculating equations for ultimate banding capacity were derived with consideration of pre-stress increments. Finally, the calculated values met precise requirements when compared with the test results. This study provides advisory opinions for the designer to analysis and design of the pre-stressed composite beams. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Hu S.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2011
Rotating discs are used widely as important structural elements in mechanical engineering. In order to obtain an optimal structural design, it is necessary to estimate the angular velocity and the stress distribution of a rotating disc in fully plastic state. So Large deformation and discontinuous yield analysis of rotating disks were analyzed by ABAQUS. Moreover, continuous yield, buckling and bifurcation analysis of rotating disk with discontinuous yield were studied. Then, Minidisk model is analyzed using ABAQUS. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications.
Zhang J.-Y.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
Shuikexue Jinzhan/Advances in Water Science | Year: 2010
The history of China's hydrological forecasting and technique progresses are reviewed in this paper, which involves the use of empirical correlations, catchment hydrological modeling, and the development of hydrological forecasting systems. The commonly used methods and models for hydrological forecasting are discussed in detail together with the conditions for applications. The current skill of China's hydrological forecasting techniques is assessed objectively. In-depth analysis of the impacts of intense human-induced land-surface changes and global warming on the catchment runoff generation and flow concentrating is provided. Emerging issues and challenges in hydrological forecasting under a changing environment is also analyzed. Finally, the future direction of China's hydrological forecasting development is prospected together with research focuses on the subject. Copyright.
Hu S.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2012
Rotating discs are used widely as important structural elements in mechanical engineering. In order to obtain an optimal structural design, it is necessary to estimate the angular velocity and the stress distribution of a rotating disc in fully plastic state. So J2 deformation Theory is used for large deformation analysis of axisymmetric rotating disk. The bursting speed of rotating disk, the stress distribution at instability and analysis on the elastic-plastic interface of rotating disk are studies in detail. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.