Nanjing, China

Nanjing Agricultural University, NAU, is a public university located in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, China. It offers courses in agriculture and science. Wikipedia.

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Disclosed is a synergistic sterilizing and preserving method for fresh meat with high voltage electric field plasma and nano photocatalysis, which belongs to the technical field of cold sterilization of food package. The method comprises the steps: uniformly mixing a photocatalyst, a coupling agent and coating liquid at a high speed, performing the coupling to obtain modified coating liquid, smearing the coating liquid onto fee surface of a plastic packaging film to obtain a packaging material with a photocatalytic bacteriostatic function, packaging fresh meat in an MAP (modified atmosphere packing) manner by adopting the bacteriostatic packaging material, wherein a coating containing fee photocatalytic material is disposed at the inner side of a package, placing the packed fresh meat between two electrodes of a plasma generating device, and performing the plasma sterilization under the condition of a high voltage electric field.

Hu M.Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Mao F.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Sun H.,GuangXi Meteorological Bureau
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation | Year: 2011

Using NOAA/AVHRR 10-day composite NDVI data and 10-day meteorological data, including air temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure, wind velocity and sunshine duration, at 19 weather stations in the three-river-source region in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China from 1982 to 2000, the variations of NDVI and climate factors were analyzed for the purpose of studying the correlation between climate change and vegetation growthasrepresentedbyNDVIin this region. Results showed that the NDVI values in this region gradually grew from the west to the east, and the distribution was consistent with that of moisture status. The growing season came earlier due to climate warming, yet because of the reduction of precipitation, maximal NDVI during 1982-2000 did not show a significant change. NDVI related positively to air temperature, vapor pressure and precipitation, but negatively related to sunshine duration and wind velocity. Furthermore, the response of NDVI to climate change showed time lags for different climate factors. Water condition and temperature were found to be the most important factors effecting the variation of NDVI during the growing season in both the semi-arid and the semi-humid areas.In addition, NDVI had a better correlation with vapor pressure than with precipitation. The ratio of precipitation to evapotranspiration, representing water gain and loss, can be regarded as a comprehensive index to analyze NDVI and climate change, especially in areas where the water condition plays a dominant role. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Chen Y.,Harvard University | Chen Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cao S.,Harvard University | Chai Y.,Harvard University | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2012

The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is widely used in agriculture as a biocontrol agent able to protect plants from a variety of pathogens. Protection is thought to involve the formation of bacterial communities - biofilms - on the roots of the plants. Here we used confocal microscopy to visualize biofilms on the surface of the roots of tomato seedlings and demonstrated that biofilm formation requires genes governing the production of the extracellular matrix that holds cells together. We further show that biofilm formation was dependent on the sensor histidine kinase KinD and in particular on an extracellular CACHE domain implicated in small molecule sensing. Finally, we report that exudates of tomato roots strongly stimulated biofilm formation ex planta and that an abundant small molecule in the exudates, L-malic acid, was able to stimulate biofilm formation at high concentrations in a manner that depended on the KinD CACHE domain. We propose that small signalling molecules released by the roots of tomato plants are directly or indirectly recognized by KinD, triggering biofilm formation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Chen Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chen Y.,Harvard University | Yan F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chai Y.,Harvard University | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2013

Summary: Bacillus subtilis and other Bacilli have long been used as biological control agents against plant bacterial diseases but the mechanisms by which the bacteria confer protection are not well understood. Our goal in this study was to isolate strains of B.subtilis that exhibit high levels of biocontrol efficacy from natural environments and to investigate the mechanisms by which these strains confer plant protection. We screened a total of 60 isolates collected from various locations across China and obtained six strains that exhibited above 50% biocontrol efficacy on tomato plants against the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum under greenhouse conditions. These wild strains were able to form robust biofilms both in defined medium and on tomato plant roots and exhibited strong antagonistic activities against various plant pathogens in plate assays. We show that plant protection by those strains depended on widely conserved genes required for biofilm formation, including regulatory genes and genes for matrix production. We provide evidence suggesting that matrix production is critical for bacterial colonization on plant root surfaces. Finally, we have established a model system for studies of B.subtilis-tomato plant interactions in protection against a plant pathogen. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Carter C.A.,University of California at Davis | Zhong F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy | Year: 2012

In the past thirty years, China has made great strides in terms of boosting food production while simultaneously reducing the number of its rural poor. This success was largely accomplished through agricultural policy and trade reform, food market liberalization, and public investment in agricultural infrastructure and agricultural research. However, there is much more economic development work to be done in rural China, as issues such as an aging agricultural workforce, land-use rights, and water shortages persist. At the same time, increased urbanization and the rising middle class are changing the demand for food in China. This article outlines the issues facing Chinese agriculture and connects those issues to the global marketplace. © The Author(s) 2012. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of Agricultural and Applied Economics Association. All rights reserved.

Tsimilli-Michael M.,Ath. Phylactou str. | Strasser R.J.,Rte du Petit Lullier | Strasser R.J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Strasser R.J.,North West University South Africa | Strasser R.J.,University of Geneva
Photosynthesis Research | Year: 2013

Several models have been proposed for the energetic behavior of the photosynthetic apparatus and a variety of experimental techniques are nowadays available to determine parameters that can quantify this behavior. The Energy Flux Theory (EFT) developed by Strasser 35 years ago provides a straightforward way to formulate any possible energetic communication between any complex arrangement of interconnected pigment systems and any energy transduction by these systems. We here revisit the EFT, starting from the basic general definitions and equations and presenting applications in formulating the energy distribution in photosystem (PS) II units with variable connectivity, as originally derived, where certain simplifications were adopted. We then proceed to the derivation of equations for a PSII model of higher complexity, which corresponds, from the formalistic point of view, to the later formulated and now broadly accepted exciton-radical-pair model. We also compare the formulations derived with the EFT with those obtained, by different approaches, in the classic papers on energetic connectivity. Moreover, we apply the EFT for the evaluation of the excitation energy distribution between PSII and PSI and the distinction between state transitions and PSII to PSI excitation energy migration. Our analysis demonstrates that the EFT is a powerful approach for the formulation of any possible model, at any complexity level, even of models that may be proposed in the future, with the advantage that any possible energetic communication or energy transduction can be easily formulated mathematically by trivial algebraic equations. Moreover, the biophysical parameters introduced by the EFT and applicable for any possible model can be linked with obtainable experimental signals, provided that the theoretical resolution of the model does not go beyond the experimental resolution. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Merel P.,University of California at Davis | Yi F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lee J.,ETH Zurich | Six J.,ETH Zurich
American Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2014

We develop a programming model of crop production to predict the effects of environmental policies on agriculture and the environment. The model is calibrated against acreages, yields, and exogenous supply elasticities following positive mathematical programming. In addition, crop production functions are calibrated to yield elasticities with respect to nitrogen and irrigation obtained from a biogeochemical model. We study the effects of a nitrogen tax in Yolo County, California, intended to mitigate nitrogen pollution from field crops. The behavioral and environmental responses to the tax are largely due to intensive margin adjustments. Sizable reductions in nitrate leaching are achieved at a low social cost. © 2013 The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association. All rights reserved.

Zhang D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang D.,Henan Agricultural University | Song H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cheng H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2014

Phosphorus (P) is essential for all living cells and organisms, and low-P stress is a major factor constraining plant growth and yield worldwide. In plants, P efficiency is a complex quantitative trait involving multiple genes, and the mechanisms underlying P efficiency are largely unknown. Combining linkage analysis, genome-wide and candidate-gene association analyses, and plant transformation, we identified a soybean gene related to P efficiency, determined its favorable haplotypes and developed valuable functional markers. First, six major genomic regions associated with P efficiency were detected by performing genome-wide associations (GWAs) in various environments. A highly significant region located on chromosome 8, qPE8, was identified by both GWAs and linkage mapping and explained 41% of the phenotypic variation. Then, a regional mapping study was performed with 40 surrounding markers in 192 diverse soybean accessions. A strongly associated haplotype (P = 10-7) consisting of the markers Sat_233 and BARC-039899-07603 was identified, and qPE8 was located in a region of approximately 250 kb, which contained a candidate gene GmACP1 that encoded an acid phosphatase. GmACP1 overexpression in soybean hairy roots increased P efficiency by 11-20% relative to the control. A candidate-gene association analysis indicated that six natural GmACP1 polymorphisms explained 33% of the phenotypic variation. The favorable alleles and haplotypes of GmACP1 associated with increased transcript expression correlated with higher enzyme activity. The discovery of the optimal haplotype of GmACP1 will now enable the accurate selection of soybeans with higher P efficiencies and improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying P efficiency in plants. © 2014 Zhang et al.

Cao F.L.,Nanjing Forestry University | Zhang X.H.,Nanjing Forestry University | Yu W.W.,Nanjing Forestry University | Zhao L.G.,Nanjing Forestry University | Wang T.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

Aspergillus niger-fermented Ginkgo biloba leaves (FR) and its comparative effect with vitamin E (VE) and nonfermented (NF) Ginkgo leaves on growth, lipid metabolism, antioxidant capacity, and meat quality of broiler chicks were investigated. In total, 360 oneday- old broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 6 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as control group (basal diet), VE group (containing respectively 15 and 30 IU/kg of all-rac-α-tocopherol acetate in the starter and grower phase), NF group (containing respectively 0.35% and 0.7% NF in the starter and grower phase), and FR1, FR2, and FR3 groups containing respectively 0.2, 0.35, and 0.5% FR in the starter and 0.4, 0.7, and 1.0% FR in the grower phase. The results on performance showed that a significant (P < 0.05) reduction of feed:gain ratio of birds in the FR2 group (22-42 d and 1-42 d) was observed when compared with that of the control and NF groups. With dietary FR increasing, the serum α-tocopherol concentration increased linearly (P = 0.001). Compared with the control, broilers had higher (P < 0.05) serum high-density lipoprotein concentration, total superoxide dismutase activities, and total antioxidant capacity when they were provided with the FR2 and FR3 diet. Whereas the low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride concentrations were lower (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) in broilers from FR2 or FR3 groups. As the dietary FR increased, abdominal fat (P = 0.002) and muscle malondialdehyde (P = 0.001) concentrations decreased. Furthermore, 24-h pH, 24-h drip loss, and cooking loss were greatly improved (P < 0.05) as the levels of FR increased. Birds fed with FR had a lower (P < 0.05) C16:0 and C18:0 concentrations but a greater (P = 0.001) concentration of C18:2, C18:3, and C20:4 than that of the control. In conclusion, FR can improve the growth performance and lipid metabolism of broilers with decreased abdominal fat deposition. Also, the antioxidant capacity and meat quality improving effects observed in broilers fed FR products might result from the increased retention of α-tocopherol and reduction in lipid peroxidation, as evidenced by the decrease in malondialdehyde and the increase in total superoxide dismutase activities. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Guo J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Du Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lan Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Mao J.,Old Dominion University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

In this study, the photodegradation process of methyl orange (MO) catalyzed by Fe(III) and citric acid and the reaction kinetics were investigated in detail at pHs from 2 to 8. The results show that the photodegradation of MO is slow in the presence of Fe(III) or citric acid alone. However, it is markedly enhanced when Fe(III) and citric acid coexist. High initial citric acid or initial Fe(III) concentrations lead to increased photodegradation of MO. And Fe(III) citrate mediated photodegradation of MO is optimized at pH 6. The photoproduction of hydroxyl radicals (·OH) in different catalytic systems was determined by HPLC. And the concentrations of Fe(II) and citric acid concentration in the process of the reaction were analyzed. The photodegradation of MO obeys to pseudo-zero order kinetics with respect to MO and the degradation reaction occurs in two phases. At the initial initiation stage, degradation rate is relatively slow, and significantly increases at a later acceleration stage. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Dai R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yu C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Gou J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lan Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Mao J.,Old Dominion University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

In the present study, exposure of Cr(III)-tar to full light of medium pressure mercury lamps and a xenon lamp was conducted in batch reaction systems at 25°C and different pH values to predict the potential for Cr(III) oxidation. The results indicated that the more intense irradiation and higher pH facilitated Cr(III)-tar oxidation. It appears that a ligand-to-metal charge-transfer occurs for Cr(III)-tar after irradiation, leading to the generation of Cr(II) and tar• or •OH. The accompanying photochemical decomposition of tar/or tar, together with O 2, further caused the formation of •OH through multiple pathways, which ultimately converted Cr(II) to Cr(VI) step by step. H 2O 2, a direct source of •OH under irradiation, significantly enhanced photooxidation of Cr(III)-tar, but not obviously of aqueous Cr(III) or Cr(III)-tar in dark, implying that Cr(II) acts as a precursor of Cr(III) oxidization to Cr(VI). © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Zhang C.,Jinling Institute of Technology | Li G.,Nanjing Forestry University | Zhu S.,Jinling Institute of Technology | Zhang S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Fang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Bioinformatics | Year: 2014

Summary: In plants, many trans-acting small interfering RNA (ta-siRNA) regulatory pathways have been identified as significant components of the gene networks involved in development, metabolism, responses to biotic and abiotic stresses and DNA methylation at the TAS locus. To obtain a more comprehensive understanding on the nature of ta-siRNA regulatory pathways, we developed a freely accessible resource, tasiRNAdb, to serve as a repository for the sequences of ta-siRNA regulatory pathway-related microRNAs, TASs, ta-siRNAs and ta-siRNA targets, and for the cascading relations among them. With 583 pathways from 18 species, tasiRNAdb is the largest resource for known ta-siRNA regulatory pathways currently available. tasiRNAdb also provides a tool named TasExpAnalysis that was developed to map user-submitted small RNA and degradome libraries to a stored/input TAS and to perform sRNA phasing analysis and TAS cleavage analysis. © 2013 The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Zhang C.,Jinling Institute of Technology | Li G.,Nanjing Forestry University | Wang J.,Nanjing University | Fang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Bioinformatics | Year: 2012

Motivation: Trans-acting small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs) play an essential role in the regulation of plant gene expression, but relevant reports are still limited. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that many ta-siRNA-producing loci (TASs) are present in plants, implying the existence of as yet undiscovered ta-siRNAs and related regulatory pathways. To expand our knowledge of these plant gene regulators, we applied high-throughput computational and experimental methods to grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).Results: Based on bioinformatic predictions, we identified 49 TASs from 49 055 small RNA clusters. Using RNA degradome analysis, we experimentally validated 5 TASs, 22 ta-siRNAs and 37 ta-siRNA targets. The cis-activities of ta-siRNAs were also confirmed, which suggested an inactive mechanism of TAS transcription, and a produced mechanism of multiple forms of small RNA from same TAS. We examined the conservation of newly identified ta-siRNA regulatory cascades and found that while the cascade related to vviTAS3 was conserved, cascades related to vviTAS7, vviTAS8, vviTAS9 and vviTAS10 were grape-specific. These results broaden the known scope of ta-siRNA regulation. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Cao X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Guo J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Mao J.,Old Dominion University | Lan Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

The soluble Cr(III) is likely to be complexed with organic ligands in ligand-rich soil. Cr(VI) chemical reduction by organic acids and bioreduction by microorganisms can produce soluble Cr(III)-organic acids complexes. Thus, it is of great significance to investigate the absorption and mobility of Cr(III)-organic acid complexes in soils. In this study, Cr(III)-EDTA and Cr(III)-cit were prepared and purified, and then were examined for adsorption and mobility. The results demonstrated that Cr(III) was strongly bound to soil, while Cr(III)-organic acid complexes had no or slight interaction with soils since Cr(III)-EDTA and Cr(III)-cit complexes mainly existed as the forms of [Cr(III)-EDTA] - and [Cr(III)-cit], respectively, under the tested conditions with initial pH 4.0-9.0. The adsorption of Cr(III) increased but that of Cr(III)-organic acid complexes decreased with the content of soil organic matter. Compared with Cr(III)-EDTA, the mobility of Cr(III)-cit in soil columns was reduced, due to the specific adsorption between soils and Cr(III)-cit which contained one free hydroxyl group. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Zhu Y.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhu Y.,Cornell University | Du B.,Cornell University | Du B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

Activation of plant immune responses is often associated with an inhibition of plant growth. The molecular mechanisms underlying this fitness cost are unknown. Here, we utilize the autoimmune response mutant suppressor of npr1, constitutive1 (snc1) resulting from an activated form of the Disease Resistance (R) gene to dissect the genetic component mediating growth inhibition in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The radical-induced cell death1 (rcd1) mutant defective in responses to reactive oxygen species (ROS) was isolated as an enhancer of the snc1 mutant in growth inhibition but not in defense response activation. Similarly, the vitamin C2 (vtc2) and vtc3 mutants defective in ROS detoxification enhanced the growth defects of snc1. Thus, perturbation of ROS status by R gene activation is responsible for the growth inhibition, and this effect is independent of defense response activation. This was further supported by the partial rescue of growth defects of rcd1 snc1 by the respiratory burst oxidase homolog D (rbohD) and rbohF mutations compromising the generation of ROS burst. Collectively, these findings indicate that perturbation of ROS homeostasis contributes to the fitness cost independent of defense activation. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

Liu S.,China National Rice Research Institute | Ding Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yang B.,China National Rice Research Institute | Liu Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful strategy for gene function study in insects. Here, we described the development of a RNAi technique by microinjection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Based on the mortality and RNAi efficiency criteria, the conjunctive between prothorax and mesothorax was selected as the injection site and 50 nl as injection volume. Three genes with different expression patterns were selected to evaluate the RNAi efficiency. A comparable 40% decrease of gene expression was observed at the 4th day after injection for the ubiquitously expressed calreticulin and the gut specific cathepsin-B genes, but only 25% decrease at the 5th day for the central nervous system specific Nlβ2gene. Double injection could increase the RNAi efficiency, such as from 25% to 53% for Nlβ2 gene. The gene knockdown technique developed in this study will be an essential post-genomic tool for further investigations in N. lugens. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Gan D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ma L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jiang C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zeng X.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2011

The production, preliminary characterization and antitumor activity in vitro of mycelial polysaccharides from Pholiota dinghuensis Bi (PDP) were investigated in the present study. Firstly, crude PDP was prepared from the mycelia of P. dinghuensis Bi by submerged culture. Then, the crude PDP was purified by chromatography of DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100, resulting three purified fractions of PDP-1, PDP-2 and PDP-3. We found that the monosaccharide composition of PDP-3 was greatly different from that of PDP-1 or PDP-2. In addition, it contained the highest contents of protein, sulfate and uronic acid among the polysaccharides tested. Furthermore, PDP-3 exhibited higher antiproliferative activity against human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells in vitro than crude PDP, PDP-1 or PDP-2. At a concentration of 400 mg/L and an exposure time of 72 h, the inhibition rates for crude PDP, PDP-2 and PDP-3 were 69.36%, 73.65% and 85.78%, respectively. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Teixeira da Silva J.A.,Kagawa University | Shinoyama H.,Fukui Agricultural Experiment Station | Aida R.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Matsushita Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 2 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

Chrysanthemum is globally the second most important ornamental in terms of socioeconomic importance. Even though the vast range of flower colors, shapes and forms were initially created using conventional and mutation breeding, transgenic strategies are now more frequently used with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation being the most popular form of introducing foreign genes into chrysanthemums. Even so, transformation efficiency remains dependent on cultivar and regeneration procedure. Transgenic molecular breeding has seen the introduction of important traits such as novel flower color and form and plant architecture, prolonged cut-flower vase-life, resistance to biotic stresses such as viruses/viroids, pathogens and insects. However, chimerism and transgene silencing continue to be limiting factors. Transgenic strategies, despite opening up new avenues for creating new cultivars with improved agronomic and horticultural traits, may be limited due to the risk of transgenic pollen escaping into the wild. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Qiao Y.,University of California at Riverside | Liu L.,University of California at Riverside | Liu L.,Xinjiang University | Xiong Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 13 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2013

Effectors are essential virulence proteins produced by a broad range of parasites, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, protozoa, insects and nematodes. Upon entry into host cells, pathogen effectors manipulate specific physiological processes or signaling pathways to subvert host immunity. Most effectors, especially those of eukaryotic pathogens, remain functionally uncharacterized. Here, we show that two effectors from the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora sojae suppress RNA silencing in plants by inhibiting the biogenesis of small RNAs. Ectopic expression of these Phytophthora suppressors of RNA silencing enhances plant susceptibility to both a virus and Phytophthora, showing that some eukaryotic pathogens have evolved virulence proteins that target host RNA silencing processes to promote infection. These findings identify RNA silencing suppression as a common strategy used by pathogens across kingdoms to cause disease and are consistent with RNA silencing having key roles in host defense. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Jiang T.-Y.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Jiang T.-Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jiang J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Xu R.-K.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Li Z.,Nanjing Forestry University
Chemosphere | Year: 2012

Two Ultisols and one Oxisol from tropical regions of southern China were incubated with rice straw biochar to investigate the effect of biochar on their surface charge and Pb(II) adsorption using batch methods. The incorporation of biochar induced a remarkable increase in soil cation exchange capacity after 30d of incubation. The incorporation of biochar significantly increased the adsorption of Pb(II) by these variable charge soils; the enhancement of adsorption of Pb(II) by these soils increased with the addition level of biochar. Adsorption of Pb(II) involved both electrostatic and non-electrostatic mechanisms; however, biochar mainly increased Pb(II) adsorption through the non-electrostatic mechanism via the formation of surface complexes between Pb2+ and functional groups on biochar. There was greater enhancement of biochar on the non-electrostatic adsorption of Pb(II) by the variable charge soils at relatively low pH. Therefore, the incorporation of biochar decreased the activity and availability of Pb(II) to plants through increased non-electrostatic adsorption of Pb(II) by acidic variable charge soils. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Jiang J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Xu R.-K.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Jiang T.-Y.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Jiang T.-Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li Z.,Nanjing Forestry University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

To develop new remediation methods for acidic soils polluted by heavy metals, the chemical fractions of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) in an Ultisol with and without rice straw biochar were compared and the effect of biochar incorporation on the mobility and bioavailability of these metals was investigated. In light of the decreasing zeta potential and increasing CEC, the incorporation of biochar made the negative soil surface charge more negative. Additionally, the soil pH increased markedly after the addition of biochar. These changes in soil properties were advantageous for heavy metal immobilization in the bulk soil. The acid soluble Cu(II) and Pb(II) decreased by 19.7-100.0% and 18.8-77.0%, respectively, as the amount of biochar added increased. The descending range of acid soluble Cd(II) was 5.6-14.1%, which was much lower than that of Cu(II) and Pb(II). When 5.0. mmol/kg of these heavy metals was added, the reducible Pb(II) for treatments containing 3% and 5% biochar was 2.0 and 3.0 times higher than that of samples without biochar, while the reducible Cu(II) increased by 61.6% and 132.6% for the corresponding treatments, respectively. When 3% and 5% biochar was added, the oxidizable portion of Pb(II) increased by 1.18 and 1.94 times, respectively, while the oxidizable portion of Cu(II) increased by 8.13 and 7.16 times, respectively, primarily due to the high adsorption affinity of functional groups of biochar to Cu(II). The residual heavy metal contents were low and changed little with the incorporation of biochar. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Li D.-Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xue M.-Y.,China Institute of Technology | Geng Z.-R.,Nanjing University | Chen P.-Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Background/Aim: Bursopentine (BP5) is a novel thiol-containing pentapeptide isolated from chicken bursa of Fabricius, and is reported to exert immunomodulatory effects on B and T lymphocytes. It has been found that some thiol compounds, such as glutathione (GSH) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) protect living cells from oxidative stress. This led us to investigate whether BP5 had any ability to protect macrophages from oxidative stress as well as any mechanism that might underlie this process. Methods: Murine peritoneal macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (2 μg/ml) were treated with single bouts (0, 25, 50, and 100 μM) of BP5. Results: BP5 potently suppressed the markers for oxidative stress, including nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation. It also decreased the expression and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and promoted a protective antioxidant state by elevating GSH content and by activating the expression and activity of certain key antioxidant and redox enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). This suppressive effect on oxidative stress was accompanied by down-regulated expression and activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that BP5 can protect LPS-activated murine peritoneal macrophages from oxidative stress. BP5 may have applications as an anti-oxidative stress reagent. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Yin H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Fan G.,Nanjing Forestry University | Gu Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Effect of culture conditions (temperature, initial pH value and volume) on the bioaccumulation of selenium (Se) in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM) in this paper. The combined effects of culture conditions on Se yield were studied using a three-level three-factor Box-Behnken design. Fermentation was carried out at different temperature (24-32 °C), initial pH value (4-7) and volume (40-100 mL). The results showed that the optimum conditions for Se enrichment of yeast were found at temperature 27.4 °C, initial pH value 5.8 and volume 89.4 mL. Total Se yield was significantly affected by culture temperature (P < 0.05), initial pH value (P < 0.01) and volume (P < 0.01). Using a culture medium supplemented with 15 μg/mL sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) added at 9 h after inoculation which is the logarithmic growth phase, the maximum biomass and total Se yield in yeast could reach 9.23 g/L and 5.90 mg/L, respectively, which were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of the control (8.82 g/L and 4.31 mg/L). © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gaidenko T.A.,University of California at Davis | Bie X.,University of California at Davis | Bie X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Baldwin E.P.,University of California at Davis | Price C.W.,University of California at Davis
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2011

The stressosome is a multiprotein, 1.8-MDa icosahedral complex that transmits diverse environmental signals to activate the general stress response of Bacillus subtilis. The way in which it senses these cues and the pathway of signal propagation within the stressosome itself are poorly understood. The stressosome core consists of four members of the RsbR coantagonist family together with the RsbS antagonist; its cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) image suggests that the N-terminal domains of the RsbR proteins form homodimers positioned to act as sensors on the stressosome surface. Here we probe the role of the N-terminal domain of the prototype coantagonist RsbRA by making structure-based amino acid substitutions in potential interaction surfaces. To unmask the phenotypes caused by single-copy rsbRA mutations, we constructed strains lacking the other three members of the RsbR coantagonist family and assayed system output using a reporter fusion. Effects of five individual alanine substitutions in the prominent dimer groove did not match predictions from an earlier in vitro assay, indicating that the in vivo assay was necessary to assess their influence on signaling. Additional substitutions expected to negatively affect domain dimerization had substantial impact, whereas those that sampled other prominent surface features had no consequence. Notably, even mutations resulting in significantly altered phenotypes raised the basal level of system output only in unstressed cells and had little effect on the magnitude of subsequent stress signaling. Our results provide evidence that the N-terminal domain of the RsbRA coantagonist affects stressosome function but offer no direct support for the hypothesis that it is a signal sensor. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

Yan J.,University of Kentucky | Yan J.,Purdue University | Gu Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jia X.,University of Kentucky | And 6 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2012

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other endogenous small RNAs act as sequence-specific regulators of the genome, transcriptome, and proteome in eukaryotes. The interrogation of small RNA functions requires an effective, widely applicable method to specifically block small RNA function. Here, we report the development of a highly effective technology that targets specific endogenous miRNAs or small interfering RNAs for destruction in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that the expression of a short tandem target mimic (STTM), which is composed of two short sequences mimicking small RNA target sites, separated by a linker of an empirically determined optimal size, leads to the degradation of targeted small RNAs by small RNA degrading nucleases. The efficacy of the technology was demonstrated by the strong and specific developmental defects triggered by STTMs targeting three miRNAs and an endogenous siRNA. In summary, we developed an effective approach for the destruction of endogenous small RNAs, thereby providing a powerful tool for functional genomics of small RNA molecules in plants and potentially animals. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists.

