Nanjing Agricultural University

www.njau.edu.cn
Nanjing, China

Nanjing Agricultural University, NAU, is a public university located in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, China. It offers courses in agriculture and science. Wikipedia.


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Disclosed is a synergistic sterilizing and preserving method for fresh meat with high voltage electric field plasma and nano photocatalysis, which belongs to the technical field of cold sterilization of food package. The method comprises the steps: uniformly mixing a photocatalyst, a coupling agent and coating liquid at a high speed, performing the coupling to obtain modified coating liquid, smearing the coating liquid onto fee surface of a plastic packaging film to obtain a packaging material with a photocatalytic bacteriostatic function, packaging fresh meat in an MAP (modified atmosphere packing) manner by adopting the bacteriostatic packaging material, wherein a coating containing fee photocatalytic material is disposed at the inner side of a package, placing the packed fresh meat between two electrodes of a plasma generating device, and performing the plasma sterilization under the condition of a high voltage electric field.


News Article | May 31, 2017
Site: phys.org

In recent decades, scientists have discovered that many traits in living things are controlled not just by their genetics—what's written in the code of their DNA—but also by processes outside their DNA that determine whether, when and how much the genes are expressed, known as epigenetics. This opens up the possibility of entirely new ways to breed plants and animals. By selectively turning gene expression on and off, breeders could create new varieties without altering the genes. In this latest study, the researchers identified more than 500 genes that are epigenetically modified between wild cotton varieties and domesticated cotton, some of which are known to relate to agronomic and domestication traits. This information could aid selection for the kinds of traits that breeders want to alter, like fiber yield or resistance to drought, heat or pests. For example, varieties of wild cotton might harbor genes that help them respond better to drought, but have been epigenetically silenced in domesticated cotton. "This understanding will allow us to supplement genetic breeding with epigenetic breeding," says Chen, the D. J. Sibley Centennial Professor of Plant Molecular Genetics in the Department of Molecular Biosciences. "Since we know now how epigenetic changes affect flowering and stress responses, you could reactivate stress-responsive genes in domesticated cotton." In a study published today in the journal Genome Biology, Chen and his colleagues at Texas A&M University and Nanjing Agricultural University in China report they produced a "methylome"—a list of genes and genetic elements that have been switched on or off through a natural process called DNA methylation. A methylome provides important clues for biotechnology firms that want to adapt crops through epigenetic modification. This methylome covers the most widely grown form of cotton, known as Upland or American cotton; its cousin, Pima or Egyptian cotton; and their wild relatives, while showing how these plants changed over more than a million years. "Knowing how the methylome changed during evolution and domestication will help bring this technology one step closer to reality," says Chen. Cotton is the top fiber crop grown in the world, with more than 150 countries involved in cotton export and import. Annual business revenue stimulated by cotton in the U.S. economy exceeds $100 billion, making it America's No. 1 value-added crop. The researchers discovered changes in DNA methylation occurred as wild varieties combined to form hybrids, the hybrids adapted to changes in their environment and finally, humans domesticated them. One key finding is that the change that allowed cotton to go from a plant adapted to grow only in the tropics to one that grows in many parts of the world was not a genetic change, but an epigenetic one. The researchers found that wild cotton contains a methylated gene that prevents it from flowering when daylight hours are long—as they are in the summer in many places, including the United States and China. In domesticated cotton, the same gene lost this methylation, allowing the gene to be expressed, an epigenetic change that allowed cotton to go global. Chen says modern breeders can modify gene methylation with chemicals or through modified gene-editing technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9. These methods could allow breeders to make targeted changes to a plant's epigenome and create new breeds with improved traits. Epigenetic breeding could be applied not just to cotton but to many other major crops such as wheat, canola, coffee, potatoes, bananas and corn. The new research builds on the most complete genetic sequence map of American (or Upland) cotton to date, which was also developed by Chen and his collaborators in 2015. Earlier research traced the origins of domesticated cotton back 1.5 million years, when two different wild species formed a hybrid that eventually gave rise to modern Upland and Pima cotton species. Chen and his team found that the DNA methylation changes in a similar hybrid made today were shared with those in wild and cultivated cottons, suggesting that these changes have persisted through evolution, selection and domestication. That's good news for breeders who want to be sure that changes they make today won't quickly fade away in future generations. Explore further: Genetic road map may bring about better cotton crops More information: Qingxin Song et al, Epigenomic and functional analyses reveal roles of epialleles in the loss of photoperiod sensitivity during domestication of allotetraploid cottons, Genome Biology (2017). DOI: 10.1186/s13059-017-1229-8


