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Xu L.,Nanjing Agricultural UniversityJiangsu Province | Yan D.,Nanjing Agricultural UniversityJiangsu Province | Yan D.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Marine Biology | Ren X.,Nanjing Agricultural UniversityJiangsu Province | And 7 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2016

In this study, we examined whether vermicompost enhances a plant's tolerance to salinity. We analyzed the physiological responses of the aerial parts and roots of the herbal stress-resistant plants blessed thistle and peppermint with NaCl and cow manure vermicompost and inorganic fertilizer. Salinity greatly enhanced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline in the aerial parts and roots of the two species, but did not affect chlorophyll content. The K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ ratios and the total soluble protein content were decreased in the aerial parts and roots under salinity conditions in both species. Under normal conditions, vermicompost enhanced plant growth and increased the K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ ratios and total soluble protein content while inorganic fertilizer treatment increased the total soluble protein content and proline content in both species. Proline content in both species was greatly decreased under vermicompost treatment than inorganic treatment under normal conditions. Furthermore, under high salinity conditions, vermicompost treatment significantly reduced the MDA content and increased total soluble protein content and the K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ ratios than stress-treated plants. Vermicompost had complex effects on the antioxidant enzyme activities of plants grown under high salinity treatment. Our results show vermicompost mitigates the effects of salinity stress. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Rui X.,Nanjing Agricultural UniversityJiangsu Province | Xing G.,Nanjing Agricultural UniversityJiangsu Province | Zhang Q.,Nanjing Agricultural UniversityJiangsu Province | Zare F.,McGill University | And 2 more authors.
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies | Year: 2016

The current study was conducted to compare the protein bioaccessibility of soymilk and two soymilk curds generated by fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum B1-6 and Lactobacillus plantarum 70810. Soluble protein content, degree of hydrolysis, and electrophoretic patterns were monitored during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the soymilk and curds. Soluble protein content of digested soymilk was 2.0–2.6 times higher than that of digested curds as measured by the Bradford assay. The degree of hydrolysis was 1.6 times higher in digested soymilk than in digested soymilk curds as determined by the ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) method. Electrophoretic data showed that soymilk curds had slower protein digestion rates during simulated gastric and intestinal digestion. The soy protein 7S α′, 7S α and 11S acidic subunits and a peptide of 28 kDa were observed even after simulated intestinal digestion. The different degradation profiles suggest that the soymilk curd hinders enzymatic hydrolysis during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Industrial relevance Soymilk curd is a popular food in East and Southeast Asian countries. Lactic acid fermentation is an emerging technology to form soymilk curds that creates a product with improved functional and probiotic properties. The purpose of the present study was to compare protein degradation profiles of soymilk curds produced by fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum B1-6 and 70810, and of soymilk using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion system. Results of the study will expand the knowledge base of the effects of this novel coagulation technology on the nutritional characteristics, especially protein bioaccessibility of soymilk curds and thus would be expected to provide fundamental information in the future application of the emerging coagulation technology using lactic acid bacteria. © 2016


Wang R.K.,Jiujiang UniversityJiangxi Province | Zhan S.F.,Jiujiang UniversityJiangxi Province | Zhao T.J.,Nanjing Agricultural UniversityJiangsu Province | Zhou X.L.,Jiujiang UniversityJiangxi Province | Wang C.E.,Jiujiang UniversityJiangxi Province
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2015

Isoflavonoids and the related synthesis enzyme, chalcone isomerase 1 (CHI1), are unique in the Leguminosae, with diverse biological functions. Among the Leguminosae, the soybean is an important oil, protein crop, and model plant. In this study, we aimed to detect the generation pattern of Leguminosae CHI1. Genome-wide sequence analysis of CHI in 3 Leguminosae and 3 other closely related model plants was performed; the expression levels of soybean chalcone isomerases were also analyzed. By comparing positively selected sites and their protein structures, we retrieved the evolution patterns for Leguminosae CHI1. A total of 28 CHI and 7 FAP3 (CHI4) genes were identified and separated into 4 clades: CHI1, CHI2, CHI3, and FAP3. Soybean genes belonging to the same chalcone isomerase subfamily had similar expression patterns. CHI1, the unique chalcone isomerase subfamily in Leguminosae, showed signs of significant positive selection as well as special expression characteristics, indicating an accelerated evolution throughout its divergence. Eight sites were identified as undergoing positive selection with high confidence. When mapped onto the tertiary structure of CHI1, these 8 sites were observed surrounding the enzyme substrate only; some of them connected to the catalytic core of CHI. Thus, we inferred that the generation of Leguminosae CHI1 is dependent on the positively selected amino acids surrounding its catalytic substrate. In other words, the evolution of CHI1 was driven by specific selection or processing conditions within the substrate. © FUNPEC-RP.