Kale S.D.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Gu B.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Gu B.,Northwest University, China | Capelluto D.G.S.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | And 11 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2010

Pathogens of plants and animals produce effector proteins that are transferred into the cytoplasm of host cells to suppress host defenses. One type of plant pathogens, oomycetes, produces effector proteins with N-terminal RXLR and dEER motifs that enable entry into host cells. We show here that effectors of another pathogen type, fungi, contain functional variants of the RXLR motif, and that the oomycete and fungal RXLR motifs enable binding to the phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P). We find that PI3P is abundant on the outer surface of plant cell plasma membranes and, furthermore, on some animal cells. All effectors could also enter human cells, suggesting that PI3P-mediated effector entry may be very widespread in plant, animal and human pathogenesis. Entry into both plant and animal cells involves lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. Blocking PI3P binding inhibited effector entry, suggesting new therapeutic avenues. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Wang B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lu D.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2012

The impacts of watershed urbanization on streams have been studied worldwide, but are rare in China. We examined relationships among watershed land uses and stream physicochemical and biological attributes, impacts of urbanization on overall stream conditions, and the response pattern of macroinvertebrate assemblage metrics to the percent of impervious area (PIA) of watersheds in the middle section of the Qiantang River, Zhejiang Province, China. Environmental variables and benthic macroinvertebrates of 60 stream sites with varied levels of watershed urban land use were sampled in April, 2010. Spearman correlation analysis showed watershed urbanization levels significantly correlated with increased stream depth, width, and values of conductivity, total nitrogen, ammonia, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, and chemical oxygen demand for the study streams. There was significant difference in total taxa richness, Empheroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa richness, and Diptera taxa richness, percentages of individual abundances of EPT, Chironomidae, shredders, filterers, and scrapers, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index between reference streams and urban impacted streams. In contrast, percentages of individual abundances for collectors, oligochaeta, and tolerant taxa, and biotic index were significantly higher in urban impacted than reference streams. All the above metrics were significantly correlated with PIA. The response patterns of total taxa richness, EPT taxa richness, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index followed a drastic decrease at thresholds of 3. 6, 3. 7, and 5. 5% of PIA, respectively. Our findings indicate that stream benthic macroinvertebrate metrics are effective indicators of impacts of watershed urban development, and the PIA-imperviousness thresholds we identified could potentially be used for setting benchmarks for watershed development planning and for prioritizing high valued stream systems for protection and rehabilitation. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Zhang A.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cui L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Pan G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2010

A field trial was performed to investigate the effect of biochar at rates of 0, 10 and 40tha-1 on rice yield and CH4 and N2O emissions with or without N fertilization in a rice paddy from Tai Lake plain, China. The paddy was cultivated with rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. Wuyunjing 7) under a conventional water regime. Soil emissions of CH4 and N2O were monitored with a closed chamber method throughout the whole rice growing season (WRGS) at 10 day intervals. Biochar amendments of 10tha-1 and 40tha-1 increased rice yields by 12% and 14% in unfertilized soils, and by 8.8% and 12.1% in soils with N fertilization, respectively. Total soil CH4-C emissions were increased by 34% and 41% in soils amended with biochar at 40tha-1 compared to the treatments without biochar and with or without N fertilization, respectively. However, total N2O emissions were sharply decreased by 40-51% and by 21-28%, respectively in biochar amended soils with or without N fertilization. The emission factor (EF) was reduced from 0.0042kgN2O-Nkg-1 N fertilized with no biochar to 0.0013kgN2O-Nkg-1 N fertilized with biochar at 40tha-1. The results show that biochar significantly increased rice yields and decreased N2O emission, but increased total CH4 emissions. Summary calculations based on this experiment data set provide a basis for estimating the potential reductions in GHG emissions that may be achieved by incorporating biochar into rice paddy soils in south-eastern China. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Sun J.-T.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lian C.,University of Tokyo | Navajas M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Hong X.-Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
BMC Genetics | Year: 2012

Background: Two colour forms of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) coexist in China: a red (carmine) form, which is considered to be native and a green form which is considered to be invasive. The population genetic diversity and population genetic structure of this organism were unclear in China, and there is a controversy over whether they constitute distinct species. To address these issues, we genotyped a total of 1,055 individuals from 18 red populations and 7 green populations in China using eight microsatellite loci.Results: We identified 109 alleles. We found a highly significant genetic differentiation among the 25 populations (global F ST= 0.506, global F ST {ENA}= 0.473) and a low genetic diversity in each population. In addition, genetic diversity of the red form mites was found to be higher than the green form. Pearson correlations between statistics of variation (AR and H E) and geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude) showed that the genetic diversity of the red form was correlated with latitude. Using Bayesian clustering, we divided the Chinese mite populations into five clades which were well congruent with their geographic distributions.Conclusions: Spider mites possess low levels of genetic diversity, limit gene flow between populations and significant and IBD (isolation by distance) effect. These factors in turn contribute to the strong subdivision of genetic structure. In addition, population genetic structure results don't support the separation of the two forms of spider mite into two species. The morphological differences between the two forms of mites may be a result of epigenetic effects. © 2012 Sun et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Ye W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ma W.,University of California at Riverside
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2016

Filamentous eukaryotic pathogens including fungi and oomycetes are major threats of plant health. During the co-evolutionary arms race with the hosts, these pathogens have evolved a large repertoire of secreted virulence proteins, called effectors, to facilitate colonization and infection. Many effectors are believed to directly manipulate targeted processes inside the host cells; and a fundamental function of the effectors is to dampen immunity. Recent evidence suggests that the destructive oomycete pathogens in the genus Phytophthora encode RNA silencing suppressors. These effectors play an important virulence role during infection, likely through their inhibitory effect on host small RNA-mediated defense. © 2016.

Wei Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shi F.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Reproduction | Year: 2013

Poly(ADP-ribosylation), which occurs rapidly in cells following DNA damage and is regulated by poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1(PARP1), is a post-translational modification of proteins playing a crucial role in many processes, including DNA repair and cell death. Although PARP1 has recently been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, its role in the process of follicular development and atresia is not yet completely defined. This study was designed to investigate the cellular expression pattern and immunolocalization of PARP1, cleaved PARP1, caspase 3, and cleaved caspase 3 in fetal, neonatal, and adult porcine ovaries. Our results showed that in fetal and neonatal pigs, PARP1 cleavage is involved in the process of oocyte nest breakdown, primordial follicle formation, and transition to primary follicles. The results of immunohistochemistry indicated that PARP1 cleavage was involved in the process of follicular development and atresia, which was in accordance with our previous study; however, it was noted that cleaved caspase 3 was mainly localized in and around the nucleus of apoptotic granulosa cells (GCs), whereas cleaved PARP1 was mainly localized in the nucleus of the apoptotic GCs. RIA data showed increased serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations with age after birth. Collectively, our findings suggest that the PARP1 signaling pathway is involved in oocyte nest breakdown and primordial follicle formation in fetal and neonatal porcine ovaries, but is different from follicular atresia in adult porcine ovaries that involves cellular apoptosis. © 2013 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

Gaidenko T.A.,University of California at Davis | Bie X.,University of California at Davis | Bie X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Baldwin E.P.,University of California at Davis | Price C.W.,University of California at Davis
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2012

The stressosome is a 1.8-MDa cytoplasmic complex that conveys environmental signals to the αB stress factor of Bacillus subtilis. A functionally irreducible complex contains multiple copies of three proteins: the RsbRA coantagonist, RsbS antagonist, and RsbT serine-threonine kinase. Homologues of these proteins are coencoded in different genome contexts in diverse bacteria, forming a versatile sensing and transmission module called RST after its common constituents. However, the signaling pathway within the stressosome itself is not well defined. The N-terminal, nonheme globin domains of RsbRA project from the stressosome and are presumed to channel sensory input to the C-terminal STAS domains that form the complex core. A conserved, 13-residue α-helical linker connects these domains. We probed the in vivo role of the linker using alanine scanning mutagenesis, assaying stressosome output in B. subtilis via a σB-dependent reporter fusion. Substitutions at four conserved residues increased output 4- to 30-fold in unstressed cells, whereas substitutions at four nonconserved residues significantly decreased output. The periodicity of these effects supports a model in which RsbRA functions as a dimer in vivo, with the linkers forming parallel paired helices via a conserved interface. The periodicity further suggests that the opposite, nonconserved faces make additional contacts important for efficient stressosome operation. These results establish that the linker influences stressosome output under steady-state conditions. However, the stress response phenotypes of representative linker substitutions provide less support for the notion that the N-terminal globin domain senses acute environmental challenge and transmits this information via the linker helix. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

Terra R.,University of California at Los Angeles | Stanley-Wall N.R.,University of California at Los Angeles | Stanley-Wall N.R.,University of Dundee | Cao G.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2012

Biofilms of microbial cells encased in an exopolymeric matrix can form on solid surfaces, but how bacteria sense a solid surface and upregulate biofilm genes is largely unknown. We investigated the role of the Bacillus subtilis signal peptidase, SipW, which has a unique role in forming biofilms on a solid surface and is not required at an air-liquid interface. Surprisingly, we found that the signal peptidase activity of SipW was not required for solid-surface biofilms. Furthermore, a SipW mutant protein was constructed that lacks the ability to form a solid-surface biofilm but still retains signal peptidase activity. Through genetic and gene expression tests, the non-signal peptidase role of SipW was found to activate biofilm matrix genes specifically when cells were on a solid surface. These data provide the first evidence that a signal peptidase is bifunctional and that SipW has a regulatory role in addition to its role as a signal peptidase. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

Han N.-Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang Z.,Nanjing Forestry University
Proceedings - 2016 8th International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation, ICMTMA 2016 | Year: 2016

Digitization has played a profound role in promoting the transition of the traditional teaching mode of landscape architecture. The traditional teaching mode of the landscape architecture curriculum cannot fully meet the needs of the new design curriculum. Based on the existing problems and taking advantage of digitization technology platform, this paper proposes to build a landscape architecture micro teaching mode to promote a motivational pedagogy highlighting the cultivation of students' individual ability and encourages individual innovation, a feedback teaching mechanism with the interaction between teachers and students as its core, and a multi-interactive micro teaching mode based on information interaction, with the hope to make up for the insufficiency of the traditional teaching mode, stimulate students' initiative, enthusiasm and innovation in learning landscape architecture, enhance teaching results, and finally establish a personalized and international micro teaching mode for the landscape architecture major. © 2016 IEEE.

Remigi P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Remigi P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Remigi P.,Massey University | Zhu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2016

Bacterial accessory genes are genomic symbionts with an evolutionary history and future that is different from that of their hosts. Packages of accessory genes move from strain to strain and confer important adaptations, such as interaction with eukaryotes. The ability to fix nitrogen with legumes is a remarkable example of a complex trait spread by horizontal transfer of a few key symbiotic genes, converting soil bacteria into legume symbionts. Rhizobia belong to hundreds of species restricted to a dozen genera of the Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, suggesting infrequent successful transfer between genera but frequent successful transfer within genera. Here we review the genetic and environmental conditions and selective forces that have shaped evolution of this complex symbiotic trait. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhang K.,Shanghai University | Zhang K.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhu X.,Shanghai University | Wang J.,Nanjing University | And 3 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

A novel strategy for the fabrication of electrochemical aptasensor is proposed in this work, and the strategy has been employed to develop an aptasensor for the assay of adenosine deaminase activity. While a well-designed oligonucleotide containing three functional regions (an adenosine aptamer region, a G-quadruplex halves region, and a linker region) is adopted in our strategy as the core element, the enzymatic reaction of adenosine catalyzed by adenosine deaminase plays a key role as well in the regulation of the binding of the G-quadruplex halves with hemin, the electroactive probe, which is to reflect the activity of the enzyme indirectly but accurately. The detection limit of the fabrication biosensor can be lowered to 0.2 U mL?1 of adenosine deaminase, and 1 nM of the inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine hydrochloride is enough to present distinguishable electrochemical response. Moreover, since the electroactive probe is not required to be bound with the oligonucleotide, this strategy may integrate the advantages of both the labeled and label-free strategies. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Shi X.,University of Texas at Austin | Ng D.W.-K.,University of Texas at Austin | Zhang C.,University of Texas at Austin | Comai L.,University of California at Davis | And 3 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2012

Gene-expression divergence between species shapes morphological evolution, but the molecular basis is largely unknown. Here we show cis- and trans-regulatory elements and chromatin modifications on gene-expression diversity in genetically tractable Arabidopsis allotetraploids. In Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis arenosa, both cis and trans with predominant cis-regulatory effects mediate gene-expression divergence. The majority of genes with both cis- and trans-effects are subjected to compensating interactions and stabilizing selection. Interestingly, cis- and trans-regulation is associated with chromatin modifications. In F1 allotetraploids, Arabidopsis arenosa trans factors predominately affect allelic expression divergence. Arabidopsis arenosa trans factors tend to upregulate Arabidopsis thaliana alleles, whereas Arabidopsis thaliana trans factors up- or down-regulate Arabidopsis arenosa alleles. In resynthesized and natural allotetraploids, trans effects drive expression of both homoeologous loci into the same direction. We provide evidence for natural selection and chromatin regulation in shaping gene-expression diversity during plant evolution and speciation. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2008-1-3-01 | Award Amount: 3.97M | Year: 2009

Low input farming occurs under non-SPF (specific pathogen free) conditions. The European ban on in-feed antibiotics exposes the piglets to a higher microbial environmental pressure. The postnatal priming of piglets with a diverse microbiota may affect the development of the piglets host-defense and gut functionality. By reversal, the piglets developing host-defense may affect the development of the gastro-intestinal microbiota. Moreover, this intricate interplay between gut microbiota and its host during the early phases of life is expected to also affect animal health and performance later in life. The gut microbiome is an immensely diverse ecosystem that has co-evolved with its host. Recent research on microbe-host interactions has provided novel insights into the role of commensal intestinal microbes in several physiological processes, i.e., from epithelial barrier development to immune development as well as neurological aspects. Nevertheless, we only start to understand the molecular mechanisms of the host microbe cross-talk. Recent conceptual as well as technological advances have set the stage for the integrated application of a complementary set of high throughput approaches for the comprehensive profiling of GIT microbiota composition and functionality as well as the animals intestinal function. In a multidisciplinary consortium, comprising 11 public and private partners from across and beyond Europe with complementary expertise in gut microbiomics, immunology and physiology, and animal genomics and nutrition, INTERPLAY will apply an integrated approach to arrive at a sound understanding of the interaction of early colonization of the intestine and the development of gut function. This knowledge will be exploited for the identification of innovative management strategies that address host genotype as well as nutritional means to provide a framework for sustainable animal production at high food and consumer safety and improved animal health and welfare.

Shang H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shang H.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Cao S.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Yang Z.,Zhejiang Wanli University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The effect of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on chilling injury of peach fruit was investigated. Freshly harvested peaches were treated with 1, 5, or 10 mM GABA at 20 °C for 10 min and then stored at 1 °C for up to 5 weeks. The results showed that all of the GABA treatments could reduce chilling injury of peach fruit with 5 mM being the most effective concentration. GABA treatment significantly enhanced the accumulation of endogenous GABA and proline, which resulted from the increased activities of glutamate decarboxylase, δ 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, and ornithine δ-aminotransferase and decreased proline dehydrogenase activity. Our results revealed that GABA treatment may be a useful technique to alleviate chilling injury in cold-stored peach fruit, and the reduction in chilling by GABA may be due to the induction of endogenous GABA and proline accumulation. These data are the first evidence that exogenous GABA induced chilling tolerance in postharvest horticultural products. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Yang Z.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Cao S.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Cai Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies | Year: 2011

The effect of ultrasound (40 kHz, 10 min) and salicylic acid (SA, 0.05 mM) either separately, or combined on blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum in peach fruit was investigated. The results showed that the application of SA alone could reduce blue mold, while the use of ultrasound had no effect. Our results also revealed that SA combined with ultrasound treatment was more effective in inhibiting fungal decay during storage than the SA treatment alone. The combined treatment increased the activities of defense enzymes such as chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, which were associated with higher disease resistance induced by the combined treatment. Furthermore, the combined treatment did not impair the quality parameters of peach fruit after 6 days of storage at 20 °C. These results suggested that the combination of ultrasound and SA treatment may be a useful technique to reduce blue mold in peach fruit. Industrial relevance: This paper investigates the effect of ultrasound combined with SA on decay incidence of peach fruit. The results presented demonstrate that the effect of the combined treatment on the disease resistance and fruit quality should be considered by processors prior to its adoption as a preservation technique. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cai Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cai Y.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Cao S.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Yang Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2011

This study investigated the regulation of ascorbate acid (AsA) and glutathione metabolism and chilling tolerance by methyl jamonate (MeJA) in loquat fruit. The results showed that application of MeJA to loquat fruit inhibited the incidence of chilling injury manifested as internal browning (IB) and increased AsA and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents due to the inhibition of ascorbate oxidase activity and enhancement of monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase activities. Meanwhile, MeJA also enhanced activities of ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase. Our results suggested that MeJA can regulate the ascorbate and glutathione metabolism and has important roles in alleviating oxidative damage and enhancing chilling tolerance in loquat fruit. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Yu X.,Yancheng Institute of Technology | Yu X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Gu Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University
BioResources | Year: 2014

Wheat bran (WB) was subjected to processing with Aureobasidium pullulans (A. pullulans) under selected conditions to partially break down the xylan into soluble products (mainly feruloyl oligosaccharides, FOs). The objective of this study was to investigate the technology for one-step fermentation of WB by A. pullulans without melanin secretion to produce FOs as well as to determine their structural features and antioxidant activity. Initial pH, inoculation quantity, and fermentation temperature were found to be efficient for releasing FOs according to the Plackett-Burman design (PBD). Based on the D-Optimal design, a yield of 904 nmol of FOs / L of fermentation broth was obtained under optimal conditions of initial pH 6.0, inoculation quantity 4.50%, and fermentation temperature 29 °C. Purification of FOs was performed with alcohol precipitation and Amberlite XAD-2. GC, IR, and ESI-MS demonstrated that FOs consist of feruloyl arabinosyl xylopentose (FAX5, Mw986), feruloyl arabinosyl xylotetraose (FAX4, Mw854), feruloyl arabinosyl xylotriose (FAX3, Mw722), and feruloyl arabinosyl xylobiose (FAX2, Mw590). Increasing the FO dose led to increased activity of SOD and GSH-Px in serum of S180 tumor-bearing mice, while the level of MDA was reduced, thus improving its in vivo antioxidant activity.