News Article | May 31, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

With prices down and weather patterns unpredictable, these are tough times for America's cotton farmers, but new research led by Z. Jeffrey Chen at The University of Texas at Austin might offer a break for the industry. He and a team have taken the first step toward a new way of breeding heartier, more productive cotton through a process called epigenetic modification. In recent decades, scientists have discovered that many traits in living things are controlled not just by their genetics--what's written in the code of their DNA--but also by processes outside their DNA that determine whether, when and how much the genes are expressed, known as epigenetics. This opens up the possibility of entirely new ways to breed plants and animals. By selectively turning gene expression on and off, breeders could create new varieties without altering the genes. In this latest study, the researchers identified more than 500 genes that are epigenetically modified between wild cotton varieties and domesticated cotton, some of which are known to relate to agronomic and domestication traits. This information could aid selection for the kinds of traits that breeders want to alter, like fiber yield or resistance to drought, heat or pests. For example, varieties of wild cotton might harbor genes that help them respond better to drought, but have been epigenetically silenced in domesticated cotton. "This understanding will allow us to supplement genetic breeding with epigenetic breeding," says Chen, the D. J. Sibley Centennial Professor of Plant Molecular Genetics in the Department of Molecular Biosciences. "Since we know now how epigenetic changes affect flowering and stress responses, you could reactivate stress-responsive genes in domesticated cotton." In a study published today in the journal Genome Biology, Chen and his colleagues at Texas A&M University and Nanjing Agricultural University in China report they produced a "methylome"--a list of genes and genetic elements that have been switched on or off through a natural process called DNA methylation. A methylome provides important clues for biotechnology firms that want to adapt crops through epigenetic modification. This methylome covers the most widely grown form of cotton, known as Upland or American cotton; its cousin, Pima or Egyptian cotton; and their wild relatives, while showing how these plants changed over more than a million years. "Knowing how the methylome changed during evolution and domestication will help bring this technology one step closer to reality," says Chen. Cotton is the top fiber crop grown in the world, with more than 150 countries involved in cotton export and import. Annual business revenue stimulated by cotton in the U.S. economy exceeds $100 billion, making it America's No. 1 value-added crop. The researchers discovered changes in DNA methylation occurred as wild varieties combined to form hybrids, the hybrids adapted to changes in their environment and finally, humans domesticated them. One key finding is that the change that allowed cotton to go from a plant adapted to grow only in the tropics to one that grows in many parts of the world was not a genetic change, but an epigenetic one. The researchers found that wild cotton contains a methylated gene that prevents it from flowering when daylight hours are long--as they are in the summer in many places, including the United States and China. In domesticated cotton, the same gene lost this methylation, allowing the gene to be expressed, an epigenetic change that allowed cotton to go global. Chen says modern breeders can modify gene methylation with chemicals or through modified gene-editing technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9. These methods could allow breeders to make targeted changes to a plant's epigenome and create new breeds with improved traits. Epigenetic breeding could be applied not just to cotton but to many other major crops such as wheat, canola, coffee, potatoes, bananas and corn. The new research builds on the most complete genetic sequence map of American (or Upland) cotton to date, which was also developed by Chen and his collaborators in 2015. Earlier research traced the origins of domesticated cotton back 1.5 million years, when two different wild species formed a hybrid that eventually gave rise to modern Upland and Pima cotton species. Chen and his team found that the DNA methylation changes in a similar hybrid made today were shared with those in wild and cultivated cottons, suggesting that these changes have persisted through evolution, selection and domestication. That's good news for breeders who want to be sure that changes they make today won't quickly fade away in future generations.