Two new species of the Rhyacophila angulata Species Group are diagnosed, described and illustrated. Rhyacophila asymmetra n. sp. from Guang-dong Province can be separated from other members of the group by asymmetrical parameres and by the apicodorsal lobe abruptly narrowed in the apical one-third. Rhyacophila dentalis n. sp. from Guang-xi resembles R. longistyla in male genitalia, but can be diagnosed by the sinuate anterior margin of segment IX, by the absence of apicolateral teeth on the apicodorsal lobe of segment IX, and by the presence of a blunt tooth on the upper margin of the basal segment of each inferior appendage. New collection data are added for R. longistyla, extending its distribution southward to Guang-dong and Guang-xi Provinces. Rhyacophila tetraphylla has been transferred from the R. naviculata Species Group to the R. angulata Group with new collection data. A checklist of the species group is provided, and its distribution is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Magnolia Press.


Zhang Z.,Nanjing Agricultural UniversityJiangsu Province | Chen Z.,Nanjing Agricultural UniversityJiangsu Province | Hou Y.,Nanjing Agricultural UniversityJiangsu Province | Duan Y.,Nanjing Agricultural UniversityJiangsu Province | And 3 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2015

Carbendazim, a methyl benzimidazole carbamate (MBC)-group fungicide, has been used to control rice bakanae disease, caused by Fusarium fujikuroi (teleomorph: Gibberella fujikuroi), for decades in China. Previous research revealed that point mutations (E198V, GAG to GTG at codon 198, and F200Y, TTC to TAC at codon 200) of the β2-tubulin gene conferred resistance of F. fujikuroi to MBC. In this study, primer-introduced restriction analysis polymerase chain reaction (PIRA-PCR) was developed to determine genotypes with resistance of F. fujikuroi to MBC. A PCR template of each strain was created by an outer primer pair. Fragments with 177 bp (for mutation at codon 235) and 146 bp (for E198V) were amplified by nested PCR, with two inner primer pairs designed and synthesized according to the nucleotide sequence of β2-tubulin for further enzyme digestion validation, respectively. AccII and PmaCI restriction enzyme recognition sites were introduced artificially by inner primers to differentiate MBC-sensitive and -resistant strains, respectively. The sensitivity of each strain to MBC was indirectly determined by analyzing electrophoresis patterns of the resulting amplified fragments after simultaneous digestion by both AccII and PmaCI. PIRA-PCR produced the same result as conventional methods in 6% of the time. PIRA-PCR is a sensitive and effective method for genotyping resistance alleles of F. fujikuroi strains to MBC. © 2015 The American Phytopathological Society.


Yu M.,Nanjing Agricultural UniversityJiangsu Province | Xu Y.,Nanjing Agricultural UniversityJiangsu Province | Yu D.,Nanjing Agricultural UniversityJiangsu Province | Du W.,Nanjing Agricultural UniversityJiangsu Province
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2015

Many genes participate in the process of ovarian germ cell development, while the combined action mechanisms of these molecular regulators still need clarification. The present study was focused on determination of differentially expressed genes and gene functions at four critical time points in chicken ovarian development. Comparative transcriptional profiling of ovaries from embryonic day 5.5 (E5.5), E12.5, E15.5 and E18.5 was performed using an Affymetrix GeneChip chicken genome microarray. Differential expression patterns for genes specifically depleted and enriched in each stage were identified. The results showed that most of the up- and downregulated genes were involved in the metabolism of retinoic acid (RA) and synthesis of hormones. Among them, a higher number of up- and downregulated genes in the E15.5 ovary were identified as being involved in steroid biosynthesis and retinol metabolism, respectively. To validate gene changes, expressions of twelve candidate genes related to germ cell development were examined by real-time PCR and found to be consistent with the of GeneChip data. Moreover, the immunostaining results suggested that ovarian development during different stages was regulated by different genes. Furthermore, a Raldh2 knockdown chicken model was produced to investigate the fundamental role of Raldh2 in meiosis initiation. It was found that meiosis occurred abnormally in Raldh2 knockdown ovaries, but the inhibitory effect on meiosis was reversed by the addition of exogenous RA. This study offers insights into the profile of gene expression and mechanisms regulating ovarian development, especially the notable role of Raldh2 in meiosis initiation in the chicken. © 2015 by the Society for Reproduction and Development.

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