Xue J.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Xue J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Grift T.E.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Hansen A.C.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

As a renewable, sustainable and alternative fuel for compression ignition engines, biodiesel instead of diesel has been increasingly fueled to study its effects on engine performances and emissions in the recent 10 years. But these studies have been rarely reviewed to favor understanding and popularization for biodiesel so far. In this work, reports about biodiesel engine performances and emissions, published by highly rated journals in scientific indexes, were cited preferentially since 2000 year. From these reports, the effect of biodiesel on engine power, economy, durability and emissions including regulated and non-regulated emissions, and the corresponding effect factors are surveyed and analyzed in detail. The use of biodiesel leads to the substantial reduction in PM, HC and CO emissions accompanying with the imperceptible power loss, the increase in fuel consumption and the increase in NOx emission on conventional diesel engines with no or fewer modification. And it favors to reduce carbon deposit and wear of the key engine parts. Therefore, the blends of biodiesel with small content in place of petroleum diesel can help in controlling air pollution and easing the pressure on scarce resources without significantly sacrificing engine power and economy. However, many further researches about optimization and modification on engine, low temperature performances of engine, new instrumentation and methodology for measurements, etc., should be performed when petroleum diesel is substituted completely by biodiesel. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fan X.-X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu Z.-G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu X.-Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Tang C.-M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2013

We used red light-emitting diodes (LEDs, R) and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs, B) to obtain the different light intensities of uniform spectra and investigated the effects of different light intensities on growth and leaf development of young tomato plants. The results showed that fresh weight, dry weight, stem diameter and health index were superior in plants grown under 300, 450 and 550μmolm-2s-1. The energy efficiency was highest under 300μmolm-2s-1. When photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) increased from 50 to 550μmolm-2s-1, a decrease in the specific leaf area (SLA) was observed. Under 300 and 450μmolm-2s-1, the thickness of leaves, palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma were the bigger, and the stomatal frequency and stomatal area per unit leaf area were also higher. The highest net photosynthesis rate (Pn) was observed under 300μmolm-2s-1. Our results implied that, compared to other light treatments, 300μmolm-2s-1 was more suitable for the culture of young tomato plants and there was no substantial gain from a PPFD above 300μmolm-2s-1. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Yang Z.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Yang Z.,CAS South China Botanical Garden | Cao S.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Zheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jiang Y.,CAS South China Botanical Garden
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The effects of salicylic acid (SA; 1 mmol L -1) and ultrasound treatment (40 kHz, 10 min) either separately or combined on the chilling injury (CI) in cold-stored peach fruit (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Baifeng) were investigated. The results showed that SA treatment alone alleviated CI during storage. Ultrasound alone had no influence, but when it was combined with SA, it resulted in greater inhibition of CI than SA alone. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase, were induced by a combination of SA with ultrasound. In addition, the combined treatment also increased the endogenous SA concentrations in peaches. These results suggested that the induced tolerance against CI by the combination of ultrasound and SA treatment in cold-stored peach fruit was related to the induction of antioxidant enzymes and the increase in the SA concentration. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Wang B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yuan J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shen Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2013

Banana production has been severely hindered by the long-term practice of monoculture agriculture. Fusarium wilt, caused by the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC), is one of the most destructive diseases that can afflict banana plants. It is both necessary and urgent to find an efficient method for protecting banana production worldwide. In this study, 57 antagonistic bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizospheres of healthy banana plants grown in a heavily wilt-diseased field; of the 57 strains, six strains with the best survival abilities were chosen for further study. Compared with the control and the other strains in the greenhouse experiment, W19 strain was found to observably decrease the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promote the growth of banana plants when combined with the organic fertilizer (OF). This strain was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on its morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties, as well as 16S rRNA analysis. Two kinds of antifungal lipopeptides (iturin and bacillomycin D) produced by W19 strain were detected and identified using HPLC-ESI-MS. Another lipopeptide, called surfactin, was also produced by the thick biological film forming W19 strain. In addition to lipopeptides, 18 volatile antifungal compounds with significant antagonistic effect against F. oxysporum were detected and identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The work described herein not only highlights how the bioorganic fertilizer with B. amyloliquefaciens can be used to control Fusarium wilt of banana but also examines some of the potential mechanisms involved in the biocontrol of Fusarium wilt. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Liu S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Qin Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zou J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu Q.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2010

Annual paddy rice-winter wheat rotation constitutes one of the typical cropping systems in southeast China, in which various water regimes are currently practiced during the rice-growing season, including continuous flooding (F), flooding-midseason drainage-reflooding (F-D-F), and flooding-midseason drainage-reflooding and moisture but without waterlogging (F-D-F-M). We conducted a field experiment in a rice-winter wheat rotation system to gain an insight into the water regime-specific emission factors and background emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) over the whole annual cycle. While flooding led to an unpronounced N2O emission during the rice-growing season, it incurred substantial N2O emission during the following non-rice season. During the non-rice season, N2O fluxes were, on average, 2.61 and 2.48 mg N2O-N m-2 day- 1 for the 250 kg N ha- 1 applied plots preceded by the F and F-D-F water regimes, which are 56% and 49% higher than those by the F-D-F-M water regime, respectively. For the annual rotation system experienced by continuous flooding during the rice-growing season, the relationship between N2O emission and nitrogen input predicted the emission factor and background emission of N2O to be 0.87% and 1.77 kg N2O-N ha- 1, respectively. For the plots experienced by the water regimes of F-D-F and F-D-F-M, the emission factors of N2O averaged 0.97% and 0.85%, with background N2O emissions of 2.00 kg N2O-N ha- 1 and 1.61 kg N2O-N ha- 1 for the annual rotation system, respectively. Annual direct N2O-N emission was estimated to be 98.1 Gg yr- 1 in Chinese rice-based cropping systems in the 1990s, consisting of 32.3 Gg during the rice-growing season and 65.8 Gg during the non-rice season, which accounts for 25-35% of the annual total emission from croplands in China. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lipka A.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Tian F.,Cornell University | Wang Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Peiffer J.,Cornell University | And 7 more authors.
Bioinformatics | Year: 2012

Summary: Software programs that conduct genome-wide association studies and genomic prediction and selection need to use methodologies that maximize statistical power, provide high prediction accuracy and run in a computationally efficient manner. We developed an R package called Genome Association and Prediction Integrated Tool (GAPIT) that implements advanced statistical methods including the compressed mixed linear model (CMLM) and CMLM-based genomic prediction and selection. The GAPIT package can handle large datasets in excess of 10 000 individuals and 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms with minimal computational time, while providing user-friendly access and concise tables and graphs to interpret results. Published by Oxford University Press 2012.

Gu L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Gu X.,Rudong Third Hospital | Boots C.,University of Washington | And 2 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2015

Obesity, diabetes, and related metabolic disorders are major health issues worldwide. As the epidemic of metabolic disorders continues, the associated medical co-morbidities, including the detrimental impact on reproduction, increase as well. Emerging evidence suggests that the effects of maternal nutrition on reproductive outcomes are likely to be mediated, at least in part, by oocyte metabolism. Well-balanced and timed energy metabolism is critical for optimal development of oocytes. To date, much of our understanding of oocyte metabolism comes from the effects of extrinsic nutrients on oocyte maturation. In contrast, intrinsic regulation of oocyte development by metabolic enzymes, intracellular mediators, and transport systems is less characterized. Specifically, decreased acid transport proteins levels, increased glucose/lipid content and elevated reactive oxygen species in oocytes have been implicated in meiotic defects, organelle dysfunction and epigenetic alteration. Therefore, metabolic disturbances in oocytes may contribute to the diminished reproductive potential experienced by women with metabolic disorders. In-depth research is needed to further explore the underlying mechanisms. This review also discusses several approaches for metabolic analysis. Metabolomic profiling of oocytes, the surrounding granulosa cells, and follicular fluid will uncover the metabolic networks regulating oocyte development, potentially leading to the identification of oocyte quality markers and prevention of reproductive disease and poor outcomes in offspring. © 2014 Springer Basel.

Cao S.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Yang Z.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Zheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2012

The effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on senescence and quality maintenance of green bell pepper fruit was investigated. To explore the optimum concentration of 1-MCP to delay senescence, pepper fruit were treated with 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5μLL -1 1-MCP and then stored for 10d at 20°C. The results showed that the application of 1-MCP at 1.0μLL -1 was most effective in delaying senescence, manifested as chlorophyll degradation and increase in weight loss. 1-MCP treated peppers had higher levels of chlorophyll, protein and vitamin C and lower respiration rates and ethylene production compared with that in control peppers. In addition, 1-MCP enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase and levels of polyamines including putrescine, spermidine and spermine. These results suggested that the delaying senescence of green bell pepper by 1-MCP treatment is associated with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and polyamine contents. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Ran T.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ozorowski G.,University of California at Irvine | Gao Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Sineshchekov O.A.,University of Houston | And 4 more authors.
Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography | Year: 2013

Proteorhodopsins (PRs), members of the microbial rhodopsin superfamily of seven-transmembrane-helix proteins that use retinal chromophores, comprise the largest subfamily of rhodopsins, yet very little structural information is available. PRs are ubiquitous throughout the biosphere and their genes have been sequenced in numerous species of bacteria. They have been shown to exhibit ion-pumping activity like their archaeal homolog bacteriorhodopsin (BR). Here, the first crystal structure of a proteorhodopsin, that of a blue-light-absorbing proteorhodopsin (BPR) isolated from the Mediterranean Sea at a depth of 1214;m (Med12BPR), is reported. Six molecules of Med12BPR form a doughnut-shaped C 6 hexameric ring, unlike BR, which forms a trimer. Furthermore, the structures of two mutants of a related BPR isolated from the Pacific Ocean near Hawaii at a depth of 7514;m (HOT75BPR), which show a C 5 pentameric arrangement, are reported. In all three structures the retinal polyene chain is shifted towards helix C when compared with other microbial rhodopsins, and the putative proton-release group in BPR differs significantly from those of BR and xanthorhodopsin (XR). The most striking feature of proteorhodopsin is the position of the conserved active-site histidine (His75, also found in XR), which forms a hydrogen bond to the proton acceptor from the same molecule (Asp97) and also to Trp34 of a neighboring protomer. Trp34 may function by stabilizing His75 in a conformation that favors a deprotonated Asp97 in the dark state, and suggests cooperative behavior between protomers when the protein is in an oligomeric form. Mutation-induced alterations in proton transfers in the BPR photocycle in Escherichia coli cells provide evidence for a similar cross-protomer interaction of BPR in living cells and a functional role of the inter-protomer Trp34-His75 interaction in ion transport. Finally, Wat402, a key molecule responsible for proton translocation between the Schiff base and the proton acceptor in BR, appears to be absent in PR, suggesting that the ion-transfer mechanism may differ between PR and BR. © 2013 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore - all rights reserved. © 2013.

Miao W.,Hainan University | Wang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

The soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae Kleb causes Verticillium wilt in a wide range of crops including cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). To date, most upland cotton varieties are susceptible to V. dahliae and the breeding for cotton varieties with the resistance to Verticillium wilt has not been successful. Hpa1Xoo is a harpin protein from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae which induces the hypersensitive cell death in plants. When hpa1Xoo was transformed into the susceptible cotton line Z35 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, the transgenic cotton line (T-34) with an improved resistance to Verticillium dahliae was obtained. Here, we describe the related research approach, such as Western blot, Southern blot, immuno-gold labeling, evaluation of resistance to Verticillium dahliae, and how to detect the micro-hypersensitive response and oxidative burst elicited by harpin Xoo in plant tissue. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Zhang F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shi Y.,Nanjing Panda Electronics Co. | Zhao Z.,Ocean University of China | Song W.,Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering | Cheng Y.,Wuhan University of Science and Technology
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2014

The Fe3O4/SiO2/polythiophene (FSP) submicron composite (SC) with a structure of semiconductor/insulator/semiconductor (SIS) was obtained. The characterization results showed that the FSP SC had a spherical core/shell shape with an average diameter of 506nm. The high saturated magnetization value (~39emu/g) ensured the easy separation of FSP SC from aqueous solution. The photo-catalytic activity of the FSP SC was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under UV-irradiation in the presence of H2O2. Due to the SIS structure, the degradation rate constant by FSP SC (0.02177min-1) was 6.4, 1.6, and 2.5 times higher than that of Fe3O4/polythiophene (FP), polythiophene (P), and TiO2, respectively. The repetition results suggested the good photochemical stability of FSP SC. The mechanism was proposed by investigating the energy band variation of the SIS structure, the transfer of light generated carriers and the formation of effective hydroxyl radicals in the photo-catalysis progress. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Lou Y.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Zhou W.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Ren L.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2012

As one of the important problems in global change, elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation induced by the depletion of stratospheric ozone layer has received more and more attentions around the world. Field experiment was conducted to investigate CH 4 emission as affected by elevated UV-B radiation. The field experiment was designed with two UV-B radiation levels, i.e. ambient (A, control) and elevated (E, 14.4kJm -2d -1, simulating 25% stratospheric ozone depletion), and performed at the Station of Agricultural Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China. Two rice cultivars were tested in this experiment, including herbicide resistant transgenic rice (japonica line B2) and its parent conventional rice (japonica cv Xiushui 63). The transgenic line of japonica rice B2 contained bar gene with herbicide Basta resistance. CH 4 emission was determined by the closed chamber method at 10-day interval during rice growing period in a loamy clay paddy soil. The results indicated that, elevated UV-B radiation significantly decreased tiller number and the biomass of straw and root in rice. Elevated UV-B radiation had no effect on seasonal dynamics of CH 4 flux in paddy field. Compared with control, elevated UV-B radiation significantly increased CH 4 emission in the paddy soil. CH 4 emission was higher in parent rice than transgenic rice. It is suggested that planting herbicide resistant transgenic rice will be helpful in mitigating CH 4 emission from paddy fields under elevated UV-B radiation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Yu X.-H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yu X.-H.,Yancheng Institute of Technology | Gu Z.-X.,Nanjing Agricultural University
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Studies were carried out to screen and identify strains that are able to directly produce ferulic oligosaccharides (FOs) from wheat bran (WB). The inducement and distribution of hemicellulases from strain 2012, which was identified as a non-melanin secreting strain of Aureobasidium pullulans (A. pullulans), were also determined. In a 60 g/L WB solution, A. pullulans could produce 545 nmol/L FOs, 64.12 IU/mL xylanase and 0.14 IU/mL ferulic acid esterase (FAE). A. pullulans was cultivated in media with WB, glucose, xylose, sucrose, lactose or xylan as the carbon source, and hemicellulases were mainly induced by xylan and WB and inhibited by glucose and sucrose. Xylanase and FAE were mainly present in the culture filtrate, xylosidase in the hyphal filaments and arabinofuranosidase was a membrane-bound enzyme. The yield of FOs was positively correlated to the hemicellulases activity, and significantly positively (P < 0.05) correlated to the xylanase activity (r = 0.992). © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Xue J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang L.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Grift T.E.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2012

A novel variable field-of-view machine vision method was developed allowing an agricultural robot to navigate between rows in cornfields. The machine vision hardware consisted of a camera with pitch and yaw motion control. Guidance lines were detected using an image-processing algorithm, employing morphological features in a far, near and lateral field of view, and the robot was guided along these lines using fuzzy logic control.The method was tested while the vehicle successfully traveled through a distance of 30. m towards the end of a crop row in three replications. To evaluate the guidance performance, RTK-GPS data were collected, showing a maximum guidance error of 15.8. mm and stable navigational behavior. © 2012.

Kong H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Kong H.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Sun R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Gao Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Sun B.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Soil Science Society of America Journal | Year: 2013

The impacts of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on the release, distribution, and availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils were investigated using soil column experiments. Citric and malic acids, as representative LMWOAs, significantly promoted the release and enhanced the availability of phenanthrene and pyrene in three soil columns. Both the mobilized amounts and availabilities of test PAHs increased with increasing concentrations of citric or malic acid. When the concentration of citric acid was 80 mmol L-1, the mobilized amounts of phenanthrene and pyrene in a yellow-brown soil column increased by approximately three times compared with the control. The simultaneous decreases in phenanthrene and pyrene not extractable by n-butanol relative to their initial amounts were 63.17 and 73.38%, respectively, which indicated that a large amount of initially nonextractable PAHs in soils were transformed into n-butanol-extractable PAHs. After elution, the PAH residual concentrations in the soil layers followed the order bottom layer > middle layer > top layer. Similar results were observed for experiments using malic acid. Results obtained showed that LMWOAs could dissolve a portion of soil organic matter into solution and disrupt the organic-metal ion-mineral linkages in soils, resulting in PAH release and dissolution of metal ions; however, the mechanism of elution of the PAHs in the soil column by LMWOAs was not in accord with the mechanism by which metal ions were dissolved. The findings of this work may be instructive for remediation strategies in contaminated soils. © Soil Science Society of America.

Cao S.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Yang Z.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Hu Z.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Zheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The feasibility of 0.2gl-1 benzo-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH) to improve the efficacy of Pichia membranefaciens in controlling postharvest blue mould decay in peach fruit was investigated. Our results showed that biocontrol activity of P. membranefaciens against blue mould caused by Penicillium expansum in peach fruit could be enhanced by addition of 0.2gl-1 BTH. The combination of P. membranefaciens and BTH resulted in a more effective control of blue mould than individual treatment of P. membranefaciens or BTH alone. The combined treatment had a synergistic effect on the induction of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities, which induced stronger disease resistance in fruit than BTH or yeast alone, and resulted in a lower lesion diameter and disease incidence of blue mould decay in peaches. Furthermore, the combined treatment did not impair the quality parameters including fruit firmness and contents of total soluble solids, titratable acidity and vitamin C of peach fruit after 6days of storage at 20°C. These results suggested that the use of BTH may be an effective method to improve the biological activity of P. membranefaciens. © 2010.

Jiang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Hu Z.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Sun W.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Huang Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang Y.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2010

The consumption of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer in agriculture has increased over the past several decades and will continue to increase to meet the food and fibre demands of the growing global population, which will no doubt result in the release of additional N2O into the atmosphere. A wise use of synthetic fertilizer N is important to mitigate N2O emissions. Outdoor pot experiments during the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growing season and field experiments during the maize (Zea mays L.) growing seasons were undertaken from 2006 to 2008 at Nanjing in eastern China to evaluate the potential of a range of typical slow-release fertilizers to mitigate N2O emissions. Five slow-release N fertilizers, including physically altered (Ca-Mg-P-coated urea, polymer-coated urea and sulfur-coated urea), chemically altered (urea formaldehyde) and biochemically inhibited (urea with dicyandiamide and hydroquinone) nitrogen were applied in this experiment. In comparison with commercial urea, the urea formaldehyde treatment reduced N2O emissions by ∼42% for the wheat growing season and 15-26% for the maize growing season, and the urea with dicyandiamide and hydroquinone treatment reduced N2O emissions by 33-63% for the maize growing season. However, the treatments with Ca-Mg-P-coated urea, polymer-coated urea and sulfur-coated urea generally enhanced N2O emissions in comparison to the emissions of the urea-treated fertilizer, especially when precipitation followed application. We conclude that the application of chemically altered or biochemically inhibited nitrogen fertilizers would have great potential to mitigate N2O emissions, but the use of physically altered nitrogen fertilizers may have the opposite effect than desired. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Cao S.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Hu Z.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Zheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yang Z.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Lu B.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The effect of benzo-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), at 0.2. g/l, on antioxidant enzymes, radical-scavenging activity and decay development in strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) fruit, was investigated. The results showed that BTH treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. The treatment increased the contents of phenolic and anthocyanin in strawberry fruit, as well as radical-scavenging capacity, expressed as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide radical values and reducing power. The treatment also decreased the development of decay compared to control fruit. These results indicated that BTH might increase the disease resistance of strawberry fruits by enhancing their antioxidant systems and their free radical-scavenging capabilities. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Cao S.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Hu Z.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Zheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lu B.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2010

The effect of heat treatment (38°C, 12. h in air) and salicylic acid (SA, 1 mM) either separately or combined, on internal browning (IB) in cold-stored peach fruit (Prunus persica Batsch) was investigated. The results showed that heat combined with SA treatment was the most effective method of alleviating IB in peach fruit during cold storage at 0°C. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase were significantly induced, while lipoxygenase activity was decreased by heat combined with an SA treatment. In addition, the combined treatment increased the levels of polyamines including putrescine, spermidine and spermine. These results suggest that the combination of heat and SA treatment may be a useful technique to alleviate IB in cold-stored peach fruit and the reduction in IB by the combined treatment may be due to the induction of antioxidant enzymes and increase in polyamine levels. © 2010.

Qin Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Guo Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2010

To evaluate the impacts of organic cropping system on global warming potentials (GWPs), field measurements of CH4 and N2O were taken in conventional and organic rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping systems in southeast China. Rice paddies were under various water regimes, including continuous flooding (F), flooding-midseason drainage-reflooding (F-D-F), and flooding-midseason drainage-reflooding and moisture but without waterlogging (F-D-F-M). Nitrogen was applied at the rate of 100 kg N ha-1, as urea-N or pelletized, dehydrated manure product in conventional or organic rice paddies, respectively. Seasonal fluxes of CH4 averaged 4.44, 2.14, and 1.75 mg m-2 h-1 for the organic paddy plots under the water regimes of F, F-D-F and F-D-F-M, respectively. Relative to conventional rice paddies, organic cropping systems increased seasonal CH4 emissions by 20%, 23%, and 35% for the plots under the water regimes of F, F-D-F, and F-D-F-M, respectively. Under the water regimes of F-D-F and F-D-F-M, seasonal N2O-N emissions averaged 10.85 and 13.66 μg m-2 h-1 in organic rice paddies, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in conventional rice paddies. The net global warming potentials (GWPs) of CH4 and N2O emissions from organic rice paddies relative to conventional rice paddies were significantly higher or comparable under various water regimes. The greenhouse gas intensities were greater, while carbon efficiency ratios were lower in organic relative to conventional rice paddies. The results of this study suggest that organic cropping system might not be an effective option for mitigating the combined climatic impacts from CH4 and N2O in paddy rice production. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Yang A.,Nanjing Institute of Technology | Cao S.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Yang Z.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Cai Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Peach fruit were immersed in 5 mM γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) solution for 10 min at 20 °C and then stored at 1 °C for 5 weeks to investigate the effect of GABA treatment on chilling injury (CI), antioxidant enzymes and energy status in peach fruit. The results showed that GABA treatment significantly inhibited CI incidence of peaches and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, monodehydroascorbate reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase. The treatment also increased contents of adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate, but lowered adenosine monophosphate content, which resulted in a higher level of energy charge in treated fruit. These results indicated that GABA increased chilling tolerance of peach fruit through enhancing its enzymatic antioxidant system and maintaining energy status in peach fruit. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Liu S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu Q.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Zou J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2012

A complete accounting of net greenhouse gas balance (NGHGB) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) affected by Fe(III) fertilizer application was examined in typical annual paddy rice-winter wheat rotation cropping systems in southeast China. Annual fluxes of soil carbon dioxide (CO 2), methane (CH 4) and nitrous oxide (N 2O) were measured using static chamber method, and the net ecosystem exchange of CO 2 (NEE) was determined by the difference between soil CO 2 emissions (R H) and net primary production (NPP). Fe(III) fertilizer application significantly decreased R H without adverse effects on NPP of rice and winter wheat. Fe(III) fertilizer application decreased seasonal CH 4 by 27-44%, but increased annual N 2O by 65-100%. Overall, Fe(III) fertilizer application decreased the annual NGHGB and GHGI by 35-47% and 30-36%, respectively. High grain yield and low greenhouse gas intensity can be reconciled by Fe(III) fertilizer applied at the local recommendation rate in rice-based cropping systems. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hong P.-Y.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Hong P.-Y.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | Yannarell A.C.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Dai Q.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | And 3 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2013

This study aimed to determine if biotic contaminants originating from pig production farms are disseminated into soil and groundwater microbial communities. A spatial and temporal sampling of soil and groundwater in proximity to pig production farms was conducted, and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) was utilized to determine the abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (i.e., tetQ and tetZ) and integrase genes (i.e., intI1 and intI2). We observed that the abundances of tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in the soils increased at least 6-fold after manure application, and their abundances remained elevated above the background for up to 16 months. Q-PCR further determined total abundances of up to 5.88 × 109 copies/ng DNA for tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in some of the groundwater wells that were situated next to the manure lagoon and in the facility well used to supply water for one of the farms. We further utilized 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing to assess the microbial communities, and our comparative analyses suggest that most of the soil samples collected before and after manure application did not change significantly, sharing a high Bray-Curtis similarity of 78.5%. In contrast, an increase in Bacteroidetes and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial populations was observed in the groundwaters collected from lagoon-associated groundwater wells. Genera associated with opportunistic human and animal pathogens, such as Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, Yersinia, and Coxiella, were detected in some of the manure-treated soils and affected groundwater wells. Feces-associated bacteria such as Streptococcus, Erysipelothrix, and Bacteroides were detected in the manure, soil, and groundwater ecosystems, suggesting a perturbation of the soil and groundwater environments by invader species from pig production activities. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.