News Article | May 31, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

With prices down and weather patterns unpredictable, these are tough times for America's cotton farmers, but new research led by Z. Jeffrey Chen at The University of Texas at Austin might offer a break for the industry. He and a team have taken the first step toward a new way of breeding heartier, more productive cotton through a process called epigenetic modification. In recent decades, scientists have discovered that many traits in living things are controlled not just by their genetics -- what's written in the code of their DNA -- but also by processes outside their DNA that determine whether, when and how much the genes are expressed, known as epigenetics. This opens up the possibility of entirely new ways to breed plants and animals. By selectively turning gene expression on and off, breeders could create new varieties without altering the genes. In this latest study, the researchers identified more than 500 genes that are epigenetically modified between wild cotton varieties and domesticated cotton, some of which are known to relate to agronomic and domestication traits. This information could aid selection for the kinds of traits that breeders want to alter, like fiber yield or resistance to drought, heat or pests. For example, varieties of wild cotton might harbor genes that help them respond better to drought, but have been epigenetically silenced in domesticated cotton. "This understanding will allow us to supplement genetic breeding with epigenetic breeding," says Chen, the D. J. Sibley Centennial Professor of Plant Molecular Genetics in the Department of Molecular Biosciences. "Since we know now how epigenetic changes affect flowering and stress responses, you could reactivate stress-responsive genes in domesticated cotton." In a study published in the journal Genome Biology, Chen and his colleagues at Texas A&M University and Nanjing Agricultural University in China report they produced a "methylome" -- a list of genes and genetic elements that have been switched on or off through a natural process called DNA methylation. A methylome provides important clues for biotechnology firms that want to adapt crops through epigenetic modification. This methylome covers the most widely grown form of cotton, known as Upland or American cotton; its cousin, Pima or Egyptian cotton; and their wild relatives, while showing how these plants changed over more than a million years. "Knowing how the methylome changed during evolution and domestication will help bring this technology one step closer to reality," says Chen. Cotton is the top fiber crop grown in the world, with more than 150 countries involved in cotton export and import. Annual business revenue stimulated by cotton in the U.S. economy exceeds $100 billion, making it America's No. 1 value-added crop. The researchers discovered changes in DNA methylation occurred as wild varieties combined to form hybrids, the hybrids adapted to changes in their environment and finally, humans domesticated them. One key finding is that the change that allowed cotton to go from a plant adapted to grow only in the tropics to one that grows in many parts of the world was not a genetic change, but an epigenetic one. The researchers found that wild cotton contains a methylated gene that prevents it from flowering when daylight hours are long -- as they are in the summer in many places, including the United States and China. In domesticated cotton, the same gene lost this methylation, allowing the gene to be expressed, an epigenetic change that allowed cotton to go global. Chen says modern breeders can modify gene methylation with chemicals or through modified gene-editing technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9. These methods could allow breeders to make targeted changes to a plant's epigenome and create new breeds with improved traits. Epigenetic breeding could be applied not just to cotton but to many other major crops such as wheat, canola, coffee, potatoes, bananas and corn. The new research builds on the most complete genetic sequence map of American (or Upland) cotton to date, which was also developed by Chen and his collaborators in 2015. Earlier research traced the origins of domesticated cotton back 1.5 million years, when two different wild species formed a hybrid that eventually gave rise to modern Upland and Pima cotton species. Chen and his team found that the DNA methylation changes in a similar hybrid made today were shared with those in wild and cultivated cottons, suggesting that these changes have persisted through evolution, selection and domestication. That's good news for breeders who want to be sure that changes they make today won't quickly fade away in future generations.


