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Zhang R.,Nanjing Forestry University | Peng F.,Nanjing Forestry University | Li Y.,Nanjing Green Universe Pecan Science and Technology Co
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015

China is the world's largest market for pecans and imports more than a third of the U.S. pecan crop to meet its needs. Since 2008, pecan cultivation in China has been a rapidly growing industry. This paper summarizes the history of pecan importation and cultivation in China, the suitability of various cultivars for different regions, propagation techniques, major pests and diseases, pecan processing, and relevant research conducted in China. We also discuss current issues with pecan production in China and possible solutions to these challenges. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang R.,Nanjing Forestry University | Peng F.-R.,Nanjing Forestry University | Yan P.,Nanjing Forestry University | Cao F.,Nanjing Forestry University | And 4 more authors.
HortScience | Year: 2015

Root systems of pecan trees are usually dominated by a single taproot with few lateral roots, which are commonly thought to inhibit successful transplanting. This study aimed to evaluate early growth and root/shoot development of pecan seedlings in response to taproot pruning. Taproots of ‘Shaoxing’ seedling pecan trees were mildly (1/3 of the total length of the radicle removed) and severely (2/3 of the total length of the radicle removed) pruned at different seedling development stages shortly after germination. At the end of the first growing season, top growth was measured and then trees were uprooted so that root system regrowth could be evaluated. The results showed that root pruning had no impact on increases in stem height or stem diameter. However, pruning the taproot could stimulate primary growth in taproot branches. Root weight and the number of taproot branches per tree increased with decreasing taproot length. This study indicated that severe root pruning when three to five leaves had emerged resulted in root systems with more taproot branches and the greatest root dry weight after one growth season, which may increase survival and reduce transplanting shock. © 2015, American Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.


Mo Z.,CAS Institute of Botany | Zhang J.,CAS Institute of Botany | Zhai M.,Nanjing Green Universe Pecan Science and Technology Co | Xuan J.,CAS Institute of Botany | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Resources and Environment | Year: 2013

Flowering phenology (including blossom process of single flower and flowering period of male and female flowers, pollen shedding stage of male flower and receptivity stage of female flower) of eighteen cultivars (strain) of Carya illinoensis (Wangench.) K. Koch planted in Nanjing was observed and compared. The results show that blossom process of male single flower of eighteen cultivars (strain) includes five stages of perianth dehiscence, male flower turning yellow, anther shedding pollen, anther turning black and floret falling off, lasting days of blossom process of male flower are 13-22 d; most male flowers of all cultivars (strain) enter into the early flowering stage at the last of April and enter into the late stage of flower dropping at the middle and last of May, and lasting days of the whole flowering period of male flower are 16-24 d. Blossom process of female single flower of eighteen cultivars (strain) also includes five stages of ovary appearing, stigma dehiscence, stigma inverse-eight-shape, stigma withering and ovary enlargement, its lasting days are 14-22 d; most female flowers of all cultivars (strain) enter into the early flowering stage at the last of April and enter into the final flowering stage at the middle of May, and lasting days of the whole flowering period of female flower are 12-23 d. Days of receptivity stage of female flower of eighteen cultivars (strain) are 3-10 d and those of pollen shedding stage of male flower are 4-9 d, those of pollen shedding stage of male flower and receptivity stage of female flower for twelve cultivars (strain) could be determined to protogynous type, five cultivars protandrous type and only one cultivar homogamy type; twenty-two feasible pollination combinations could be selected according to these observation results. The appropriate configuration scheme of cultivars is 'Mahan', 'Sioux', 'Jinhua', 'Caddo' and 'Pawnee'.


Li Y.-R.,Nanjing Green Universe Pecan Science and Technology Co | Li X.-C.,Nanjing Green Universe Pecan Science and Technology Co | Li X.-C.,CAS Institute of Botany | Wu W.-L.,Senior Scientists and Technicians Association in Agriculture Committee of Jiangsu Province | And 2 more authors.
Forest Research | Year: 2013

In this study, the nut characteristics of sixty-six Carya illinoensis seedlings introduced to Nanjing in the 1950s were investigated. All traits of these varieties, including the fruit weight, kernel rate, oil yield, fruit shape index, nutshell thickness, fruits' transect diameter, fruit width and fruit longitude diameter, showed significant differences and great potential of genetic improvement. There was no relationship among the fruit shape index, fruit weight, kernel rate, oil yield and nutshell thickness of the sixty-six C. illinoensis seedlings. The pecan can be classified and selected based on the fruit index. According to the fruit index classification by standard deviation, four excellent individuals were selected from eleven big fruit index groups by general coordinate evaluation method. The fruit index and fruit weight of four excellent individual increased by 11.90%-17.26% and 2.81%-21.84% compared with the control group, the nutshell thickness decreased by 1.96%-13.73% except one, the fruit kernel increased by 8.01%-24.33%, and the oil content increased by 6.14%-31.14%. Compared with Jiangsu's native good variety Zhongshan 25, the fruit index increased by 39.26%-45.93%, the fruit weight increased by 7.39%-17.80%(VI westig is similar with control group), the kernel rate increased by 8.56%-15.44%, the nutshell thickness decreased by 0.97%-14.56%, the average fruit kernel increased by 8.01%-24.33%, and the oil content increased by 6.14%-31.14%. Nine excellent individuals were selected from forty-four middle fruit index groups by general coordinate evaluation method. Generally, their fruit weight and oil yield increased by 12.95%-25.43%, 2.51%-7.68% compared with that of the control group, the nutshell thickness decreased by 4.90%-14.71%, the kernel rate increased by 1.56%-6.35%, the average fruit kernel increased by 8.01%-26.71%, and the oil content increased by 6.14%-31.14%. Compared with Zhongshan 25, the fruit weight increased by 12.36%-24.72%, the fruit index increased by 11.85%-37.77%, the nutshell thickness decreased by 5.83%-15.53%, the kernel rate increased by 4.17%-14.36%, while the oil content remained the similar. The average fruit kernel increased by 10.98%-30.18%, and the oil content increased by 15.35%-33.77%. Three excellent individual were selected from eleven small fruit index groups by general coordinate evaluation method. The oil yield was similar or slightly higher compared with the control group, the fruit weight and kernel rate increased by 17.32%-24.96% and 1.10%-29.30% (except some individuals), the fruit index decreased by 11.33%-17.86%, the average fruit kernel increased by 10.68%-26.11%, and the oil content increased by 6.14%-33.33%. Compared with Zhongshan 25, the fruit index increased by 2.22%-10.37%, the nutshell thickness decreased by 0.97%-6.80%, the fruit weight increased by 13.42%-20.81%, the kernel rate increased by 5.14%-37.33%, and the oil content and average fruit kernel increased by 13.72%-29.57% and 6.14%-33.33%. The selected excellent individuals can be used in the grafting propagation, clone test and variety breeding.

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