Chen S.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Huang Y.,CAS Institute of Botany | Zou J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shi Y.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology
Global and Planetary Change | Year: 2013

Mean residence time (MRT) of topsoil organic carbon is one critical parameter for predicting future land carbon sink dynamics. Large uncertainties remain about controls on the variability in global MRT of soil organic carbon. We estimated global MRT of topsoil (0-20. cm) organic carbon in terrestrial ecosystems and found that mean annual air temperature, annual precipitation, and topsoil nitrogen storage were responsible for the variability in MRT. An empirical climate and soil nitrogen-based (Clim&SN) model could be used to explain the temporal and spatial variability in MRT across various ecosystems. Estimated MRT was lowest in the low-latitude zones, and increased toward high-latitude zones. Global MRT of topsoil organic carbon showed a significant declining tendency between 1960 and 2008, particularly in the high-latitude zone of the northern hemisphere. The largest absolute and relative changes (0.2% per yr) in MRT of topsoil organic carbon from 1960 to 2008 occurred in high-latitude regions, consistent with large carbon stocks in, and greater degree of climate change being experienced by, these areas. Overall, global MRT anomalies (differences between MRT in each year and averaged value of MRT from 1960 to 2008) of terrestrial topsoil organic carbon were decreasing from 1960 to 2008. Global MRT anomalies decreased significantly (P< 0.001) with the increase of global temperature anomalies, indicating that global warming resulted in faster turnover rates of topsoil organic carbon. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Huo M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zheng G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zheng G.,Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization | Zhou L.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

Contribution rates of factors controlling sludge dewaterability during bioleaching, such as sludge pH, microbial quantity, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), etc., were investigated in this study. Results showed that the dewaterability of bioleached sludge was jointly enhanced by the growth of Acidithiobacillus sp., the increase of Fe3+ concentration, the decreases of sludge pH, heterotrophic microorganism quantity change, and the decreases of EPS and bound water contents. Ridge regression analysis further revealed that the contribution rates of microbial quantity change, bound water content and slime EPS content on sludge dewaterability enhancement were 32.50%, 24.24%, and 22.37%, respectively, all of which are dominant factors. Therefore, the enhancement of sludge dewaterability was mainly controlled by microbial quantity change and the decrease of bound water and slime EPS contents during bioleaching. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Cao S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cao S.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Cai Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yang Z.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Zheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Loquat fruit were pretreated with 10 μmol l -1 methyl jasmonate (MeJA) for 24 h at 20 °C and then stored at 1 °C for 35 days to investigate the effect of MeJA treatment on chilling injury (CI) and changes in the contents of proline and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The control fruit exhibited severe flesh leatheriness, a specific CI symptom, after 21 days of storage at 1 °C, but it was reduced in MeJA-treated fruit. During the development of CI in fruit, proline and GABA accumulated with the storage time, while MeJA treatment enhanced the increases in proline and GABA contents. The MeJA-treated fruit exhibited higher activities of Δ 1-pyrroline- 5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), ornithine δ-aminotransferase (OAT) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), and lower proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity than control during storage. These results suggest that the reduction in CI in loquat fruit by MeJA may be due to the increased proline and GABA contents. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cao S.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Yang Z.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Zheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The relationship between chilling injury and sugar metabolism was investigated in loquat fruit stored at 1°C for 35 days. No symptoms of chilling injury occurred in the fruit, of 'Ninghaibai' cultivar, during the whole storage whereas, in 'Dahongpao' fruit, severe chilling symptoms were observed after 20 days of storage at 1°C. 'Ninghaibai' fruit had higher levels of glucose and fructose and higher activities of sucrose hydrolyzing enzymes, such as sucrose synthase-cleavage and invertase, than had 'Dahongpao'. Furthermore, the chilling resistant 'Ninghaibai' fruit also showed higher activities of hexokinase and fructokinase, involved in hexose phoshorylation and sugar signal generation. These results suggest that the higher content of hexoses and activities of hexose sensors were likely part of the mechanism for chilling tolerance of loquat fruit. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cao S.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Yuan Y.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Hu Z.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Zheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

The potential enhancement of Pichia membranifaciens by ammonium molybdate (NH4Mo) to control blue mould caused by Penicillium expansum on peach fruit was investigated. Combining P. membranifaciens at 1×108cell/ml with 1mM NH4Mo provided a more effective control of blue mould rot than applying the yeast or NH4Mo alone. Addition of 1mM NH4Mo significantly increased the growth of P. membranifaciens in peach wounds, but did not affect the population in nutrient yeast dextrose broth medium. The in vitro experiment showed that the combined treatment inhibited spore germination and germ tube elongation of P. expansum in comparison with the treatment of P. membranifaciens or NH4Mo alone. Moreover, P. membranifaciens, NH4Mo, and the combination of them did not impair the quality parameters including fruit firmness and content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity and vitamin C of peach fruit after 6days of storage at 20°C. These results suggested that the use of NH4Mo is a useful approach to improve the efficacy of P. membranifaciens for postharvest disease control in peach fruit. © 2010.

Cao S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cao S.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Yang Z.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Cai Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Two cultivars of loquat fruit with contrasting chilling resistance were stored at 1 °C for 35 days to investigate the relationship between chilling injury and fatty acid composition and its antioxidant system. No symptoms of chilling injury occurred in the fruit of 'Qingzhong' cultivar during the whole storage, whereas in 'Fuyang' fruit, chilling injury increased sharply after 21 days of storage at 1 °C. 'Qingzhong' fruit had lower levels of superoxide radical and H 2O 2, in addition to lower lipoxygenase activity, but higher membrane lipid unsaturation and higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase than 'Fuyang'. Furthermore, the chilling resistant 'Qingzhong' fruit also showed higher activities of antioxidant enzymes involved in ascorbate-glutathione cycle and higher levels of ascorbate acid and reduced glutathione. These results suggest that the higher membrane lipid unsaturation and the more efficient antioxidant system were both beneficial in enhancing resistance of loquat fruit to chilling injury. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Xiong W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chen Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang Y.,BGI Shenzhen | Liu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
BMC Veterinary Research | Year: 2014

Background: Duck viral hepatitis (DVH) is an acute disease of young ducklings with few convenient and effective veterinary drugs to treat. In pathology, present study mainly focused on the immune mechanism, but very few studies have concerned with the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of DVH. To study the antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects of icariin and its phosphorylated derivative against DVH, we prepared phosphorylated icariin (p-icariin) using the sodium trimetaphosphate-sodium tripolyphosphate method. Ducklings were drunk with icariin and p-icariin after being challenged with duck hepatitis virus 1 (DHV-1). We recorded the number of dead ducklings, gross pathological changes in the liver, and changes in indices of oxidative stress and liver injury. The correlations between these indices were also analyzed.Results: Exposure to DHV-1 induced significant oxidative damage in ducklings. Administration of icariin or p-icariin attenuated liver pathological injury and significantly increased the survival rate, with better outcomes in ducklings treated with p-icariin than in those treated with icariin. Icariin and p-icariin also attenuated the changes in oxidative stress and liver injury. We found positive correlations among indices of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and liver injury (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase), suggesting that DHV-1 causes significant oxidative damage, which is related to the extent of hepatic injury.Conclusions: Icariin and p-icariin improved the survival and attenuated oxidative stress and liver dysfunction induced by DHV-1. These outcomes were better in ducklings treated with p-icariin than in those treated by icariin. The clinical effects of both components were related to their antioxidant activities. © 2014 Xiong et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Wang K.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang K.,China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center | Sun X.,China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center | Lu C.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2012

Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen causing severe infections in pigs and humans. Thirty-three serotypes of S. suis have been identified using serum agglutination. The capsular polysaccharides synthesis (cps) locus is usually conserved among different strains of the same serotype. The cps loci of 15 serotypes have been sequenced, while the loci of the other serotypes remain unknown. In the present study, two to six serotype-specific genes of each of eight serotypes, i.e., serotypes 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 19, 23, and 25, were identified using cross-hybridization with 93 nucleic acid probes specific to genes in the cps locus, and serotype-specific PCR assays for rapid and sensitive detection of the eight serotypes were then developed. The PCR typing results of the 148 serologically typeable isolates were completely consistent with agglutination results. Furthermore, some autoagglutinating, acapsular, and multiagglutinating strains which could not be differentiated by traditional serum agglutination assays were positive in the PCR assays. Use of the PCR assays with clinical tonsillar specimens showed that the assays are sensitive and able to identify samples with autoagglutinating isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify the serotype-specific genes of the eight Streptococcus suis serotypes and develop rapid and sensitive PCR assays for the eight serotypes which can be identified only by serum agglutination. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Cao S.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Hu Z.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Zheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lu B.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The effect of benzo-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH) at 0.2 g L-1 on anthocyanin content and the enzymes involved in its metabolism such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH), tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate/coenzyme A ligase (4-CL), and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) fruit was investigated in this study. The result showed that BTH treatment gave higher levels of anthocyanin in strawberries during 10 days of storage at 1 °C. Meanwhile, the treatment also increased the activities of G6PDH, SKDH, TAL, PAL, C4H, and DFR. These results indicated that the increase in anthocyanin content by BTH might result from the activation of its related enzymes. These data are the first evidence that BTH induces enzyme activities related to anthocyanin metabolism in strawberry fruit after harvest. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Sarret G.,CNRS Institute of Earth Sciences | Smits E.A.H.P.,Colorado State University | Michel H.C.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | Isaure M.P.,University of Pau and Pays de l'Adour | And 3 more authors.
Advances in Agronomy | Year: 2013

Synchrotron techniques have become key components of the toolbox for studying the mechanisms involved in metal(loid) uptake and metabolism in plants. Most widely used techniques in this field include micro-X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) for imaging the distribution of elements in plant tissues and cells and quantifying them, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) for determining their chemical forms. Recent advances in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity and versatility of the sample environment have opened new perspectives for the study of trace elements at the micro- and nanoscale with a minimal perturbation of the sample. Sample conditioning remains a key issue for the study of metals in plants. Cryogenic sample environments allow work on hydrated systems, with a limited risk of metal remobilization and changes in speciation. Still, radiation damage should be monitored carefully, especially for high-flux spectrometers. In addition, progress in software for data analysis has facilitated data mining and integration of results from various techniques. This chapter presents the principle and the basics of data analysis for μXRF imaging and tomography, XAS and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy (μFTIR). Major results obtained on Ni, Cd, Zn, Se, As, Cu, Mn and nanoparticles in hyperaccumulating and nonaccumulating plants are presented. Complementary approaches including histochemical techniques, micro and nanoscopic techniques using electron- or ion beams, and laser ablation coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are also presented, and key results reviewed. Finally, there is also great interest in coupling synchrotron techniques, which is possible on more and more beamlines, and also in coupling synchrotron techniques with other approaches such as the ones mentioned above; perspectives in this area are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

News Article | December 22, 2016

As Britain voted for Brexit amid furious debate over migration, trillions of migrants were coming and going, unseen by all but the sharpest eyes. For the first time, scientists have measured the movements of high-flying insects in the skies over southern England - and found that about 3.5 trillion migrate over the region every year. This movement of 3,200 tons of biomass, captured by University of Exeter and Rothamsted Research using specialised radar techniques, is more than seven times the mass of the 30 million songbirds which depart the UK for Africa each autumn. It is also the equivalent of about 20,000 flying reindeer. Dr Jason Chapman, of the Centre for Ecology and Conservation at the University of Exeter's Penryn Campus in Cornwall, said: "Insect bodies are rich in nutrients and the importance of these movements is underappreciated. "If the densities observed over southern UK are extrapolated to the airspace above all continental landmasses, high-altitude insect migration represents the most important annual animal movement in ecosystems on land, comparable to the most significant oceanic migrations." Although the origin and destination of each insect was not recorded, evidence from previous research suggests many will have been travelling to and from the UK over the English Channel and North Sea. The scientists recorded movement above radar sites in southern England and found large seasonal differences, with mass migrations of insects generally going northwards in spring and southwards in autumn. Until now, radar studies have measured migrations of relatively few nocturnal species of agricultural pests, and no study previously examined the vast numbers of daytime migrants. The study found seasonal variations from year to year, but overall the net northward spring movements of larger insects were almost exactly cancelled out by net southward movements in autumn over the 10-year research period. Dr Gao Hu, a visiting scholar with Dr Chapman from Nanjing Agricultural University, China, led the analyses of the radar data. He said: "Many of the insects we studied provide important ecological services which are essential for maintaining healthy ecosystems, such as pollination, predation of crop pests and providing food for insectivorous birds and bats." Co-author Dr Ka S (Jason) Lim, of the Radar Entomology Unit of the AgroEcology Department at Rothamsted Research, said migratory insects can serve as indicators of global environmental condition. "Animal migration, especially in insects, is a very complex behaviour which takes millions of year to evolve and is very sensitive to climatic condition," he said. "Global climatic change could cause decline of many species, but equally other highly adaptable species thrive and become agricultural crop pests." The study focussed on insects flying more than 150 metres above the ground, using radar for larger insects (10mg and over) and netting samples for smaller ones. The paper, published in the journal Science, is entitled: "Mass seasonal bioflows of high-flying insect migrants".

Shen H.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences | Shen H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Hu Y.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences | Hu Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhou X.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
Development Genes and Evolution | Year: 2014

Sex-lethal (Sxl) plays an important role in sex determination in insects. In this study, the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of Sxl of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (EsSxl) was cloned. EsSxl is expressed during different developmental stages of embryos, and its expression level in the cleavage stage is lower than that in other stages of embryonic development, such as the original zoea stage when it reaches the highest level. The expression level of EsSxl in eight different tissues was investigated. EsSxl was expressed in seven examined tissues, excluding eyestalk, and the highest expression levels were observed in testis and hepatopancreas. EsSxl expression in testis was 13-fold higher than that in ovary. After induction by eyestalk ablation, changes in EsSxl expression were also tissue-specific, with EsSxl expression increasing by 2.6-fold and 11.5-fold in ovary and muscle, respectively, between 0 and 7 days after eyestalk ablation and decreasing by 2.0-fold in testis between 0 and 3 days after eyestalk ablation and by 265-fold in hepatopancreas between 0 and 7 days after eyestalk ablation. Two splice variants of EsSxl were identified, and the only difference between them was a 77-bp alternatively spliced intron that is transcripted in EsSxl1 and skipped in EsSxl2. Both variants were expressed in males and females, demonstrating the lack of a sex-specific expression pattern for Sxl in Chinese mitten crab. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Zheng E.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jia F.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhu S.,Nanjing Agricultural University
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture | Year: 2014

The traditional thermal model of presses neglects the effect of roughness between two contact surfaces on the contact conduction coefficient, which causes the analysis to have a low accuracy. The primary objective of this work is to propose an improved thermal model of the high speed press system with the thermal contact resistance between solid joints and the change of the heat generation power with the temperature of bearings considered to analyze its thermal characteristics. Based on the fractal model and the change of the heat generation power, a complete thermal model for the high speed press system is developed. The temperature histories and the time for reaching thermal equilibrium condition of the high speed press system are explored by the finite element (FE) method. The experimental results demonstrate that the complete model is more accurate than the model without considering the thermal contact resistance and the change of the heat generation power. The thermal expansion of the high speed press system is also investigated, which can provide a theoretical basis for design of structure and intelligent lubrication system to improve its precision. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Ren F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chen X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Hesketh J.,Newcastle University | Gan F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang K.,Nanjing Agricultural University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

There is controversy in the literature over whether the selenium (Se) influences cellular immune responses, and the mechanisms possibly underlying these effects are unclear. In this study, the effects of Se on T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production were studied in primary porcine splenocytes. Splenocytes were treated with different mitogens in the presence of 0.5-4 μmol/L sodium selenite. Se significantly promoted T-cell receptor (TCR) or concanavalin A (ConA)-induced T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production but failed to regulate T-cell response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA). In addition, Se significantly increased the levels of cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) mRNA, the activity of GPx1 and the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the unstimulated, or activated splenocytes. These results indicated that Se improved the redox status in all splenocytes, including unstimulated, TCR, ConA and PHA -stimulated, but only TCR and ConA-induced T-cell activation was affected by the redox status. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a pharmacological antioxidant, increased T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production by TCR and ConA stimulated splenocytes but had no effect on the response to PHA in primary porcine splenocytes confirming that PHA-induced T-cell activation is insensitive to the redox status. We conclude that Se promotes GPx1 and TR1 expression and increases antioxidative capacity in porcine splenocytes, which enhances TCR or ConA -induced T-cell activation but not PHA-induced T-cell activation. The different susceptibilities to Se between the TCR, ConA and PHA -induced T-cell activation may help to explain the controversy in the literature over whether or not Se boosts immune responses. © 2012 Ren et al.

Li X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jiang Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ge X.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

This study aimed to evaluate the protein-sparing effect of dietary lipid on digestive and metabolic responses of fingerling Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish were fed nine practical diets with three protein levels (270, 310 and 350 g kg -1) and three lipid levels (40, 70 and 100 g kg -1) for 8 weeks. Weight gain was significantly affected only by dietary lipid levels with the highest found in fish fed 70 g kg -1 lipid. Relative feed intake and whole-body protein content showed little difference among all the treatments. Activities of intestine lipase and amylase increased significantly as dietary lipid levels increased, whereas little difference was observed in protease activities. Liver lipid content was significantly affected only by protein levels with the lowest found in fish fed 310 g kg -1 protein. Liver aspartate aminotransferase (GOT) activities increased significantly with decreasing lipid levels, whereas the highest GOT activity was obtained in fish fed 310 g kg -1 protein in terms of dietary protein levels. Activities of liver lipoprotein lipase, total lipase and plasma cholesterol concentration of fish fed 350 g kg -1 protein were significantly lower than that of the other groups, whereas the same was true for plasma 3, 5, 3′-triiodothyronine level of fish fed 270 g kg -1 protein. The results indicated that an increase of dietary lipid content from 40 to 70 g kg -1 can enhance the growth and digestive enzyme activities of this species and reduce the proportion of dietary protein catabolized for energy without inducing hepatic steatosis; meanwhile, decreasing protein level from 350 to 310 g kg -1 leads to the increase of lipase activities both in intestine and liver coupled with the reduced liver lipid content. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Zhang Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Bao X.,Nanjing Southeast University | Ren G.,Nanjing Southeast University | Cai X.,Nanjing Southeast University | Li J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2012

The raw material supply bottleneck is one of the obstacles currently facing the development of China's biodiesel industry. The main objective of this paper is to analyse the demands, possibilities, difficulties and suggestions surrounding the participation of restaurant enterprises in the biodiesel supply chain. Based on an analysis of the overall situation of China's biodiesel supply chain, the authors designed a structured questionnaire to survey 246 restaurant enterprises in Nanjing. The questionnaire mainly included basic aspects of restaurant enterprises, disposal of waste cooking oil (WCO), awareness and attitudes towards WCO recycling, understanding and opinion of biodiesel, and willingness and requirements for participating in the production of biodiesel. Factor analysis was then conducted on the motives of industrial restaurant enterprises for disposing of or recycling their WCO, and cluster analysis was used to classify the 246 restaurant enterprises into three clusters. Finally, the authors suggested ways to promote the development of Nanjing's biodiesel supply chain. The significant findings obtained in this paper will help to encourage restaurant enterprises to become suppliers of biodiesel production and promote the healthy development of the biodiesel industry in China. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zhang Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lin F.,China Agricultural University | Mao T.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Nie J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2012

Membrane lipids play fundamental structural and regulatory roles in cell metabolism and signaling. Here, we report that phosphatidic acid (PA), a product of phospholipase D (PLD), regulates MAP65-1, a microtubule-associated protein, in response to salt stress. Knockout of the PLDa1 gene resulted in greater NaCl-induced disorganization of microtubules, which could not be recovered during or after removal of the stress. Salt affected the association of MAP65-1 with microtubules, leading to microtubule disorganization in plda1cells, which was alleviated by exogenous PA. PA bound to MAP65-1, increasing its activity in enhancing microtubule polymerization and bundling. Overexpression of MAP65-1 improved salt tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana cells. Mutations of eight amino acids in MAP65-1 led to the loss of its binding to PA, microtubule-bundling activity, and promotion of salt tolerance. The plda1 map65-1 double mutant showed greater sensitivity to salt stress than did either single mutant. These results suggest that PLDa1-derived PA binds to MAP65-1, thus mediating microtubule stabilization and salt tolerance. The identification of MAP65-1 as a target of PA reveals a functional connection between membrane lipids and the cytoskeleton in environmental stress signaling. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists.

Chen J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang Y.,CAS Institute of Botany | Tang Y.,Shanghai Agricultural Science and Technology Service Center
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2011

China consumes 32% of the world's total synthetic fertilizer nitrogen (N). Overuse of fertilizer N has become widespread, resulting in severe environmental problems. Based on a set of statistical models, we quantified the optimum N rates for rice production in terms of economic and ecological benefits. Model fitting results suggested that the dependence of rice yield, N uptake and N loss on fertilizer N application rates can be well determined by a quadratic polynomial function, a logistic function and a power function, respectively. Using these functions, the economically optimum and ecologically optimum N rates in south-eastern China were estimated to be 180-285kgha-1 and 90-150kgha-1, respectively, depending on rice subspecies, varieties and cropping systems. A case study in Jiangsu Province, where single rice with conventional japonica varieties is dominated, suggested that current N rates (∼390kgha-1) could be cut by 26% and 61% when the economically and ecologically optimum N rates, respectively, are adopted, saving 189×103 and 442×103 metric tons per year, respectively. Cutting one-third of the N use would not reduce rice yield but is expected to mitigate negative environmental impact in this province. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Yang Y.-X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Dai Z.-L.,China Agricultural University | Zhu W.-Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Amino Acids | Year: 2014

Bacteria in pig intestine can actively metabolize amino acids (AA). However, little research has focused on the variation in AA metabolism by bacteria from different niches. This study compared the metabolism of AA by microorganisms derived from the lumen and epithelial wall of the pig small intestine, aiming to test the hypothesis that the metabolic profile of AA by gut microbes was niche specific. Samples from the digesta, gut wall washes and gut wall of the jejunum and ileum were used as inocula. Anaerobic media containing single AA were used and cultured for 24 h. The 24-h culture served as inocula for the subsequent 30 times of subcultures. Results showed that for the luminal bacteria, all AA concentrations except phenylalanine in the ileum decreased during the 24-h in vitro incubation with a increase of ammonia concentration, while 4 AA (glutamate, glutamine, arginine and lysine) in the jejunum decreased, with the disappearance rate at 60-95 %. For tightly attached bacteria, all AA concentrations were generally increased during the first 12 h and then decreased coupled with first a decrease and then an increase of ammonia concentration, suggesting a synthesis first and then a catabolism pattern. Among them, glutamate in both segments, histidine in the jejunum and lysine in the ileum increased significantly during the first 12 h and then decreased at 24 h. The concentrations of glutamine and arginine did not change during the first 12 h, but significantly decreased at 24 h. Jejunal lysine and ileal threonine were increased for the first 6 or 12 h. For the loosely attached bacteria, there was no clear pattern for the entire AA metabolism. However, glutamate, methionine and lysine in the jejunum decreased after 24 h of cultivation, while glutamine and threonine in the jejunum and glutamine and lysine in the ileum increased in the first 12 h. During subculture, AA metabolism, either utilization or synthesis, was generally decreased with disappearance rate around 20-40 % for most of AA and negligible for branch chained AA (BCAA). However, the disappearance rate of lysine in each group was around 90 % throughout the subculture, suggesting a high utilization of lysine by bacteria from all three compartments. Analysis of the microbial community during the 24-h in vitro cultivation revealed that bacteria composition in most AA cultures varied between different niches (lumen and wall-adherent fractions) in the jejunum, while being relatively similar in the ileum. However, for isoleucine and leucine cultures, bacteria diversity was similar between the luminal fraction and tightly attached fraction, but significantly higher than in the loosely attached fraction. For glutamine and valine cultures, bacteria diversity was similar between the luminal and loosely attached fractions, but lower than that of tightly attached bacteria. After 30 subcultures, bacteria diversity in arginine, valine, glutamine, and leucine cultures varied between niches in the jejunum while being relatively stable in the ileum, consistent with those in the 24-h in vitro cultures. The findings may suggest that luminal bacteria tended to utilize free AA, while tightly attached adherent bacteria seemed in favor of AA synthesis, and that small intestinal microbes contributed little to BCAA metabolism. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

Sang X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu X.,Nanjing Southeast University
Soft Computing | Year: 2016

TOPSIS is a popular used model for multiple attribute decision-making problems. Recently, Chen and Lee (Exp Syst Appl 37(4):2790–2798, 2010) extended TOPSIS method to interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2 FSs) environment. They first compute the ranking values of the elements in fuzzy-weighted decision matrix, and used the ranking values to compute the crisp relative closeness through traditional TOPSIS computing process. Such ranking computation leads to the information loss of the weighted decision matrix. In this paper, we introduce an analytical solution to IT2 FSs-based TOPSIS model. First, we propose the fractional nonlinear programming (NLP) problems for fuzzy relative closeness. Second, based on Karnik–Mendel (KM) algorithm, the switch points of the NLP models are identified, and the analytical solution to IT2 FSs-based TOPSIS model can be obtained. Compared with Chen and Lee’s method, the proposed method operates the IT2 FSs directly and keeps the IT2 FSs formats in the whole process, and the result of which is precise in analytical form. In addition, some properties of the proposed analytical method are discussed, and the computing process is summarized as well. To illustrate the analytical solution, an example is given and the result is compared with that of Chen and Lee’s method (Exp Syst Appl 37(4):2790–2798, 2010). © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Du H.,Nanjing Southeast University | Du H.,Hefei University of Technology | Li S.,Nanjing Southeast University | Lin X.,Nanjing Agricultural University
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control | Year: 2013

Summary Finite-time formation control of multiple second-order agents via dynamic output feedback is investigated in this paper. Under the assumption that the velocities of all agents cannot be measured, a continuous consensus algorithm is first proposed such that the states of all agents will reach an agreement in finite time. Then, the consensus algorithm is applied to the finite-time formation control, including stationary formation and moving formation, respectively. Rigorous proof shows that all agents will converge to the desired formation pattern in finite time. Finally, an example is given to verify the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Dai Z.-L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wu G.,Texas A&M University | Wu G.,China Agricultural University | Zhu W.-Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Frontiers in Bioscience | Year: 2011

Bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract play an important role in the metabolism of dietary substances in the gut and extraintestinal tissues. Amino acids (AA) should be taken into consideration in the development of new strategies to enhance efficiency of nutrient utilization because they are not only major components in the diet and building blocks for protein but also regulate energy and protein homeostasis in organisms. The diversity of the AA-fermenting bacteria and their metabolic redundancy make them easier to survive and interact with their neighboring species or eukaryotic host during transition along GI tract. The outcomes of the interactions have important impacts on gut health and whole-body homeostasis. The AA-derived molecules produced by intestinal bacteria affect host health by regulating either host immunity and cell function or microbial composition and metabolism. Emerging evidence shows that dietary factors, such as protein, non-digestible carbohydrates, probiotics, synbiotics and phytochemicals, modulate AA utilization by gut microorganisms. Interdisciplinary research involving nutritionists and microbiologists is expected to rapidly expand knowledge about crucial roles for AA in gut ecology and host health.