News Article | May 31, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

With prices down and weather patterns unpredictable, these are tough times for America's cotton farmers, but new research led by Z. Jeffrey Chen at The University of Texas at Austin might offer a break for the industry. He and a team have taken the first step toward a new way of breeding heartier, more productive cotton through a process called epigenetic modification. In recent decades, scientists have discovered that many traits in living things are controlled not just by their genetics--what's written in the code of their DNA--but also by processes outside their DNA that determine whether, when and how much the genes are expressed, known as epigenetics. This opens up the possibility of entirely new ways to breed plants and animals. By selectively turning gene expression on and off, breeders could create new varieties without altering the genes. In this latest study, the researchers identified more than 500 genes that are epigenetically modified between wild cotton varieties and domesticated cotton, some of which are known to relate to agronomic and domestication traits. This information could aid selection for the kinds of traits that breeders want to alter, like fiber yield or resistance to drought, heat or pests. For example, varieties of wild cotton might harbor genes that help them respond better to drought, but have been epigenetically silenced in domesticated cotton. "This understanding will allow us to supplement genetic breeding with epigenetic breeding," says Chen, the D. J. Sibley Centennial Professor of Plant Molecular Genetics in the Department of Molecular Biosciences. "Since we know now how epigenetic changes affect flowering and stress responses, you could reactivate stress-responsive genes in domesticated cotton." In a study published today in the journal Genome Biology, Chen and his colleagues at Texas A&M University and Nanjing Agricultural University in China report they produced a "methylome"--a list of genes and genetic elements that have been switched on or off through a natural process called DNA methylation. A methylome provides important clues for biotechnology firms that want to adapt crops through epigenetic modification. This methylome covers the most widely grown form of cotton, known as Upland or American cotton; its cousin, Pima or Egyptian cotton; and their wild relatives, while showing how these plants changed over more than a million years. "Knowing how the methylome changed during evolution and domestication will help bring this technology one step closer to reality," says Chen. Cotton is the top fiber crop grown in the world, with more than 150 countries involved in cotton export and import. Annual business revenue stimulated by cotton in the U.S. economy exceeds $100 billion, making it America's No. 1 value-added crop. The researchers discovered changes in DNA methylation occurred as wild varieties combined to form hybrids, the hybrids adapted to changes in their environment and finally, humans domesticated them. One key finding is that the change that allowed cotton to go from a plant adapted to grow only in the tropics to one that grows in many parts of the world was not a genetic change, but an epigenetic one. The researchers found that wild cotton contains a methylated gene that prevents it from flowering when daylight hours are long--as they are in the summer in many places, including the United States and China. In domesticated cotton, the same gene lost this methylation, allowing the gene to be expressed, an epigenetic change that allowed cotton to go global. Chen says modern breeders can modify gene methylation with chemicals or through modified gene-editing technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9. These methods could allow breeders to make targeted changes to a plant's epigenome and create new breeds with improved traits. Epigenetic breeding could be applied not just to cotton but to many other major crops such as wheat, canola, coffee, potatoes, bananas and corn. The new research builds on the most complete genetic sequence map of American (or Upland) cotton to date, which was also developed by Chen and his collaborators in 2015. Earlier research traced the origins of domesticated cotton back 1.5 million years, when two different wild species formed a hybrid that eventually gave rise to modern Upland and Pima cotton species. Chen and his team found that the DNA methylation changes in a similar hybrid made today were shared with those in wild and cultivated cottons, suggesting that these changes have persisted through evolution, selection and domestication. That's good news for breeders who want to be sure that changes they make today won't quickly fade away in future generations. Chen's co-authors are Qingxin Song at UT Austin, Tianzhen Zhang at Nanjing Agricultural University in China and David Stelly at Texas A&M University. Funding for this research was provided by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Natural Science Foundation of China.