Zheng E.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhou X.,Nanjing Southeast University
Mechanism and Machine Theory | Year: 2014

The traditional model of a slider-crank mechanism for a closed high speed press system always neglects the flexibility of the crank shaft and considers only one revolute clearance joint between the linkage and the slider. This causes any analysis to have a low accuracy. In this work, a rigid-flexible coupling model of the slider-crank mechanism is described, using the software ADAMS, in which the crank shaft and linkage are treated as flexible bodies, and the effect of the clearance of the joints between the crank shaft and the main linkage, and between the main linkage and the main slider are taken into account. The dynamic response of the mechanism with clearance under no-load and piling conditions is explored for the case of a mechanism with a rigid crank shaft and linkage, and the case with a flexible crank shaft and linkage. The simulation results showed that the dynamic response of the mechanism was greatly influenced by the clearance and the motion of the crank shaft center was characterized by three phases: free flight motion, contact motion and impact motion. The influence of the clearance size, input crank shaft speed, and number of clearance joints on the dynamic response of the mechanism was also investigated. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Ji Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Fan Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu K.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Kong D.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences | Lu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Water Research | Year: 2015

The widespread occurrence of sulfonamides (e.g., sulfamethoxazole) in natural environment has raised growing concerns due to their potential to induce antibiotic-resistant genes. In this study, the degradation of SMX and related sulfonamides by thermo activated persulfate (PS) oxidation was investigated. Experimental results demonstrated that SMX degradation followed pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The pseudo-first-order rate constant (kobs) was increased markedly with increasing temperature and pH. The presence of bicarbonate manifested promoting effect on SMX degradation while fulvic acid reduced it. Radical scavenging tests revealed that the predominant oxidizing species was SO4 •- at neutral pH. Aniline moiety in SMX molecule was confirmed to be the primary reactive site for SO4 •- attack by comparison with substructural analogues. Reaction products were enriched by solid phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). A total of 7 products derived from hydroxylation, sulfonamide S-N bond cleavage, aniline moiety oxidation and coupling reaction were identified, and transformation pathways of SMX oxidation were proposed. Degradation of sulfonamides was appreciably influenced by the heterocyclic ring present in the molecules. Results reveal that thermo activated PS oxidation could be an efficient approach for remediation of water contaminated by SMX and related sulfonamides. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Lin X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lin X.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Du H.,Hefei University of Technology | Du H.,Nanjing Southeast University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Franklin Institute | Year: 2013

In this paper, finite-time boundedness and finite-time l2 gain analysis for a class of discrete-time switched linear systems are investigated. Not only linear matrix inequality conditions for the system dynamics but also average dwell-time of switching signal is given to guarantee finite-time boundedness of discrete-time switched linear systems. Moreover, sufficient conditions which guarantee finite-time boundedness of discrete-time switched linear systems with a finite-time l2 gain are also presented. Detail proofs are given by using multiple Lyapunov-like functions. A numerical example is employed to verify the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2013 The Franklin Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ye J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ye J.,China Agricultural University | Zhang W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Guo Y.,China Agricultural University
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2013

Key message: SOS3 mediates calcium dependent actin filament reorganization that plays important roles in plant responses to salt stress. Arabidopsis salt overly sensitive 3 (SOS3) plays an important role in plant salt tolerance by regulation of Na+/K+ homeostasis. Plants lacking SOS3 are hypersensitive to salt stress and this phenomenon can be partially rescued by the addition of calcium. However the mechanism underlying remains elusive. We here report that the organization of actin filaments in sos3 mutant differs from that in wild-type plant. Under salt stress abnormal actin assembly and arrangement in sos3 are more pronounced, which can be partially complemented by addition of external calcium or low concentration of latrunculin A, an actin monomer-sequestering agent. The effects of calcium and Lat A on actin filament organization of sos3 mutant are accordant with their effects on sos3 salt sensitivity under salt stress. These findings indicate that the salt-hypersensitivity of sos3 mutant partially results from its disordered actin filaments, and SOS3 mediated actin filament reorganization plays important roles in plant responses to salt stress. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Lin X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lin X.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Du H.,Nanjing Southeast University | Li S.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zou Y.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology
IET Control Theory and Applications | Year: 2013

Finite-time stability and finite-time boundedness for a class of switched linear systems with time-varying delay are studied. Sufficient conditions which guarantee switched linear systems with time-varying delay finite-time stable or finite-time bounded are presented. These conditions are delay-dependent and are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Average dwell time of switching signals is also given such that switched linear systems are finite-time stable or finite-time bounded. Moreover, finite-time weighted L2-gain of switched linear systems with time-varying delay are also given to measure its disturbance tolerance capability in the fixed time interval. Detail proofs are accomplished by using multiple Lyapunov-like functions. An example is employed to verify the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2013 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Wang K.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jiang Y.,CAS Institute of Botany | Zhang T.,Nanjing Agricultural University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Fluorescence in situ hybridization on extended DNA (fiber-FISH) is a powerful tool in high-resolution physical mapping. To introduce this technique into cotton, we developed the technique and tested it by deliberately mapping of telomere and 5S rDNA. Results showed that telomere-length ranged from 0.80 kb to 37.86 kb in three species, G. hirsutum, G. herbaceum and G. arboreum. However, most of the telomeres (>91.0%) were below 10 kb. The length of 5S rDNA was revealed as 964 kb in G. herbaceum whereas, in G. arboreum, it was approximately three times longer (3.1 Mb). A fiber-FISH based immunofluorescence method was also described to assay the DNA methylation. Using this technique, we revealed that both telomere and 5S rDNA were methylated at different levels. In addition, we developed a BAC molecule-based fiber-FISH technique. Using this technique, we can precisely map BAC clones on each other and evaluated the size and location of overlapped regions. The development and application of fiber-FISH technique will facilitate high-resolution physical mapping and further directed sequencing projects for cotton. © 2013 Wang et al.

Song Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shumin Z.,China Agricultural University
International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering | Year: 2015

In order to optimize the structure schema of flexible comb-type grass seeder, the effects of combing teeth gap L, rotation speed of comb shaft N, seed metering device inclining angle α and groove strip inclining angle θ on the rate and uniformity of seeding were observed by test and analyzed, then the coefficient of seeding stability variation was explored in the simulating planting environment on the soil tank test bed based on the above four influencing factors, with Festuca arundinacea seeds as example. According to the results of regression analysis, the model fits well with the actual situation. L, N, α, and the interaction term of N and θ are significant, and the interaction term of θ and α is extremely significant. The analysis of interaction factor effect shows that the variation coefficient responds to the interaction of N and θ in the same manner as that responds to the interaction of θ and α, showing ‘saddle’ variation tendency. Suppose the acceptable maximum value of coefficient of seeding uniformity variation is 4%, then the inverse proportion relationship between factors is inferred according to the change trend of the above interaction factors and derivation of regression equation. Then the regression equation was simplified according to the inverse proportion equation, and four groups of parameters were obtained. Each parameter group was tested, and the test results agreed with the regression equation’s predicting value, with the correlation coefficient 0.726. This research can provide reference for the development of seed metering devices and grass seeders. © 2014 Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All Rights reserved.

Sang X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu X.,Nanjing Southeast University | Qin J.,Nanjing Southeast University
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2015

Personnel selection is a critical enterprise strategic problem in knowledge-intensive enterprise. Fuzzy number which can be described as triangular (trapezoid) fuzzy number is an adequate way to assess the evaluation and weights for the alternatives. In that case, fuzzy TOPSIS, as a classic fuzzy multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) methods, has been applied in personnel selection problems. Currently, all the researches on this topic either apply crisp relative closeness but causing information loss, or employ fuzzy relative closeness estimate but with complicated computation to rank the alternatives. In this paper, based on Karnik-Mendel (KM) algorithm, we propose an analytical solution to fuzzy TOPSIS method. Some properties are discussed, and the computation procedure for the proposed analytical solution is given as well. Compared with the existing TOPSIS method for personnel selection problem, it obtains accurate fuzzy relative closeness instead of the crisp point or approximate fuzzy relative closeness estimate. It can both avoid information loss and keep computational efficiency in some extent. Moreover, the global picture of fuzzy relative closeness provides a way to further discuss the inner properties of fuzzy TOPSIS method. Detailed comparisons with approximate fuzzy relative closeness method are provided in personnel selection application. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Li S.,Nanjing Southeast University | Du H.,Nanjing Southeast University | Lin X.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Automatica | Year: 2011

In this paper, we discuss the finite-time consensus problem for leaderless and leaderfollower multi-agent systems with external disturbances. Based on the finite-time control technique, continuous distributed control algorithms are designed for these agents described by double integrators. Firstly, for the leaderless multi-agent systems, it is shown that the states of all agents can reach a consensus in finite time in the absence of disturbances. In the presence of disturbances, the steady-state errors of any two agents can reach a region in finite time. Secondly, for the leaderfollower multi-agent systems, finite-time consensus algorithms are also designed based on distributed finite-time observers. Rigorous proof is given by using Lyapunov theory and graph theory. Finally, one example is employed to verify the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wang Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cui W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2012

Aims and methods: The molecular mechanisms and signal transduction pathways of hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) in plant biology are still unclear. Here, by using pharmacological and biochemical approaches, we report that H 2S promotes germination and alleviates salinity damage involving nitric oxide (NO) pathway. Results: Upon 100 mM NaCl treatment, both H 2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) and NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at 100μM could significantly attenuate the inhibition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seed germination and thereafter seedling growth inhibition. Meanwhile, the ratio of potassium (K) to sodium (Na) in the root parts was increased. Total, isozymatic activities or corresponding transcripts of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), or ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were activated differentially, thus resulting in the alleviation of oxidative damage. The above protective roles of NaHS might be related to the induction of endogenous NO, because the addition of the specific scavenger of NO 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO) reversed above effects. Meanwhile, NaHS-triggered NO production was confirmed. Conclusions: Our observations indicate that H 2S enhances plant responses against salinity stress by reducing oxidative damage, which might have a possible interaction with NO. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Lin X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li S.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zou Y.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology
IET Control Theory and Applications | Year: 2014

Up to now, the potential assumption of most existing results for finite-time stability and finite-time boundedness of switched linear systems is that each subsystem should be finite-time stable or finite-time bounded. If any one subsystem of switched systems is not finite-time stable or finite-time bounded, the previous results may not be true anymore. In this paper, finite-time stability and finite-time boundedness of switched linear systems with subsystems that are not finite-time stable or finite-time bounded are discussed. Sufficient conditions are given under which switched linear systems with subsystems that are not finite-time stable or finite-time bounded is guaranteed to be still finite-time stable or finite-time bounded. The results also show the effect of the switching signals on finite-time stability and finite-time boundedness of switched linear systems. Moreover, finite-time L 2-gain of switched linear systems with subsystems which are not finite-time bounded is also given to measure its disturbance tolerance capability in the fixed time interval. A numerical example is employed to verify the efficiency of the proposed method. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2014.

He H.,International Rice Research Institute | He H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Serraj R.,International Rice Research Institute | Serraj R.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry areas
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

Reproductive stage drought stress results in dramatic reduction of spikelet fertility and grain yield of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.). The hypothesis investigated here is that spikelet sterility under pre-anthesis drought is triggered by deficient plant water status that inhibits peduncle elongation, panicle exsertion and anther dehiscence. A set of 45 rice genotypes was grown in an upland field under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions. Irrigation was applied using a drip irrigation system, and the drought stress treatment was initiated differentially for each genotype at 10-15 days before heading. Drought stress substantially reduced grain yield, and the average yield in the drought treatment was only 20% of that of the control. Peduncle elongation rate (PER) was significantly inhibited by drought, simultaneously with the decrease of plant water status parameters. Yield was highly associated with spikelet fertility (r= 0.74***), PER (r= 0.47***), leaf water potential (LWP) (r= -0.4**), and peduncle water potential (PWP) (r= -0.38**). The sensitivity of anther dehiscence to drought stress, as determined by the anatomic structure of anther walls, did not differ among genotypes. Path analysis revealed that spikelet fertility and PER had a major positive effect on yield, while peduncle length and LWP had negative effects. PWP had a small direct effect, but had a high negative indirect effect on yield through spikelet fertility reduction. PER had a high and positive indirect effect on yield under drought through spikelet fertility. It is concluded that PER is key parameter that affects rice yield through the regulation of spikelet fertility by plant water status under drought. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Ji Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Dong C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Kong D.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences | Lu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2015

The widespread occurrence of atrazine in waters poses potential risk to ecosystem and human health. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms and transformation pathways of atrazine degradation by cobalt catalyzed peroxymonosulfate (Co(II)/PMS). Co(II)/PMS was found to be more efficient for ATZ elimination in aqueous solution than Fe(II)/PMS process. ATZ oxidation by Co(II)/PMS followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the reaction rate constant (kobs) increased appreciably with increasing Co(II) concentration. Increasing initial PMS concentration favored the decomposition of ATZ, however, no linear relationship between kobs and PMS concentration was observed. Higher efficiency of ATZ oxidation was observed around neutral pH, implying the possibility of applying Co(II)/PMS process under environmental realistic conditions. Natural organic matter (NOM), chloride (Cl-) and bicarbonate (HCO3 -) showed detrimental effects on ATZ degradation, particularly at higher concentrations. Eleven products were identified by applying solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-LC/MS) techniques. Major transformation pathways of ATZ included dealkylation, dechlorination-hydroxylation, and alkyl chain oxidation. Detailed mechanisms responsible for these transformation pathways were discussed. Our results reveal that Co(II)/PMS process might be an efficient technique for remediation of groundwater contaminated by ATZ and structurally related s-triazine herbicides. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Cai H.,Harbin Normal University | Tian S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Dong H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Guo C.,Harbin Normal University
Gene | Year: 2015

In a previous study, we isolated and characterized TaMYB3R1, a MYB3R gene, from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In vitro assays showed that the TaMYB3R1 protein is localized to the nucleus, and functions as an MSA-binding transcriptional activator. Expression of TaMYB3R1 is induced by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stress, which encouraged us to further investigate its function in planta. In the present study, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaMYB3R1. Compared with wild-type plants, the transgenic lines produced more rosette leaves, and thus more inflorescences, but the plants showed delayed development at the reproductive stage. The TaMYB3R1 protein also functions in the osmotic stress response. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stresses, and the tolerance phenotype was conveyed by limiting transpiration through increasing stomatal closure as well as reducing water loss. In addition, TaMYB3R1 influenced the expression of both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent responsive genes, implicating TaMYB3R1 in diverse osmotic stress-response mechanisms in Arabidopsis. Our study sheds light on novel functions of a plant MYB3R protein. © 2014 .

Wang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhan X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhou L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lin Y.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

In China, there are many special sites for recycling and washing the used drums, which release a variety of C5-C40 hydrocarbon mixture into the soil around the site. The remediation of these contaminated sites by thermal treatment is adopted ubiquitously and needs to be assessed. Here we report the feasibility of biological indicators applied to assess thermal treatment efficiency in such contaminated soil. A series of biological indicators, including seed germination index (SGI), root elongation index (REI), plant growth height, biomass, carbon dioxide evolved (CDE), soil respiration inhibition (SRI) and soil enzymatic activities, were employed to monitor or assess hydrocarbon mixture removal in thermal treated soil. The results showed that residual hydrocarbon mixture content correlated strongly negatively with SGI for sesamum (Sesamum indicum L.), plant height, and biomass for ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the concentration ranges of 0-3990, 0-3170 and 0-2910mgkg-1, respectively. In contrast, REI for sesamum was positively correlated with residual hydrocarbon mixture content from 0 to 1860mgkg-1. In addition, both CDE and SRI demonstrated that 600mgkg-1 of residual hydrocarbon mixture content caused the highest amount of soil carbon dioxide emission and inhabitation of soil respiration. The results of soil enzymes indicated that 1000mgkg-1 of residual hydrocarbon mixture content was the threshold value of stimulating or inhibiting the activities of phosphatase and catalase, or completely destroying the activities of dehydrogenase, invertase, and urease. In conclusion, these biological indicators can be used as a meaningful complementation for traditional chemical content measurement in evaluating the environmental risk of the contaminated sites before and after thermal treatment. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Wang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yang X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu H.,Peking Union Medical College | Chi X.,Shandong Peanut Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2012

The microRNAs are a new class of small non-coding endogenous RNAs with lengths of approximately ~ 21 nt. MicroRNAs perform their biological function via the degradation of the target mRNAs or by inhibiting protein translation. Until recently, only limited numbers of miRNAs were identified in Brassica oleracea, a vegetable widely cultivated around the world. In present study, 193 potential miRNA candidates were identified from 17 expressed sequence tag (ESTs) and 152 genome survey sequences (GSSs) in B. oleracea. These miRNA candidates were classified into 70 families using a well-defined comparative genome-based computational analysis. Most miRNAs belong to the miRNA169, miR5021, miR156 and miR158 families. Of these, 36 miRNA families are firstly found in Brassica species. Around 1393 B. oleracea genes were predicted as candidate targets of 175 miRNAs. The mutual relationship between miRNAs and the candidate target genes was verified by checking differentially expression levels using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and 5' RLM-RACE analyses. These target genes participate in multiple biological and metabolic processes, including signal transduction, stress response, and plant development. Gene Ontology analysis shows that the 818, 514, and 265 target genes are involved in molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular component respectively. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Pathway enrichment analysis suggests that these miRNAs might regulate 186 metabolic pathways, including those of lipid, energy, starch and sucrose, fatty acid and nitrogen. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Xue J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu L.,China Agricultural University
2010 International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation, ICMTMA 2010 | Year: 2010

A vision-based row guidance method is presented to guide a robot platform which is designed independently to drive through the row crops in a field according to the design concept of open architecture. Then, the offset and heading angle of the robot platform are detected in real time to guide the platform on the basis of recognition of a crop row using machine vision. And the control scheme of the platform is proposed to carry out row guidance. Finally, the preliminary experiments of row guidance were implemented in a vegetable field. Experimental results show that algorithms of row identification and row guidance are effective according to the parameters measured and analyzed such as the heading angle and the offset for row guidance and the difference between the motion trajectory of the robot and the expected trajectory. And the accuracy of row guidance is up to ± 35mm, which means that the robot can move with a sufficiently high accuracy. © 2010 IEEE.

Dai Z.,China Agricultural University | Wu Z.,China Agricultural University | Hang S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhu W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Human Reproduction | Year: 2014

Reproduction is vital for producing offspring and preserving genetic resources. However, incidences of many reproductive disorders (e.g. miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction, premature delivery and lower sperm quality) have either increased dramatically or remained at high rates over the last decades. Mounting evidence shows a strong correlation between enteral protein nutrition and reproduction. Besides serving as major nutrients in the diet, amino acids (AA) are signaling molecules in the regulation of diverse physiological processes, ranging from spermatogenesis to oocyte fertilization and to embryo implantation. Notably, the numbers of bacteria in the intestine exceed the numbers of host cells by 10 times. Microbes in the small-intestinal lumen actively metabolize large amounts of dietaryAAand, therefore, affect the entry ofAA into the portal circulation for whole-body utilization. Changes in the composition and abundance of AA-metabolizing bacteria in the gut during pregnancy, as well as their translocation to the uterus, may alter uterine function and epigenetic modifications of maternal physiology and metabolism, which are crucial for pregnancy recognition and fetal development. Thus, the presence of the maternal gut microbiota and AA metabolites in the intrauterine environments (e.g. endometrium and placenta) and breast milk is likely a unique signature for the programming of the whole-body microbiome and metabolism in both the fetus and infant. Dietary intervention with functional AA, probiotics and prebiotics to alter the abundance and activity of intestinal bacteria may ameliorate or prevent the development of metabolic syndrome, while improving reproductive performance in both males and females as well as their offspring. © The Author 2015.

Du H.,Nanjing Southeast University | Lin X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li S.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Kybernetika | Year: 2010

In this paper, finite-time boundedness and stabilization problems for a class of switched linear systems with time-varying exogenous disturbances are studied. Firstly, the concepts of finite-time stability and finite-time boundedness are extended to switched linear systems. Then, based on matrix inequalities, some sufficient conditions under which the switched linear systems are finite-time bounded and uniformly finite-time bounded are given. Moreover, to solve the finite-time stabilization problem, stabilizing controllers and a class of switching signals are designed. The main results are proven by using the multiple Lyapunov-like functions method, the single Lyapunov-like function method and the common Lyapunov-like function method, respectively. Finally, three examples are employed to verify the efficiency of the proposed methods.

Luo N.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Luo N.,Purdue University | Liu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu J.,CAS Institute of Botany | And 2 more authors.
Physiologia Plantarum | Year: 2011

Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is a temperate wild grass species and is a powerful model system for studying grain, energy, forage and turf grasses. Exploring the natural variation in the drought response of Brachypodium provides an important basis for dissecting the genetic network of drought tolerance. Two experiments were conducted in a greenhouse to assess the drought tolerance of 57 natural populations of Brachypodium. Principle component analysis revealed that reductions in chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and leaf water content (LWC) under drought stress explained most of the phenotypic variation, which was used to classify the tolerant and susceptible accessions. Four groups of accessions differing in drought tolerance were identified, with 3 tolerant, 16 moderately tolerant, 32 susceptible and 6 most susceptible accessions. The tolerant group had little leaf wilting and fewer reductions in Fv/Fm and LWC, while the most susceptible groups showed severe leaf wilting and more reductions in Fv/Fm and LWC. Drought stress increased total water soluble sugar (WSS) concentration, but no differences in the increased WSS were found among different groups of accessions. The large phenotypic variation of Brachypodium in response to drought stress can be used to identify genes and alleles important for the complex trait of drought tolerance. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2010.

Li X.-f.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu W.-b.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jiang Y.-y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhu H.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences | Ge X.-p.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
Aquaculture | Year: 2010

A feeding trial including diets with three protein levels (27%, 31% and 35%) and three lipid levels (4%, 7% and 10%) was conducted to investigate the optimum protein and lipid requirements of blunt snout bream fingerlings (average initial weight:1.76 ± 0.04 g). Fish were randomly distributed into 27 floating cages (2 × 1 × 1 m) and fed three times daily (06:30, 11:30 and 16:30 h) for 8 weeks. Weight gain generally improved with increasing protein levels, but no significant difference was observed. Weight gain of fish fed 7% lipid was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of the other groups. Feed conversion ratio improved significantly (P < 0.05) as protein level decreased from 35% to 31% and lipid level increased from 4% to 7% and 10%. Survival, hepatosomatic index and protein efficiency ratio decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing protein levels. Nitrogen retention increased significantly as protein levels (P < 0.01) decreased and lipid levels (P < 0.05) increased. Contrary to moisture content, lipid content of whole-body and carcass increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing lipid levels; whereas, viscera composition showed a complex trend. Interaction of protein and lipid was only observed in viscera composition. The results of this study indicated that an increase in the dietary lipid level from 4% to 7% had a protein-sparing effect, and the diet containing 31% protein with 7% lipid (18.57 MJ/kg diet) is optimal for growth and effective protein utilization of blunt snout bream fingerlings. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pan G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu X.,Chizhou College | Smith P.,University of Aberdeen | And 2 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2010

Soil C sequestration in cropland could play an important role in mitigating the rapidly increasing CO2 emissions in China. Many efforts had been dedicated to estimating the potential for C sequestration in croplands. Potential increases in SOC in China's croplands had been recently evaluated using inventory-up-scaling simulation and crop-soil C process-based modeling. In this study, data of SOC change at monitoring sites from croplands across mainland China were collected from publications available from 1985 to 2006 to perform a statistical analysis. The data set comprises 1081 observations (404 from rice paddies, RPs and 677 from dry croplands, DCs). Frequency analysis indicates that over 70% of observations show an increase in SOC, which is higher among RPs than DCs. To quantify SOC dynamics, a Relative Annual Change Index in g kg-1 year-1 (RAC, g kg-1 year-1) is defined and calculated using the initial and final SOC values for the duration of monitored observations. RAC values ranged from -0.806 to 0.963 g kg-1 year-1 for DCs and from -0.597 to 0.959 g kg-1 year-1 for RPs, respectively. From this data, the average is estimated to be 0.056 ± 0.200 g kg-1 year-1 for DCs, and 0.110 ± 0.244 g kg-1 year-1 for RPs, with an overall estimate for China's croplands, with RPs and DCs combined, of 0.076 ± 0.219 g kg-1 year-1. A mean increase in topsoil C (0-20 cm) stock of China's croplands was estimated to be 25.5 Tg C year-1 (8 Tg C year-1 in RPs and 17.5 Tg C year-1 in DCs) between 1985 and 2006, with a total topsoil C stock increase of 0.64 Pg C over the whole period. The annual stock increase may offset ∼20%, on average, of the total CO2 emissions of China for 1994. This study suggests an important role of China's croplands, especially rice paddies, for C sequestration to mitigate climate change. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chen X.,China Agricultural University | Cui Z.,China Agricultural University | Fan M.,Stanford University | Vitousek P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 28 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2014

Agriculture faces great challenges to ensure global food security by increasing yields while reducing environmental costs1,2. Here we address this challenge by conducting a total of 153 site-year field experiments covering the main agro-ecological areas for rice, wheat and maize production in China. As et of integrated soil-crop systemmanagement practices based ona modern understanding of crop ecophysiology and soil biogeochemistry increases average yields for rice, wheat and maize from 7.2 million grams per hectare (Mg ha-1), 7.2Mg ha-1 and 10.5Mgha-1 to 8.5Mgha-1, 8.9Mgha-1 and 14.2Mgha-1, respectively, without any increase in nitrogen fertilizer. Model simulation and life-cycle assessment3 show that reactive nitrogen losses and greenhouse gasemissions are reduced substantially by integrated soil-crop system management. If farmers in China could achieve average grain yields equivalent to 80%of this treatment by 2030, over the sameplanting area as in 2012, total production of rice, wheat and maize in China would be more than enough to meet the demand for direct human consumption and a substantially increased demand for animal feed, while decreasing the environmental costs of intensive agriculture. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Li H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jiang D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wollenweber B.,University of Aarhus | Dai T.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cao W.,Nanjing Agricultural University
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2010

In a field experiment, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Yangmai 158 (YM 158, shading tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (YM 11, shading-sensitive) were subjected to shading between jointing and maturity. Three shading treatments were applied, i.e. 92% (S1), 85% (S2) and 77% (S3) of full radiation (S0, control). Compared with S0, the observed grain yield increased in the S1 and S2 treatments of YM 158 but not in S1 of YM 11. The yield loss of YM 11 was 2.3% and 6.7% in S2 and S3, respectively, and 5.9% in S3 of YM 158, which was much less than the corresponding reduction in radiation. Under the shading treatments applied, leaf area index, length of the peduncle internode, area of the upper leaves and content of pigments increased, which favoured efficient light capture. Shading modified light quality in the canopy as indicated by increases of diffuse- and blue light fractions and a reduction of the red light fraction. Shading also altered light-use efficiency as exemplified by reductions in the chlorophyll a/b ratio and the rate of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and by increases in the electron transport rate between PSII and PSI (ETR) and of the quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII), concomitant with no significant change in the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II under dark-adapted conditions (Fv/Fm). By contrast, photosynthetic carbon-use (Pn) in the flag leaf of both cultivars was reduced in the S3 treatment only. The lower leaves were found to be more tolerant to low radiation than the flag leaf, as in most cases Pn of the third and the penultimate leaves were found to increase under shading treatments. Shading increased the redistribution of dry matter from vegetative organs into grains. The responses of the morphological and physiological traits to shading are discussed in relation to the variations of the resulting grain yield in the contrasting wheat cultivars. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Lu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ji Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Kong D.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences
Water Research | Year: 2015

Sulfate radicals (SO4-·) are applied to degrade various organic pollutants. Due to its high oxidative potential, SO4-· is presumed to be able to transform bromide to reactive bromine species that can react with natural organic matter subsequently to form brominated products including brominated disinfection by-products (Br-DBPs). This research was designed to investigate the transformation of bromide in thermo activated persulfate oxidation process in the presence of humic acid (HA). Significant formation of bromoform and bromoacetic acids was verified. Their formation was attributed to the reactions of HA and reactive bromine species including Br·, Br2-· HOBr-, and free bromine resulted from the oxidation of bromide by SO4-·. Yields of Br-DBPs increased monotonically at persulfate concentration of 1.0mM and working temperature of 70°C. However, the time-depended formation exhibited an increasing and the decreasing profile when persulfate was 5.0mM, suggesting further degradation of organic bromine. HPLC/ICP-MS analysis demonstrated that the organic bromine was eventually transformed to bromate at this condition. Thus, a transformation scheme was proposed in which the bromine could be recycled multiple times between inorganic bromide and organic bromine before being finally transformed to bromate. This is the first study that reveals the comprehensive transformation map of bromine in SO4-· based reaction systems, which should be taken into consideration when such technologies are used to eliminate contamination in real practice. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Tian D.-Q.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Pan X.-Y.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yu Y.-M.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang W.-Y.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: Anthurium andraeanum is one of the most popular tropical flowers. In temperate and cold zones, a much greater risk of cold stress occurs in the supply of Anthurium plants. Unlike the freeze-tolerant model plants, Anthurium plants are particularly sensitive to low temperatures. Improvement of chilling tolerance in Anthurium may significantly increase its production and extend its shelf-life. To date, no previous genomic information has been reported in Anthurium plants.Results: Using Illumina sequencing technology, we generated over two billion base of high-quality sequence in Anthurium, and demonstrated de novo assembly and annotation of genes without prior genome information. These reads were assembled into 44,382 unigenes (mean length = 560 bp). Based on similarity search with known protein in the non-redundant (nr) protein database, 27396 unigenes (62%) were functionally annotated with a cut-off E-value of 10-5. Further, DGE tags were mapped to the assembled transcriptome for gene expression analysis under cold stress. In total, 4363 differentially expressed genes were identified. Among these genes, 292, 805 and 708 genes were up-regulated after 1-h, 5-h and 24-h cold treatment, respectively. Then we mapped these cold-induced genes to the KEGG database. Specific enrichment was observed in photosynthesis pathway, metabolic pathways and oxidative phosphorylation pathway in 1-h cold-treated plants. After a 5-h cold treatment, the metabolic pathways and oxidative phosphorylation pathway were significantly identified as the top two pathways. After 24-h cold treatment, mRNA surveillance pathway, RNA transport pathway and plant-pathogen interaction pathway were significantly enriched. Together, a total of 39 cold-inducible transcription factors were identified, including subsets of AP2/ERF, Zinc figure, NAC, MYB and bZIP family members.Conclusion: Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for Anthurium plants, and demonstrate its digital gene expression profiling under cold conditions using the assembled transcriptome data for reference. These data provides a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies under abiotic conditions for Anthurium plants. © 2013 Tian et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Hu J.,Nanjing Southeast University | Hu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhao L.,Nanjing Southeast University
ICIC Express Letters | Year: 2012

When a public health emergency, such as an anthrax attack, happens in many areas, it is necessary to deploy the medical supplies to the affected people quickly. In this condition, the emergency logistics network based on integrated supply chain, which is made up of the points of dispensing, emergency centers, and replenishment sources, is proposed to response to the emergency. In order to compare its effect, the traditional emergency logistics network is introduced. Then multi-objective programming models for the two kinds of networks under many scenarios about the anthrax attack are constructed. From the practical example, we can draw up that: the cost of the integrated mode is always lower than the traditional mode. The transportation duration of the integrated mode is higher than the traditional mode when the treatment rate is 0.4. However, the integrated mode is lower than the traditional mode as the treatment rate increases. © 2012 ISSN 1881-803X.

Rui Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Rui Q.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhao Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Wu Q.,Nanjing Southeast University | And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2013

We used Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate whether acute exposure to TiO2-NPs at the concentration of 20μgL-1 reflecting predicted environmental relevant concentration and 25mgL-1 reflecting concentration in food can cause toxicity on nematodes with mutations of susceptible genes. Among examined mutants associated with oxidative stress and stress response, we found that genes of sod-2, sod-3, mtl-2, and hsp-16.48 might be susceptible for TiO2-NPs toxicity. Mutations of these genes altered functions of both possible primary and secondary targeted organs in nematodes exposed to 25mgL-1 of TiO2-NPs for 24-h. Mutations of these genes caused similar expression patterns of genes required for oxidative stress in TiO2-NPs exposed mutant nematodes, implying their similar mechanisms to form the susceptible property. Nevertheless, acute exposure to 20μgL-1 of TiO2-NPs for 24-h and 25mgL-1 of TiO2-NPs for 0.48-h or 5.71-h did not influence functions of both possible primary and secondary targeted organs in sod-2, sod-3, mtl-2, and hsp-16.48 mutants. Therefore, our results suggest the relatively safe property of acute exposure to TiO2-NPs with certain durations at predicted environmental relevant concentrations or concentrations comparable to those in food in nematodes with mutations of some susceptible genes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Ye B.,China Pharmaceutical University | Ye B.,Nanjing Southeast University | Rui Q.,Nanjing Southeast University | Rui Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich polypeptides, but the role of MTs in inducing the formation of adaptive response is still largely unknown. We investigated the roles of metallothionein genes (mtl-1 and mtl-2) in the formation of cross-adaptation response to neurobehavioral toxicity from metal exposure in Caenorhabditis elegans. Pre-treatment with mild heat-shock at L2-larva stage effectively prevented the formation of the neurobehavioral defects and the activation of severe stress response in metal exposed nematodes at concentrations of 50 and 100 μM, but pre-treatment with mild heatshock did not prevent the formation of neurobehavioral defects in 200 μ M of metal exposed nematodes. During the formation of cross-adaptation response, the induction of mtl-1 and mtl-2 promoter activity and subsequent GFP gene expression were sharply increased in 50 μM or 100 μM of metal exposed Pmtl-1::GFP and Pmtl-2::GFP transgenic adult animals after mild heat-shock treatment compared with those treated with mild heat-shock or metal exposure alone. Moreover, after pre-treatment with mild heat-shock, no noticeable increase of locomotion behaviors could be observed in metal exposed mtl-1 or mtl-2 mutant nematodes compared to those without mild heat-shock pre-treatment. The defects of adaptive response to neurobehavioral toxicity induced by metal exposure formed in mtl-1 and mtl-2 mutants could be completely rescued by the expression of mtl-1 and mtl-2 with the aid of their native promoters. Furthermore, overexpression of MTL-1 and MTL-2 at the L2-larval stage significantly suppressed the toxicity on locomotion behaviors from metal exposure at all examined concentrations. Therefore, the normal formation of cross-adaptation response to neurobehavioral toxicity induced by metal exposure may need the enough accumulation of MTs protein in animal tissues. © 2010 Ye et al.

Chadwick D.,Bangor University | Wei J.,China Agricultural University | Yan'an T.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Guanghui Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2015

Traditionally farmers in China have relied on organic manures to build the organic matter content in soil and to fertilise crops for both human and livestock consumption. However, with requirements to increase food production, the use of relatively cheap inorganic fertilisers has increased, and manure nutrients are not always used to their potential. In addition, farms of all sizes and even biogas plants, often lack the basic infrastructure to manage manures; poor containment facilities often result in untreated manures being discharged directly into watercourses, whilst transportation of manures to the field and land spreading is often not mechanised and relies on availability of suitable labour. There is already clear evidence of overuse of nutrients in some parts of China and this is causing undesirable impacts on the environment. With the increasing demand for livestock products from a burgeoning population and changes in dietary preferences towards animal protein, greater quantities of manure nutrients will be generated in the next twenty years, especially in peri-urban concentrated animal feeding operations and intensive farms. It is essential that China addresses the infrastructural, research and communication challenges to ensure that manures are integrated into nutrient planning at the field, farm and regional level to safeguard the environment, reduce the requirement for inorganic fertiliser production and use, and improve farmer incomes. This paper reviews the current manure management practices, both nationally and, where appropriate, at a regional scale, and assesses what barriers currently prevent efficient manure nutrient utilisation in China. We then address the future challenges for manure nutrient management in China, before summarising key gaps in knowledge and communication with implications for research and policy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Na R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Na R.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Yu D.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Yu D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | Year: 2013

Phytophthora sojae is an oomycete and a pathogen of soybean that causes root rot. During infection P. sojae delivers effector proteins into host cells to foster disease. However, effector-triggered immunity (ETI) results when pathogen factors are recognized by host resistance (R) proteins. We have now identified the P. sojae Avr1d gene, which encodes a predicted effector protein with the amino acid motif Arg- X-Leu-Arg (RXLR). Genetic mapping of 16 different P. sojae isolates and of a segregating F2 population of 40 individuals shows that the predicted RXLR effector gene Avh6 precisely cosegregates with the Avr1d phenotype. Transient expression assays confirm that Avr1d triggers cell death specifically in Rps1d soybean plants. The Avr1d gene is present in P. sojae strains that are avirulent on Rps1d, whereas the gene is deleted from the genome of virulent strains. Two sequence variants of the Avr1d gene encoding different protein products occur in P. sojae strains, but both are recognized by Rps1d and cause ETI. Liposome binding assays show that Avr1d has affinity for phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and that binding can be disrupted by mutation of lysine residues in the carboxy-terminal effector domain of the protein. The identification of Avr1d aids pathogen diagnostics and soybean cultivar development. © 2013 The American Phytopathological Society.

Tabashnik B.E.,University of Arizona | Huang F.,Louisiana State University | Ghimire M.N.,Louisiana State University | Leonard B.R.,Louisiana State University | And 8 more authors.
Nature Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Transgenic crops that produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are grown widely for pest control, but insect adaptation can reduce their efficacy. The genetically modified Bt toxins Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod were designed to counter insect resistance to native Bt toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. Previous results suggested that the modified toxins would be effective only if resistance was linked with mutations in genes encoding toxin-binding cadherin proteins. Here we report evidence from five major crop pests refuting this hypothesis. Relative to native toxins, the potency of modified toxins was >350-fold higher against resistant strains of Plutella xylostella and Ostrinia nubilalis in which resistance was not linked with cadherin mutations. Conversely, the modified toxins provided little or no advantage against some resistant strains of three other pests with altered cadherin. Independent of the presence of cadherin mutations, the relative potency of the modified toxins was generally higher against the most resistant strains. © 2011 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Wang M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhu P.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Jiang C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ma L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2012

The fresh fleshy peduncles of Hovenia dulcis have been used as a food supplement and traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of liver diseases and alcoholic poisoning for more than a millennium. The objectives of the present study, therefore, were to determine the antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from the peduncles of H. dulcis (HDPS) and to evaluate its hepatoprotective effect on acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. HDPS, prepared by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation and treatment of macroporous resin, was found to be non-starch polysaccharide and mainly composed of galactose, arabinose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid. In in vitro antioxidant assay, HDPS exhibited high superoxide radical scavenging activity, strong inhibition effect on lipid peroxidation and a medium ferrous ion-chelating activity. For hepatoprotective activity in vivo, the administration of HDPS significantly decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, significantly decreased the liver level of malondialdehyde and remarkably restored the liver activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in alcohol-induced liver injury mice. The results suggested that HDPS had a significant protective effect against acute alcohol-induced liver injury possibly via its antioxidant activity to protect biological systems against the oxidative stress. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Chen D.,Hohai University | Chen D.,University of Melbourne | Webber M.,University of Melbourne | Chen J.,Hohai University | Luo Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Ecological Economics | Year: 2011

Emergy theory and method are used to evaluate the feasibility of an irrigation improvement project in China and its contribution to local agricultural development. An emergy method for evaluating the costs and benefits of the project and a composite index named the emergy cost-benefit ratio (EmCBR) were developed. The emergy evaluation shows that the major costs associated with the proposed project come from earthwork (77.4% of the total cost) and concrete work (15.4%), and that water saving (43.0% of the total benefit) and agricultural yield increase (56.9%) are the most important contributions. The calculated EmCBR is 0.97 (the lowest value for a feasible project is 1.0) which indicates that this project would not be feasible in emergy terms. The regional agricultural system could not benefit from the proposed project, according to several emergy indices: emergy yield ratio (EYR), emergy investment ratio (EIR), environmental load ratio (ELR) and environmental sustainability index (ESI). The results show that conventional cost-benefit analysis could fail to provide an adequate decision-making framework because it is unable to value resources and environmental impacts properly. More additional emergy evaluations should be completed on other alternatives to the proposed project to provide adequate guidelines for selecting the best alternative that contributes most to agricultural development with limited environmental impact. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Chen K.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2013

Summary: Dehalogenation is the key step in the degradation of halogenated aromatics, while reductive dehalogenation is originally thought to rarely occur in aerobes. In this study, an aerobic strain of Comamonas sp. 7D-2 was shown to degrade the brominated aromatic herbicide bromoxynil completely and release two equivalents of bromides under aerobic conditions. The enzymes involved in the degradation of bromoxynil to 4-carboxy-2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde, including nitrilase, reductive dehalogenase (BhbA), 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase and protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase, were molecularly characterized. The novel dehalogenase BhbA was shown to be a complex of a respiration-linked reductive dehalogenase (RdhA) domain and a NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase domain and to have key features of anaerobic respiratory RdhAs, including two predicted binding motifs for [4Fe-4S] clusters and a close association with a hydrophobic membrane protein (BhbB). BhbB was confirmed to anchor BhbA to the membrane. BhbA was partially purified and found to use NAD(P)H as electron donors. Full-length bhbA homologues were found almost exclusively in marine aerobic proteobacteria, suggesting that reductive dehalogenation occurs extensively in aerobes and that bhbA is horizontally transferred from marine microorganisms. The discovery of a functional reductive dehalogenase and ring-cleavage oxygenases in an aerobe opens up possibilities for basic research as well as the potential application for bioremediation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Zhu D.,United International University Dhanmondi | Wang D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Hassan S.-U.,United International University Dhanmondi | Haddawy P.,United International University Dhanmondi
Scientometrics | Year: 2013

Based on the network comprised of 111,444 keywords of library and information science that are extracted from Scopus, and taken into consideration the major properties of average distance and clustering coefficients, the present authors, with the knowledge of complex network and by means of calculation, reveal the small-world effect of the keywords network. On the basis of the keywords network, the betweenness centrality is used to carry out a preliminary study on how to detect the research hotspots of a discipline. This method is also compared with that of detecting research hotspots by word frequency. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Cipriany B.R.,Cornell University | Zhao R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Murphy P.J.,Cornell University | Levy S.L.,Cornell University | And 3 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

Epigenetic states are governed by DNA methylation and a host of modifications to histones bound with DNA. These states are essential for proper developmentally regulated gene expression and are perturbed in many diseases. There is great interest in identifying epigenetic mark placement genome wide and understanding how these marks vary among cell types, with changes in environment or according to health and disease status. Current epigenomic analyses employ bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation, but query only one type of epigenetic mark at a time, DNA methylation, or histone modifications and often require substantial input material. To overcome these limitations, we established a method using nanofluidics and multicolor fluorescence microscopy to detect DNA and histones in individual chromatin fragments at about 10 Mbp/min. We demonstrated its utility for epigenetic analysis by identifying DNA methylation on individual molecules. This technique will provide the unprecedented opportunity for genome wide, simultaneous analysis of multiple epigenetic states on single molecules. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Long M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhuang H.,Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit | Zhang Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2014

Under UV light, nano-TiO2 is effective in photocatalytic disinfection. In this paper, we studied the disinfection effects of nano-TiO2 on the two typical food-borne microorganisms, Gram-negative bacterium-Salmonella typhimurium and Gram-positive bacterium-Listeria monocytogenes, in meat products. Results show that nano-TiO2 had a strong disinfecting activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens in a suspension under UV light. L.monocytogenes was more resistant to nano-TiO2 treatment than Salmonella under UV light. Nano-TiO2 concentrations and initial bacteria populations had significant influence on the photocatalytic disinfection effectiveness against S.typhimurium. The optimum concentration (1.0g/L) was between 0.2g/L and 1.5g/L. Increasing S.typhimurium population from 104 to 107CFU/mL resulted in reduced photocatalytic disinfecting effectiveness by nano-TiO2. Electron microscope images revealed that nano-TiO2 photocatalytic disinfection starts with damaging the cell walls of bacteria. With serious destructions of cell walls, cell components released or defused out of cell from the damaged areas, and finally the cells completely lost their integrity and dissolved. These results demonstrate that nano-TiO2 is very effective against pathogens that can grow well on meat products and the effectiveness can be significantly influenced by nano-TiO2 contents and pathogen populations. The findings by these experiments provide the essential information for further developing a nano-metal-based, antimicrobial packaging system to improve safety of meat products. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Huang W.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Huang W.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Siemann E.,Rice University | Wheeler G.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Ecology | Year: 2010

1. Invasive plants often have novel biotic interactions in their introduced ranges. These interactions, including less frequent herbivore attacks, may convey a competitive advantage over native plants. Invasive plants may vary in defence strategies (resistance vs. tolerance) or in response to the type of herbivore (generalists vs. specialists), but no study to date has examined this broad set of traits simultaneously. 2. Here, we examined resistance and tolerance of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) populations from the introduced and native ranges to generalist (Cnidocampa flavescens) and specialist herbivores (Gadirtha inexacta) in the native range. 3. In a field common-garden test of resistance, caterpillars of each species were raised on plants from native and invasive populations. We found the specialist grew larger on and consumed more mass of invasive plant populations than native populations, while the generalist showed the same performance between them. The results were consistent with our laboratory bioassay using excised leaves. Chemical analyses showed that the invasive plants had lower tannin content and higher ratio of carbohydrate to protein than those of their native counterparts, suggesting that plants from invasive populations have altered chemistry that has a larger impact on specialist than on generalist resistance. 4. To test for differences in herbivore tolerance, plants were first defoliated by specialist or generalist herbivory and then allowed to regrow for 100 days in a field common garden. We found that plants from invasive populations had greater herbivore tolerance than native populations, especially for tolerance to generalists. They also grew more rapidly than native counterparts in the absence of herbivory. 5. Synthesis. The results of these experiments indicate that differences in selective pressures between ranges have caused dramatic reductions in resistance to specialist herbivores and those changes in plant secondary chemistry likely underlie these differences. The greater tolerance of invasive populations to herbivory appears to at least partly reflect an increase in growth rate in the introduced range. The greater tolerance to generalist herbivores suggests the intriguing possibility of selection for traits that allow plants to tolerate generalist herbivores more than specialist herbivores. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Ecological Society.