Patent
Nanjing Agricultural University | Date: 2017-01-23

A Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistant gene Tafhb1 of wheat and uses thereof are disclosed, in which the FHB resistant gene Tafhb1 of wheat has a cDNA sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO. 1. A protein TaFHB1 encoded by the FHB resistant gene Tafhb1 of wheat has an amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO. 2. The protein includes 274 amino acids, and has an isoelectric point of 10.85. The FHB resistant gene Tafhb1 of wheat is transferred to wheat by crossing and multiple generations of backcrossing, to increase the resistance of wheat to FHB. Because the gene is an endogenous gene existing in the cereal crop wheat, the presence of the gene has no influence on the food safety of plants, such that the gene can be used in crop breeding.


Chen Z.J.,University of Texas at Austin | Chen Z.J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2013

Heterosis, also known as hybrid vigour, is widespread in plants and animals, but the molecular bases for this phenomenon remain elusive. Recent studies in hybrids and allopolyploids using transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, epigenomic and systems biology approaches have provided new insights. Emerging genomic and epigenetic perspectives suggest that heterosis arises from allelic interactions between parental genomes, leading to altered programming of genes that promote the growth, stress tolerance and fitness of hybrids. For example, epigenetic modifications of key regulatory genes in hybrids and allopolyploids can alter complex regulatory networks of physiology and metabolism, thus modulating biomass and leading to heterosis. The conceptual advances could help to improve plant and animal productivity through the manipulation of heterosis. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Xue J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

It is a good solution to produce biodiesel by using waste edible oils (WEO), such as waste cooking oils and used frying oils, due to its low cost, disposal problems and potential contamination. Therefore, WEO biodiesels has been gradually produced, and thus applied to study their effects on engine performances and emissions. However, few reviews about these studies have been published to assist understanding and popularization for WEO biodiesels so far. This paper attempts to cite and analyze highly rated journals in scientific indexes about combustion characteristics, engine power, economy, regulated emissions and non-regulated emissions of WEO biodiesels on diesel engine. The use of WEO biodiesels leads to the slight difference in combustion characteristics such as ignition delay, rate of pressure rise, peak pressure and heat release rate, and the substantial reduction in PM, HC and CO emissions accompanying with the imperceptible power loss, the increase in fuel consumption and NOx emission on conventional diesel engines with no or fewer modification, compared to diesel. Although the inconsistent conclusions have been made on CO2 emission of biodiesels from WEO, it reduces greatly from the view of the life cycle circulation of CO2. For non-regulated emissions, the reduction appears for PAH emissions but carbonyl compounds emissions have discordant results for WEO biodiesels. Therefore, WEO biodiesels have the similar combustion characteristics, engine performances and emissions to that of biodiesels from food-grade oils, and the blends of WEO biodiesel with small content by volume could replace the petroleum-based diesel fuel to help in controlling air pollution, encouraging the collection and recycling of waste edible oil to produce biodiesels and easing the pressure on scarce resources to a great extent without significantly sacrificing engine power, economy and emissions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Dou D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhou J.-M.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology
Cell Host and Microbe | Year: 2012

Phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes invade and colonize their host plants through distinct routes. These pathogens secrete diverse groups of effector proteins that aid infection and establishment of different parasitic lifestyles. Despite this diversity, a comparison of different plant-pathogen systems has revealed remarkable similarities in the host immune pathways targeted by effectors from distinct pathogen groups. Immune signaling pathways mediated by pattern recognition receptors, phytohormone homeostasis or signaling, defenses associated with host secretory pathways and pathogen penetrations, and plant cell death represent some of the key processes controlling disease resistance against diverse pathogens. These immune pathways are targeted by effectors that carry a wide range of biochemical functions and are secreted by completely different pathogen groups, suggesting that these pathways are a common battleground encountered by many plant pathogens. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Patent
Nanjing Agricultural University and Plant Bioscience Ltd | Date: 2016-10-04

The invention relates to transgenic plants with improved growth and nitrogen use efficiency expressing nitrate transporter gene, methods of making such plants and methods for improving growth and nitrogen use efficiency.

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