Zou B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zou B.,Cornell University | Yang D.-L.,Cornell University | Yang D.-L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2014

Disease resistance (R) genes are key components in plant immunity. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) E3 ubiquitin ligase genes HISTONE MONOUBIQUITINATION1 (HUB1) and HUB2 regulate the expression of R genes SUPPRESSOR OF npr1-1, CONSTITUTIVE1 (SNC1) and RESISTANCE TO PERONOSPORA PARASITICA4. An increase of SNC1 expression induces constitutive immune responses in the bonzai1 (bon1) mutant, and the loss of HUB1 or HUB2 function reduces SNC1 up-regulation and suppresses the bon1 autoimmune phenotypes. HUB1 and HUB2 mediate histone 2B (H2B) monoubiquitination directly at the SNC1 R gene locus to regulate its expression. In addition, SNC1 and HUB1 transcripts are moderately up-regulated by pathogen infection, and H2B monoubiquitination at SNC1 is enhanced by pathogen infection. Together, this study indicates that H2B monoubiquitination at the R gene locus regulates its expression and that this histone modification at the R gene locus has an impact on immune responses in plants. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Liu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chen N.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chen F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cai B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2014

Background: Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor gene family is one of the largest and most diverse families in plants. Current studies have shown that the bZIP proteins regulate numerous growth and developmental processes and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Nonetheless, knowledge concerning the specific expression patterns and evolutionary history of plant bZIP family members remains very limited.Results: We identified 55 bZIP transcription factor-encoding genes in the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) genome, and divided them into 10 groups according to the phylogenetic relationship with those in Arabidopsis. The chromosome distribution and the collinearity analyses suggest that expansion of the grapevine bZIP (VvbZIP) transcription factor family was greatly contributed by the segment/chromosomal duplications, which may be associated with the grapevine genome fusion events. Nine intron/exon structural patterns within the bZIP domain and the additional conserved motifs were identified among all VvbZIP proteins, and showed a high group-specificity. The predicted specificities on DNA-binding domains indicated that some highly conserved amino acid residues exist across each major group in the tree of land plant life. The expression patterns of VvbZIP genes across the grapevine gene expression atlas, based on microarray technology, suggest that VvbZIP genes are involved in grapevine organ development, especially seed development. Expression analysis based on qRT-PCR indicated that VvbZIP genes are extensively involved in drought- and heat-responses, with possibly different mechanisms.Conclusions: The genome-wide identification, chromosome organization, gene structures, evolutionary and expression analyses of grapevine bZIP genes provide an overall insight of this gene family and their potential involvement in growth, development and stress responses. This will facilitate further research on the bZIP gene family regarding their evolutionary history and biological functions. © 2014 Liu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Inoue Y.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Sakaiya E.,Aomori ITC Agricultural Research Institute | Zhu Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Takahashi W.,Agricultural Forestry and Fisheries Research Center
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2012

Timely assessment of canopy nitrogen content (CNC) in crops is critical for growth diagnosis and precision management of crops to generate higher yield and better quality while also minimizing adverse environmental impacts. The objective of this study was to determine the most suitable algorithm, using hyperspectral reflectance data, for the regional assessment of CNC at a critical growth stage in paddy rice. Ground-based hyperspectral datasets were obtained during the panicle formation stage under a wide range of plant and environmental conditions in Japan and China using spectroradiometers. A hyperspectral airborne dataset was obtained over a typical rice-growing region in Japan using the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager 3 (CASI-3). On the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the hyperspectral data, significant spectral indices (SIs) such as the normalized difference spectral index (NDSI) and ratio spectral index (RSI) were explored to provide an accurate and robust assessment of CNC. The capability of multivariable regression approaches, such as partial least-squares regression (PLSR) using the whole hyperspectral data or interval PLSR (IPLSR) using selected wavebands was also examined. Among various SIs, a simple index, RSI (D740, D522) using the first derivative (D) values at 740. nm and 522. nm, was found to be most accurate and robust for the assessment of CNC. The predictive ability of the index was comparable to those of PLSR and IPLSR. Independent validation using the airborne dataset supported the robust applicability of the new SI. The CNC was closely related to the conventional diagnostic indicators based on direct plant measurements. The results demonstrated the operational applicability of hyperspectral measurements for diagnostic mapping of CNC on a regional scale. The investigation based on the precise dataset for rice will be a good basis for remote sensing of canopy nitrogen content in a wide range of vegetation. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Qun W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yongle L.,Nanjing University of Finance and Economics | Siqi Y.,University of Technology, Sydney
Land Use Policy | Year: 2015

Land grant premiums and land tax revenues have become two major sources of fiscal revenue for city governments in China. This type of fiscal revenue strategy for city governments is generally referred to as "land finance", and it has drawn increasing research attention in recent years. This paper explores the institutional causes of the "land finance" strategy of city governments in China. We first analyze the institutional foundation of "land finance" (including China's urban land use system and land expropriation system). We then propose two hypotheses about the institutional causes of "land finance". The first hypothesis is that the current system of fiscal decentralization is a major reason city governments choose the "land finance" fiscal strategy. The second hypothesis is that under the current personnel control system, which uses local economic performance as the most important indicator for evaluating local government officials, the competition between city governments to promote local economic growth is another major reason city governments choose the "land finance" fiscal strategy. We test the hypotheses by estimating econometric models using data for 31 provincial-level regions for the period 1999-2008. The empirical results suggest that fiscal decentralization and competition between city governments to promote economic growth are two major causes of "land finance". © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Weldearegay D.F.,Copenhagen University | Yan F.,Jilin University | Jiang D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu F.,Copenhagen University
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science | Year: 2012

Increase in soil temperature together with decrease in soil moisture during anthesis of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L) crops is predicted to occur more frequently in a future climate in Denmark. The objective of this study was to investigate the responses of two Danish spring wheat varieties (Trappe and Alora) to soil warming (H), drought (D) and both (HD) during anthesis. The plants were grown in pots in a climate-controlled glasshouse. In H, the soil temperature was increased by 3°C compared with the control (C). In both D and HD treatments, the plants were drought-stressed by withholding irrigation until all of the transpirable soil water had been depleted in the pots. Results showed that, particularly under D treatment, Alora depleted soil water faster than Trappe. In both varieties, flag leaf relative water content (RWC) was significantly lowered, while spikelet abscisic acid (ABA) concentration was significantly increased by D and HD treatments. Compared with the C plants, D and HD treatments significantly reduced ear number, ear to tiller ratio, shoot biomass, grain yield, harvest index and seed set but hardly affected tiller number and 1000-kernel weight, whereas H treatment alone only decreased shoot biomass and reduced seed set. When analysed across the varieties and the treatments, it was found that the reduction in seed set was closely correlated with the increase in spikelet ABA concentration, indicating that D and HD treatments induced greater spikelet ABA concentrations might have caused seed abortion. It was concluded that the grain yield reduction under D and HD treatments during anthesis in spring wheat is ascribed mainly to a lowered seed set and wheat varieties (i.e. Alora) with more dramatic increase in spikelet ABA concentration are more susceptible to D and HD treatment. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Zhang L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang L.,Rice University | Zhang Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zou J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2014

Solidago canadensis is an aggressive invader in China. Solidago invasion success is partially attributed to allelopathic compounds release and more benefits from AM fungi, which potentially makes the properties of Solidago litter different from co-occurring natives. These properties may comprehensively affect litter decomposition of co-occurring natives. We conducted a field experiment to examine litter mixing effects in a Phragmites australis dominated community invaded by Solidago in southeast China. Solidago had more rapid mass and N loss rate than Phragmites when they decomposed separately. Litter mixing decreased N loss rate in Phragmites litter and increased that of Solidago. Large decreases in Phragmites mass loss and smaller increases in Solidago mass loss caused negative non-additive effect. Solidago litter extracts reduced soil C decomposition and N processes, suggested an inhibitory effect of Solidago secondary compounds. These results are consistent with the idea that nutrient transfer and secondary compounds both affected litter mixtures decomposition.

News Article | December 21, 2016

Birds and human vacationers aren't the only creatures that take to the skies each year to migrate north or south. An analysis of a decade's worth of data from radars specifically designed to track airborne insects has revealed unseen hordes crossing parts of the southern United Kingdom—2 trillion to 5 trillion insects each year, amounting to several thousand tons of biomass, that may travel up to hundreds of kilometers a day. The numbers, reported in this week's issue of , are "stunning," says Silke Bauer, an ecologist at the Swiss Ornithological Institute in Sempach. "Wow," adds Larry Stevens, an evolutionary ecologist at the Museum of Northern Arizona in Flagstaff. "Can you image what these numbers look like in tropical settings, say, over the basins of the Amazon or the Congo?" Although some insect migrations are well known (think monarchs), the new work takes a systematic approach to flying insects and hints that such mass movements are surprisingly common. These airborne invertebrates, their bodies packed full of nitrogen and phosphorus, could move significant amounts of key nutrients across the globe. "Insects are little creatures, but collectively they can have a big impact; comparable in magnitude to large ocean migrations [of plankton]," says Lael Parrott, an environmental geographer at the University of British Columbia in Kelowna, Canada. In the 1970s, U.K. entomologists began to use mobile radars to assess movements of locusts and other pests in developing countries. By the late 1990s, they had designed a permanent upward-facing radar system, based at Rothamsted Research in Harpenden, U.K., that automatically logs insects of different sizes. In one early discovery, Jason Chapman, now at the University of Exeter in the United Kingdom, and colleagues found that certain large butterflies and moths that dwell in northern Europe in the summer and in the Mediterranean in the winter take advantage of favorable winds to migrate Now, Gao Hu, from Nanjing Agricultural University in China, Chapman, and colleagues have surveyed data from 2000 to 2009 collected in Harpenden and two other U.K. radar sites. The radars recorded medium-sized insects (hoverflies, ladybird beetles, and water boatmen) and large ones (hawk moths, painted lady butterflies, and aquatic beetles) flying between 150 meters and 1200 meters high; balloon sampling flights helped provide estimated counts for smaller insects. Among the medium and large insects, the radar documented 1320 mass migrations in the daytime and 898 at night over the course of the decade. These streams of insects, heading south in the fall and north in the spring, usually coincided with favorable winds, which swept them along at up to 58 kilometers an hour. That insects "have an idea of where they want to go to, when they want to go, and what winds are good [is] surprising for these tiny creatures," Bauer says. It will take more data, from other sites, to convince some entomologists that many insects migrate seasonally like birds and mammals. A European initiative is tracking birds using weather radars, and its scientists hope to get the funding to monitor insects as well. Such studies could be critical, notes zoologist Eric Warrant of Lund University in Sweden. "If, due to human influence, a large fraction of the [insect] migrant population is wiped out, it might have catastrophic consequences for those particular ecosystems."

Sun Y.Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Sun Y.Z.,Jimei University | Mao S.Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhu W.Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Animal | Year: 2010

The correlation between rumen chemical and bacterial changes was investigated during a four periodical stepwise adaptation to a high-concentrate diet (concentrate level at 0%, 30%, 50% and 70% for diet I to IV, respectively) in goats. The results showed that ruminal pH decreased from 6.7 to 5.5 after switching from diet I to II, and was maintained at about 5.5 on diet III. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis results showed that the rumen bacterial community was relatively stable during the initial three feeding periods, except for the appearance of three bands when diet changed from I to II, suggesting that an appropriate concentrate level can promote the proliferation of some bacteria. After 12 days of feeding diet III, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and butyrate proportion decreased. At days 2 and 3 of feeding diet IV, ruminal pH declined sharply to 5.3 and 4.7, respectively, and total VFA concentration decreased further while lactic acid concentration increased markedly, suggesting a relation between lactic acid accumulation and ruminal pH decline. At the same time, many bacteria disappeared, including most fibrolytic-related bacteria while Streptococcus bovis and Prevotella-like species dominated. Interestingly, Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens-like species maintained throughout the experiment, suggesting its tolerance to low pH. In conclusion, rumen bacterial community was relatively stable feeding 0% to 50% concentrate diets, and it was observed that appropriate concentrate levels in the diet could increase the diversity of rumen bacteria. However, concentrate-rich diets caused lactic acid accumulation and low ruminal pH that caused the disappearance of most fibrolytic-related bacteria sensitive to low pH while S. bovis and genus Prevotella persisted. © 2009 The Animal Consortium.

Hu B.,Rutgers University | Hu B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ting Y.,Rutgers University | Zeng X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang Q.,Rutgers University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was successfully encapsulated in novel nanocomplexes assembled from bioactive peptides, caseinophosphopeptides (CPPs), and chitosan (CS), a natural cationic polymer. Their particle sizes and surface charges were determined to be in the range of 150.0 ± 4.3 nm and 32.2 ± 3.3 mV respectively. Crosslinking between the NH 3 + groups of CS with the PO - and COO - groups of CPP, as well as the hydrogen bonding were confirmed from the FTIR results. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images showed that EGCG loaded CS-CPP nanocomplexes were spherical in shape. Maintaining the surface charge as high as +32.2 mV, crosslinking CS with peptides reduced the cytotoxicity of CS nanoparticles. In addition, cellular internalization of EGCG-loaded CS-CPP nanoparticles was confirmed from green fluorescence inside the Caco-2 cells. The process of nanoparticle uptake was dose and time dependent in the range of time and concentration studied. Furthermore, the intestinal permeability of EGCG using Caco-2 monolayer was enhanced significantly as delivered by nanoparticles, which indicated the promising elevation of EGCG bioavailability. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Li S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li S.,Rutgers University | Huang K.,Rutgers University | Zhang X.,Rutgers University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2014

The first highly chemo- and enantioselective hydrogenation of α,β-disubstituted nitroalkenes was accomplished with rhodium/JosiPhos-J2 as a catalyst, with the yield and enantioselectivity of up to 95% and 94%, respectively. The α-chiral nitroalkanes will provide an entry to valuable chiral amphetamines which are otherwise not so easily accessed. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Hu B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang Q.-R.,Rutgers University
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science (English Edition) | Year: 2013

Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the development of efficient food-grade oral nano-delivery systems for encapsulation, protection and target delivery of nutraceuticals to enhance their bioavailability, further to prevent disease and promote human health and well-being. Food proteins represent promising candidates for efficient nutraceutical nanocarriers due to their exceptional characteristics, namely biodegradability, nonantigenicity, high nutritional value, abundant renewable sources and extraordinary binding capacity to various nutraceuticals. In addition, their biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity, low cost, and non-starch polysaccharides possess many favourable characteristics such as stability in the harsh gastric environment, resistance to digestive enzymes, and mucoadhesiveness to intestinal mucosal surface. This review describes the design and formation of nanoscaled delivery systems for nutraceuticals using food-grade proteins (including peptides), polysaccharides and their associative complexes. The toxicity and cellular uptake fate of the nanostructures, as well as their effects on the intestinal absorption of the encapsulated nutraceuticals were also discussed. © 2013 Chinese Chemical Society, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Pan L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhu Q.,Jiangnan University | Lu R.,Michigan State University | McGrath J.M.,Michigan State University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Visible and near-infrared spectra in interactance mode were acquired for intact and sliced beet samples, using two portable spectrometers for the spectral regions of 400-1100 nm and 900-1600 nm, respectively. Sucrose prediction models for intact and sliced beets were developed and then validated. The spectrometer for 400-1100 nm was able to predict the sucrose content with correlations of prediction (rp) of 0.80 and 0.88 and standard errors of prediction (SEPs) of 0.89% and 0.70%, for intact beets and beet slices, respectively. The spectrometer for 900-1600 nm had rp values of 0.74 and 0.88 and SEPs of 1.02% and 0.69% for intact beets and beet slices. These results showed the feasibility of using the portable spectrometer to predict the sucrose content of beet slices. Using simple correlation analysis, the study also identified important wavelengths that had strong correlation with the sucrose content. © Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Lv Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Deng X.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Quan L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xia Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shen Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Plant and Soil | Year: 2013

Aims: Metallothioneins are cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins, but their exact functions are not fully understood. In this study, we isolated two metallothionein genes, BcMT1 and BcMT2 from Brassica campestris to increase our understanding of metal tolerance mechanisms in Brassica plants. Methods: Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze expression of the two BcMTs genes. BcMT1 and BcMT2 were ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and GUS-staining method were used to select transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Cd and Cu concentrations were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Histochemical detection of H2O2 and O2 •- were conducted by 3,3-diaminobenzidine and nitroblue tetrazoliu-staining methods. Results: BcMT1 is expressed predominantly in roots, whereas BcMT2 is expressed mainly in leaves of B. campestris. Expression of BcMT1 was induced by both Cd and Cu, but expression of BcMT2 was enhanced only by Cd. Ectopic expression of BcMT1 and BcMT2 in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced the tolerance to Cd and Cu and increased the Cu concentration in the shoots of the transgenic plants. Transgenic Arabidopsis accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS) than wild-type plants. Conclusions: BcMT1 and BcMT2 increased Cd and Cu tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis, and decreased production of Cd- and Cu-induced ROS, thereby protecting plants from oxidative damage. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Wu L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wu L.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Zhang X.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Chen Q.-Q.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Zhou A.-K.,Harbin Institute of Technology
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2012

We report here a novel C(sp3)-P bonds formation via copper-catalyzed reductive coupling of N-tosylhydrazones with H-phosphorus oxides. A variety of aliphatic and aromatic substrates bearing electron-rich and electron-deficient substituents affords phosphine oxide derivatives with moderate to good yields. This work suggests a new transformation of aldehydes/ketones via N-tosylhydrazones to organophosphorus compounds. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Hu B.,Rutgers University | Hu B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang S.S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li J.,Rutgers University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2011

The assembly of nanocomplexes from bioactive peptides, namely, caseinophosphopeptides (CPPs) and chitosan (CS), at physiological conditions and various CS/CPP mass ratios has been systematically studied using a combination of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), turbidimetric titration, dynamic light scattering (DLS), electrophoretic mobility (ζ-potential) measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and fluorescence spectroscopy. Peptides incorporated with CS forming nanoparticles were prepared and identified using LC-MS/MS. They were characterized by different amounts of clusters of phosphorylated seryl residues. At low salt concentrations, an increase in CS/CPP mass ratio shifted the critical pH ψ1 value, which was designated as the formation of CS/CPP nanocomplexes, as well as pHmax, which represents the neutralization of positive and negative charges at higher pH values. The sizes, charges, morphologies, binding mechanisms, and binding constants of the bioactive peptide-chitosan nanocomplexes were analyzed, and our results suggest that three processes are involved in nanocomplex formation: First, negatively charged CPPs absorb to positively charged CS molecular chains to form intrapolymer nanocomplexes saturated with CPPs (CPPNPs). Subsequently, the negatively charged CPPNPs are bridged by the addition of positively charged CS, resulting in the formation of nearly neutral associative biopolymer complexes. Finally, further addition of excess chitosan breaks down the bridges of associative complexes and causes the formation of positively charged isolated spherical nanocomplexes. The binding between the peptides and CS is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions with a binding constant of Kcs = 4.6 × 10 4 M-1. Phosphorylated groups and other negatively charged amino acids, such as aspartic acid (Asp) and glutamic acid (Glu), in the CPPs might be the dominant sites for interaction with -NH3 + groups on the CS molecular chains. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Feng Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chen X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Bao Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Dong J.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

A number of viral proteins from plant viruses, other than movement proteins, have been shown to traffic intracellularly along actin filaments and to be involved in viral infection. However, there has been no report that a viral capsid protein may traffic within a cell by utilizing the actin/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. We used Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) as a model virus to study the cell biological properties of a nucleocapsid (N) protein. We found that TSWV N protein was capable of forming highly motile cytoplasmic inclusions that moved along the ER and actin network. The disruption of actin filaments by latrunculin B, an actin-depolymerizing agent, almost stopped the intracellular movement of N inclusions, whereas treatment with a microtubule-depolymerizing reagent, oryzalin, did not. The over-expression of a myosin XI-K tail, functioning in a dominant-negative manner, completely halted the movement of N inclusions. Latrunculin B treatment strongly inhibited the formation of TSWV local lesions in Nicotiana tabacum cv Samsun NN and delayed systemic infection in N. benthamiana. Collectively, our findings provide the first evidence that the capsid protein of a plant virus has the novel property of intracellular trafficking. The findings add capsid protein as a new class of viral protein that traffics on the actin/ER system. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

Song J.B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang S.Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang S.Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Dalmay T.,University of East Anglia | Yang Z.M.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Plant and Cell Physiology | Year: 2012

The present study identified Arabidopsis miR394 and its target, an F-box (SKP1-Cullin/CDC53-F-box) gene At1g27340 (here referred to as LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS, LCR), for regulation of leaf curling-related morphology. The loss-of-function lcr mutants exhibit pleiotropic defects with semi-dwarfism, altered leaf shape and a shorter stem. Overexpression of an miR394-resistant version of LCR under the 35S promoter (35S:m5LCR) and target mimicry MIM394 resulted in a curled-down leaf defect. Conversely, transgenic plants overexpressing 35S:MIR394a/b display a curled-up leaf phenotype. Detailed analyses show that there is a certain level of LCR that is optimal for leaf morphology, but lower or higher levels lead to abnormal leaf development, indicating that expression of miR394 in the leaf lamina is necessary for proper leaf morphology. Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in leaf morphogenesis and patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter gene was used to monitor the auxin response. We show that DR5 expression patterns in lcr and 35S::m5LCR plants were significantly different from those in the wild type. Also, overexpression of LCR in 35S::m5LCR plants drastically decreased the expression of the auxin-responsive genes IAA3, AXR3 and IAMT1, whereas increased expression of the genes was found in 35S::MIR394a plants. These results indicate that miR394 and its target LCR are involved in the regulation of leaf development. © 2012 The Author.

Wang L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ma H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Song L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shu Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2012

High temperature and humidity (HTH) stress during soybean seed development and maturity in the field easily leads seed to pre-harvest deterioration. However, how proteins and their involved pathways in developing soybean seed systematically cause deterioration is still not largely understood. To reveal it, we compared the proteome composition of developing seed (R 7 period) of a pre-harvest seed deterioration sensitive soybean cultivar at different HTH stress time points (24, 96 and 168h) with their corresponding controls by 2-DE. 42 protein spots were found to be differentially expressed and successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS to match 31 diverse protein species. These proteins were involved in 13 cellular responses and metabolic processes including carbohydrate metabolism, signal transduction, protein biosynthesis, photosynthesis, protein folding and assembly, energy pathway, cell rescue and defense, cell cycle, nitrogen metabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, transcription regulation, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Based on these proteins' functions and involved pathways, together with ultrastructural, physical and chemical, and metabolomic data, a pre-harvest seed deterioration mechanism was proposed. Such a mechanism allows us to further understand the possible management strategy of cellular activities occurring in the HTH-stressed developing seeds and provides new insights into the HTH stress responses in crop developing seeds. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Lu Y.C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang S.,Jiangnan University | Yang H.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2015

Isoproturon (IPU) is a herbicide widely used to prevent weeds in cereal production. Due to its extensive use in agriculture, residues of IPU are often detected in soils and crops. Overload of IPU to crops is associated with human health risks. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop an approach to mitigate its accumulation in crops. In this study, the IPU residues and its degradation products in wheat were characterized using ultra performance liquid chromatography-time of fight tandem-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer (UPLC-TOF-MS/MS). Most detected IPU-derivatives were sugar-conjugated. Degradation and glycosylation of IPU-derivatives could be enhanced by applying salicylic acid (SA). While more sugar-conjugated IPU-derivatives were identified in wheat with SA application, lower levels of IPU were detected, indicating that SA is able to accelerate intracellular IPU catabolism. All structures of IPU-derivatives and sugar-conjugated products were characterized. Comparative data were provided with specific activities and gene expression of certain glucosyltransferases. A pathway with IPU degradation and glucosylation was discussed. Our work indicates that SA-accelerated degradation is practically useful for wheat crops growing in IPU-contaminated soils because such crops with SA application can potentially lower or minimize IPU accumulation in levels below the threshold for adverse effects. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Hu B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Hu B.,Rutgers University | Ting Y.,Rutgers University | Yang X.,Rutgers University | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2012

Nanochemoprevention by oral consumption was developed by the encapsulation of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) with nanoparticles that were electrostatically assembled from bioactive caseinophosphopeptides and chitosan, which was highly biocompatible and able to enhance the bioavailability of EGCG. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

Hu B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Hu B.,Rutgers University | Ting Y.,Rutgers University | Zeng X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang Q.,Rutgers University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), one representative of the well-studied chemopreventive phytochemicals but with low bioavailability, was encapsulated in monodispersed nanoparticles that were assembled from bioactive caseinophosphopeptide (CPP) and chitosan (CS). The encapsulation efficiency of EGCG in CS-CPP nanoparticles ranged from 70.5 to 81.7%; meanwhile, the in vitro release of EGCG from CS-CPP nanoparticles was in a controllable manner. The EGCG-loaded CS-CPP nanoparticles exerted stronger activity of scavenging free radical than the free EGCG (p < 0.01) in the cellular antioxidant activity assay. Furthermore, cellular uptake of the EGCG-loaded CS-CPP nanoparticles was confirmed by the green fluorescence inside the human hepatocellular caricinoma (HepG2) cells, which was considered to play an important role in the improvement of the antioxidant activity of the nanoencapsulated EGCG. The results suggested that encapsulation of EGCG using CS-CPP nanoparticles should be a potential approach to enhance its antioxidant activity in biological systems. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Chen Y.J.,Northeast Agricultural University | Yu J.J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang B.,Rutgers University
Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2015

Water availability for plant growth is becoming increasingly limited, whereas rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration may have interactive effects with drought stress. The objectives of this study were to determine whether elevated CO2 would mitigate drought-induced water deficit and photosynthesis inhibition and enhance recovery from drought damages on rewatering and to determine whether the mitigating effects during drought stress and the recovery in photosynthesis during rewatering by elevated CO2 were the result of the regulation of stomatal movement or carboxylation activities in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. cv. Rembrandt). Plants were grown in controlledenvironment chambers with ambient CO2 concentration (400 μmol·mol−1) or elevated CO2 concentration (800 μmol·mol−1) and maintained well watered (control) or subjected to drought stress and subsequently rewatered. Elevated CO2 reduced stomatal conductance (gS) and transpiration rate of leaves during both drought stress and rewatering. Osmotic adjustment and soluble sugar content were enhanced by elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 enhanced net photosynthetic rate with lower gS but higher Rubisco and Rubisco activase activities during both drought and rewatering. The results demonstrated that elevated CO2 could improve leaf hydration status and photosynthesis during both drought stress and rewatering, and the recovery in photosynthesis from drought damages on rewatering was mainly the result of the elimination of metabolic limitation from drought damages associated with carboxylation enzyme activities. © 2015 American Society for Horticultural Science. All right received.

Yuan B.,Jiangnan University | Wang X.,Jiangnan University | Tang C.,University of Hong Kong | Li X.,Jiangnan University | Yu G.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Water Research | Year: 2015

Since the concept of the osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) was introduced in 2008, it has attracted growing interests for its potential applications in wastewater treatment and reclamation; however, the fouling mechanisms of forward osmosis (FO) membrane especially the development of biofouling layer in the OMBR are not yet clear. Here, the fouled FO membranes were obtained from the OMBRs on days 3, 8 and 25 in sequence, and then the structure and growing rule of the biofouling layer formed on the FO membrane samples were in-situ characterized by multiple fluorescence labeling and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). CLSM images indicated that the variations in abundance and distribution of polysaccharides, proteins and microorganisms in the biofouling layer during the operation of OMBRs were significantly different. Before the 8th day, their biovolume dramatically increased. Subsequently, the biovolumes of β-d-glucopyranose polysaccharides and proteins continued increasing and leveled off after 8 days, respectively, while the biovolumes of α-d-glucopyranose polysaccharides and microorganisms decreased. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) played a significant role in the formation and growth of biofouling layer, while the microorganisms were seldom detected on the upper fouling layer after 3 days. Based on the results obtained in this study, the growth of biofouling layer on the FO membrane surface in the OMBR could be divided into three stages. Initially, EPS was firstly deposited on the FO membrane surface, and then microorganisms associated with EPS located in the initial depositing layer to form clusters. After that, the dramatic increase of the clusters of EPS and microorganisms resulted in the quick growth of biofouling layer during the flux decline of the OMBR. However, when the water flux became stable in the OMBR, some microorganisms and EPS would be detached from the FO membrane surface. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Juyou Wu J.,University of Birmingham | Wang S.,University of Birmingham | Gu Y.,University of Birmingham | Gu Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2011

Cellular responses rely on signaling. In plant cells, cytosolic free calcium is a major second messenger, and ion channels play a key role in mediating physiological responses. Self-incompatibility (SI) is an important genetically controlled mechanism to prevent self-fertilization. It uses interaction of matching S-determinants from the pistil and pollen to allow "self" recognition, which triggers rejection of incompatible pollen. In Papaver rhoeas, the S-determinants are PrsS and PrpS. PrsS is a small novel cysteine-rich protein; PrpS is a small novel transmembrane protein. Interaction of PrsS with incompatible pollen stimulates S-specific increases in cytosolic free calcium and alterations in the actin cytoskeleton, resulting in programmed cell death in incompatible but not compatible pollen. Here, we have used whole-cell patch clamping of pollen protoplasts to show that PrsS stimulates SI-specific activation of pollen grain plasma membrane conductance in incompatible but not compatible pollen grain protoplasts. The SI-activated conductance does not require voltage activation, but it is voltage sensitive. It is permeable to divalent cations (Ba2+ ≥ Ca2+ > Mg2+) and the monovalent ions k++ and NH4 + and is enhanced at voltages negative to 2100 mV. The Ca2++ conductance is blocked by La3+ but not by verapamil; the k++ currents are tetraethylammonium chloride insensitive and do not require Ca2++. We propose that the SI-stimulated conductance may represent a nonspecific cation channel or possibly two conductances, permeable to monovalent and divalent cations. Our data provide insights into signal-response coupling involving a biologically important response. PrsS provides a rare example of a protein triggering alterations in ion channel activity. © 2010 American Society of Plant Biologists.

Zhang N.,Rutgers University | Zhao S.,Rutgers University | Shen Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Mycologia | Year: 2011

The family Magnaporthaceae contains devastating fungal cereal and grass pathogens, such as Magnaporthe oryzae (rice blast fungus, formerly known as M. grisea), M. poae (summer patch pathogen of turf grasses) and Gaeumannomyces graminis (take-all fungus of various cereals and grasses), which are popular model organisms in fungal biology and host-pathogen interaction studies. Despite their ecological and economic importance, the phylogenetic relationships among the constituent species remain ambiguous due to the lack of convincing morphological characters and paucity of molecular data for the majority of the non-model species in the family. In this study our multilocus phylogeny suggests that both Magnaporthe and Gaeumannomyces are polyphyletic genera. The phylogeny also provides insights into fungal biology and pathogenesis. Magnaporthe oryzae formed a basal clade, while M. poae and M. rhizophila formed another well supported clade with G. incrustans and G. graminis. The basal species infect both root and aerial parts of the plant host, while the aerial infection capacity seems to be lost in the taxa of the latter clade. The phylogeny is corroborated by evolution of the anamorphs and a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CPKA) gene. Magnaporthe oryzae produces Pyricularia, while taxa in the latter clade all produce Phialophora-like anamorphs. CPKA is present in animals and many fungal lineages with various functions. In M. oryzae CPKA is essential for the formation of functional appressoria for leaf penetration. In root-infecting G. graminis var. tritici and M. poae however only non-functional CPKA homologous pseudogenes were found in their genomes. The study indicates that anamorphic and ecological features are more informative than the teleomorphic characters in defining monophyletic groups among these taxa. © 2011 by The Mycological Society of America.

Strasser R.J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Tsimilli-Michael M.,University of Geneva | Qiang S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Goltsev V.,Sofia University
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics | Year: 2010

A new instrument (M-PEA), which measures simultaneously kinetics of prompt fluorescence (PF), delayed fluorescence (DF) and modulated light reflection at 820nm (MR), was used to screen dark-adapted leaves of the resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis during their progressive drying, down to 1% relative water content (RWC), and after their re-watering. This is the first investigation using M-PEA, which employs alternations of actinic light (627-nm peak, 5000μmol photons m-2s-1) and dark intervals, where PF-MR and DF kinetics are respectively recorded, with the added advantages: (a) all kinetics are recorded with high time resolution (starting from 0.01ms), (b) the dark intervals' duration can be as short as 0.1ms, (c) actinic illumination can be interrupted at different times during the PF transient (recorded up to 300s), with the earliest interruption at 0.3ms. Analysis of the simultaneous measurements at different water-content-states of H. rhodopensis leaves allowed the comparison and correlation of complementary information on the structure/function of the photosynthetic machinery, which is not destroyed but only inactivated (reversibly) at different degrees; the comparison and correlation helped also to test current interpretations of each signal and advance their understanding. Our results suggest that the desiccation tolerance of the photosynthetic machinery in H. rhodopensis is mainly based on mechanism(s) that lead to inactivation of photosystem II reaction centres (transformation to heat sinks), triggered already by a small RWC decrease. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Liu X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Peng K.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Wang A.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lian C.,University of Tokyo | Shen Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

The concentrations of heavy metals in Phytolacca americana L. and corresponding soil samples from three contaminated sites and an uncontaminated site were studied. Hydroponic experiments were also conducted to investigate the Cd uptake ability and mechanism of P. americana. The field results showed that the average Cd concentration was 42 mg kg-1 in P. americana leaves, with the highest concentration of 402 mg kg-1 found at Datianwan. A significant relationship was observed between the concentrations of Cd in leaves and those of corresponding soils on a logarithmic scale. Under laboratory hydroponic conditions, the maximum Cd concentration in aerial tissues of P. americana was 637 mg kg-1, under treatment with 100 μM Cd. The population from the uncontaminated site (Zijinshan) also had a remarkable ability to accumulate Cd in shoots to concentrations well in excess of 100 μM in the hydroponic experiment, similar to the population from contaminated site, suggesting that Cd accumulation is a constitutive trait of P. americana. In the presence of 100 μM Cd, the addition of polyethylene glycol decreased leaf transpiration, the shoot Cd concentration, and the shoot/root Cd concentration ratio. There was a significantly positive relationship between the shoot Cd concentration and the leaf transpiration of P. americana. A similar significant positive correlation was also obtained between the shoot/root Cd concentration and leaf transpiration. Moreover, pretreatment with 5 μM abscisic acid or 5 μM HgCl2 significantly decreased the Cd concentration in P. americana shoots. These results suggest that transpiration has an important role in Cd accumulation in shoots of P. americana. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Liu Q.,Hunan Agricultural University | Chen L.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2013

Along with the sustainable development theory gradually extending to land fields, the concept of sustainable land use has already been widely accepted in the world, research on the sustainable land use also has received popular international academic attention and has become a hot spot in land science study. Sustainable land use, which is the premise and foundation of sustainable development of regional resources, the environment, the economy, and society, has been widely carried out. Shortage of lands is one of the principal obstacles to explore resource-conservation & environment-friendly development mechanisms in the Chang-Zhu-Tan region. It is important to solve the resource constraints problem of restricting economic and social development and to implement sustainable land use projects in order to comprehensively evaluate sustainable land-use level, deeply investigate the current space pattern situation, and provide a scientific basis for guiding land development and policymaking for land management. Taking the Chang-Zhu-Tan region as an example, from a resource-conservation & environment-friendly system point of view, selecting 22 indicators representing four aspects including (a) the economic benefit of land use, (b) intensive land uses, (c) the ecological environment of land use, and (d) social harmony of land use, the comprehensive scores of sustainable land use in the Chang-Zhu-Tan region were calculated by factor analysis and a comprehensive evaluation method in this paper. Combining clustering analysis, maps of comprehensive spatial partition patterns of sustainable land use were drawn by applying GIS. The specific research methods and steps are as follows: 1) On the basis of dimensionless processing to each index by a standardization method, the weights and scores of the principal component factors were calculated by using principal component analysis, and the comprehensive scores or evaluation values of sustainable land use were estimated by an index evaluation method in the Chang-Zhu-Tan region; 2) The spatial pattern of sustainable land use status was analyzed, and regional levels of sustainable land use were classified; and 3) Based on the classification of spatial partitions, clustering analysis was used to eliminate subjective effects, to explain the space heterogeneity status of sustainable land use, and to validate the rationality of front level classifications in the Chang-Zhu-Tan region. All these steps were completely calculated using SPSS 13.0. Based on the above analysis, results showed that: Most of the counties were at the beginning of sustainable development in the Chang-Zhu-Tan region; individual counties (cities) were in a sustainable utilization stage or sustainable development stage - that is to say, the sustainable land use level should be improved. At the same time, there was still an obvious, regional level of sustainable land use in the Chang-Zhu-Tan region, unbalanced regional development of sustainable land use in the spatial distribution in the Chang-Zhu-Tan region, and the study area was divided into two types of development (balanced and unbalanced development) and five comprehensive spatial partitions, which generally exhibited trends of unbalanced development patterns. On the basis of regionally specific division of the summary results, some suggestions were proposed for future layout adjustments for land development and utilization.

Eagling T.,Rothamsted Research | Neal A.L.,Rothamsted Research | McGrath S.P.,Rothamsted Research | Fairweather-Tait S.,University of East Anglia | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

This study aimed to determine differences among wheat cultivars in the distribution and speciation of Fe and Zn in grain milling fractions. Cultivars with higher Fe and Zn concentrations in the wholemeal flour were found to contain higher concentrations in the white flour. Soluble Fe and Zn were extracted and analyzed by size exclusion-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Fe speciation varied between milling fractions with a low molecular weight (LMW) complex likely to be Fe-deoxymugenic acid/nicotianamine being the predominant extractable Fe species in white flour, accounting for approximately 85% of the extractable Fe. Bran fractions had a lower amount of LMW-Fe form but more as soluble Fe-phytate and an unidentified high molecular weight peak. In the white flour fraction soluble Zn was found to be present mainly as a LMW peak likely to be Zn-nicotianamine complex. Soluble Fe-phytate was found in the white flour fraction of a high-Fe cultivar but not in a low-Fe cultivar. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Wu R.,Beijing Forestry University | Cao J.,Simon Fraser University | Huang Z.,Henan Institute of Science and Technology | Wang Z.,Pennsylvania State University | And 2 more authors.
BMC Systems Biology | Year: 2011

Background: Every phenotypic trait can be viewed as a "system" in which a group of interconnected components function synergistically to yield a unified whole. Once a system's components and their interactions have been delineated according to biological principles, we can manipulate and engineer functionally relevant components to produce a desirable system phenotype.Results: We describe a conceptual framework for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control complex traits by treating trait formation as a dynamic system. This framework, called systems mapping, incorporates a system of differential equations that quantifies how alterations of different components lead to the global change of trait development and function through genes, and provides a quantitative and testable platform for assessing the interplay between gene action and development. We applied systems mapping to analyze biomass growth data in a mapping population of soybeans and identified specific loci that are responsible for the dynamics of biomass partitioning to leaves, stem, and roots.Conclusions: We show that systems mapping implemented by design principles of biological systems is quite versatile for deciphering the genetic machineries for size-shape, structural-functional, sink-source and pleiotropic relationships underlying plant physiology and development. Systems mapping should enable geneticists to shed light on the genetic complexity of any biological system in plants and other organisms and predict its physiological and pathological states. © 2011 Wu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Wang X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li X.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Shen A.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wu Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2010

Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), has evolved resistance to various kinds of insecticides in the field. Chlorantraniliprole, which is a new pesticide of the anthranilic diamide group, provides potent and broad-spectrum activity within the insect order Lepidoptera. This insecticide provides a new option for control of P. xylostella populations resistant to other chemicals. The susceptibility of 16 field populations and seven laboratory maintained strains of P. xylostella to chlorantraniliprole were determined through leaf dip bioassay. The susceptibility variation among 16 field populations was low (five-fold), with median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) varying from 0.221 to 1.104 mg/liter. However, wider ranges of variation in LC50 values (10-fold) were observed among seven laboratory strains. Low level tolerance (six- to 10-fold) was detected in two laboratory-selected strains and three field-collected populations when compared with the susceptible Roth strain. A discriminating concentration (15 mg/liter) was calibrated from pooled toxicological data of the 16 field populations, as an important first step in resistance management, for the routine monitoring of resistance in the future. When assessed at the established discriminating dose 15 mg/liter, seven laboratory strains and five field populations showed an average mortality of 99.75% (from 98 to100%). Synergism assays showed metabolic enzymes might be involved in chlorantraniliprole detoxification in the susceptible Roth strain, but not in the additional observed tolerance of strains selected for resistance with other insecticides. © 2010 Entomological Society of America.

Liu B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Tian L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cao W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2014

Wheat is sensitive to high temperatures, but the spatial and temporal variability of high temperature and its impact on yield are often not known. An analysis of historical climate and yield data was undertaken to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of heat stress between heading and maturity and its impact on wheat grain yield in China. Several heat stress indices were developed to quantify heat intensity, frequency, and duration between heading and maturity based on measured maximum temperature records of the last 50 years from 166 stations in the main wheat-growing region of China. Surprisingly, heat stress between heading and maturity was more severe in the generally cooler northern wheat-growing regions than the generally warmer southern regions of China, because of the delayed time of heading with low temperatures during the earlier growing season and the exposure of the post-heading phase into the warmer part of the year. Heat stress between heading and maturity has increased in the last decades in most of the main winter wheat production areas of China, but the rate was higher in the south than in the north. The correlation between measured grain yields and post-heading heat stress and average temperature were statistically significant in the entire wheat-producing region, and explained about 29% of the observed spatial and temporal yield variability. A heat stress index considering the duration and intensity of heat between heading and maturity was required to describe the correlation of heat stress and yield variability. Because heat stress is a major cause of yield loss and the number of heat events is projected to increase in the future, quantifying the future impact of heat stress on wheat production and developing appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies are critical for developing food security policies in China and elsewhere. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Zhang Z.,Anhui Science and Technology University | Zhang Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yu D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yin D.,Anhui Science and Technology University | Wang Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2011

We recently reported that HIF-1α plays a critical role in the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the developing letual cells (LCs) and VEGF-dependent angiogenesis is essential for normal luteal development. Although it is believed that hypoxia is the primary inducer of VEGF, recent reports have also shown that human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) up-regulates VEGF expression in developing corpus luteum (CL). Therefore the present study was designed to test the induced effects of hCG on the expression of VEGF and HIF-1α in LCs under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. In addition, we also investigated whether the signaling pathways such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are involved in hCG-induced VEGF in LCs. A significant increase of VEGF mRNA was found in LCs treated with hCG, which was consistent with the changes of HIF-1α protein, even under hypoxic conditions. However, there was no obvious changes of HIF-1α mRNA in hCG-treated LCs between normoxic and hypoxic conditions, indicating hCG induces VEGF expression by increasing transcription of HIF-1α, while hypoxia mainly increases HIF-1α protein stability. When LCs were pretreated with inhibitors, we found that the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway is required for HIF-1α and VEGF expression induced by hCG, while the MAPK pathway is not required. Together, these results suggest that activation of IP3K/mTOR signaling pathway contributes to the induction of VEGF and HIF-1α in hCG-treated LCs. To our knowledge this will provide a new insight into the important mechanism of hCG/LH-induced VEGF-dependent angiogenesis in the bovine ovary. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Song Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Song Y.,Rutgers University | Yu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang B.,Rutgers University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Elevated CO2 concentration may promote plant growth while high temperature is inhibitory for C3 plant species. The interactive effects of elevated CO2 and high temperatures on C3 perennial grass growth and carbon metabolism are not well documented. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) plants were exposed to two CO2 levels (400 and 800 mmol mol-1) and five temperatures (15/12, 20/17, 25/22, 30/27, 35/32°C, day/night) in growth chambers. Increasing temperatures to 25°C and above inhibited leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn) and shoot and root growth, but increased leaf respiration rate (R), leading to a negative carbon balance and a decline in soluble sugar content under ambient CO2. Elevated CO2 did not cause shift of optimal temperatures in Kentucky bluegrass, but promoted Pn, shoot and root growth under all levels of temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C) and mitigated the adverse effects of severe high temperatures (30 and 35°C). Elevated CO2-mitigation of adverse effects of high temperatures on Kentucky bluegrass growth could be associated with the maintenance of a positive carbon balance and the accumulation of soluble sugars and total nonstructural carbohydrates through stimulation of Pn and suppression of R and respiratory organic acid metabolism. © 2014 Song et al.

Selvam A.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Xu S.Y.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Gu X.Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wonga J.W.,Hong Kong Baptist University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

The neutralization effects of 0.1 M NaHCO3, KPO4-buffer (pH 7.0) and sodium acetate (NaOAc) solutions (500 ml/kg food waste/day) on controlling the pH and leachate quality in an acidogenic reactor of food waste anaerobic digestion was investigated. pH of leachate from the reactor was low and ranged from 3.24 to 4.15. Although differences in chemical oxygen demand (COD) were observed, the cumulative COD yields were almost similar. Ammonia concentrations gradually decreased from 26 to 3 mg/l after 15 days. Acetic acid was the major fraction and the total VFAs decreased gradually for a week and increased thereafter, with a sharp increase in NaOAc treatment. VFAs yield and acetate/propionate ratio were the highest in NaOAc treatment, followed by NaHCO3 and KPO4 treatments. Volatile solids reduction was the lowest in NaOAc treatment (47.5%) and highest in NaHCO3 treatment (67.0%). With lower decomposition and higher yield of VFA and COD, NaOAc could be used as a neutralizing agent in acidogenic reactors to improve the efficiency of the acidogenesis process. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Fang Y.,Zaozhuang University | You X.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of Mathematical Chemistry | Year: 2014

This paper focuses on adapted two-derivative Runge-Kutta (TDRK) type methods for solving the Schrödinger equation. Two new TDRK methods are derived by nullifying their phase-lags and the first derivatives of the phase-lags. Error analysis is carried out by means of asymptotic expressions of the local errors. Numerical results are reported to show the efficiency and robustness of the new methods in comparison with some RK type methods specially tuned to the integration of the radial time-independent Schrödinger equation with the Woods-Saxon potential. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Noble G.T.,University of Manchester | Craven F.L.,University of Manchester | Voglmeir J.,University of Manchester | Voglmeir J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

A fluoro-tagged N-acetylglucosamine-capped glycolipid that can form lipid microdomains in fluid phospholipid bilayers has been shown to be enzymatically galactosylated by bovine β(1,4)-galactosyltransferase. MALDI MS, HPLC, and LC-MS revealed that the rate of enzymatic transformation was significantly enhanced by lipid clustering; at a 1% mol/mol loading, clustered glycolipids were galactosylated 9-fold faster than glycolipids dispersed across the bilayer surface. The transformation of the GlcNAc "glycocalyx" into a Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc "glycocalyx" relabeled these vesicles, making them susceptible to agglutination by Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL). The kinetic parameters for this transformation revealed a lower apparent K m when the substrate lipids were clustered, which is attributed to multivalent binding to an extended substrate cleft around the active site. These observations may have important implications where soluble enzymes act on substrates embedded within cellular lipid rafts. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Li J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li J.,University of Waterloo | McConkey B.J.,University of Waterloo | Cheng Z.,University of Waterloo | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2013

Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can both facilitate plant growth and improve plant resistance to a variety of environmental stresses. In order to investigate the mechanisms that PGPB use to protect plants under hypoxic conditions, the protein profiles of stressed and non-stressed cucumber roots, either treated or not treated with PGPB, were examined. Two dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) was used to detect significantly up- or down-regulated proteins (p. <. 0.05, |ratio|. >. 1.5) in cucumber roots in response to hypoxia. There were 1980, 1893 and 1735 protein spots detected from cucumber roots in the absence of stress in the presence of the PGPB Pseudomonas putida UW4, following hypoxic stress, and following hypoxic stress in the presence of P. putida UW4, respectively. The numbers of significantly changed protein spots were 0, 106, and 147 in these three treatments respectively. Proteins were identified by LTQ-MS/MS and categorized into classes corresponding to transcription, protein synthesis, signal transduction, carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism, defense stress, antioxidant, binding and others. The functions of the proteins whose expression changed significantly were analyzed in detail, contributing to a more thorough understanding of how PGPB mediate the stress response in plants. Biological significanceTo our knowledge, only a limited number of papers have addressed cucumber proteomics, this study is the first report to describe the effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria (P. putida UW4) on cucumber plants under hypoxic stress using a proteomic approach. Thus, this work provides new insights to understand the cross-reactivity between P. putida UW4 and cucumber plant. A model of cucumber roots in response to P. putida UW4 and hypoxia was proposed: P. putida UW4 and hypoxic stress caused changes of gene expression in cucumber roots, then transcription was stimulated, the proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, defense stress, antioxidant, binding and others were induced, these proteins might work cooperatively to release hypoxic stress and promote cucumber growth. These results describe a dynamic protein network to explain the promotion mechanism of P. putida UW4, and also provide a solid basis for further functional research of single nodes of this network. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Katayama H.,Kobe University | Tachibana M.,OYO Corporation | Iketani H.,Japan National Food Research Institute | Zhang S.-L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Uematsu C.,Osaka City University
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2012

The genome structure of pear chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) is extremely highly conserved in comparison with that of other angiosperms, and therefore, relatively few phylogenetic analyses for pear (Pyrus spp.) have been carried out using cpDNA as a marker. In this study, we identified two hypervariable regions in intergenic spacers of cpDNA from 21 species in Pyrus. One of these regions is 857 bp in length and lies between the accD-psaI genes, and the other is a 904-bp region between the rps16-trnQ genes. The mutation rate of gaps for the two regions was 10 and 26 times higher, respectively, than the base change rate. Twenty-five haplotypes were revealed among 21 species in Pyrus by 36 mutations found in the two regions. These included 27 gaps and 9 base changes but excluded cpSSRs. Phylogenetic relationships between the 25 haplotypes were generated by haplotype network analysis. The 25 haplotypes represented three groups (types A-C) with two large deletions, one 228 bp in length between the accD-psaI genes and the other 141 bp between the rps16-trnQ genes. Types A and B consisted mostly of pears native to East and South Asia. Type C contained mainly Pyrus communis and wild relatives native to Europe, West and Central Asia, Russia, and Africa. Type B might have diverged from primitives such as pea pears in type A. Phylogenetic utility of structural alterations (gaps) occurring in the hypervariable regions of Pyrus cpDNA is discussed. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Zhou J.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Zhou J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhou J.,Nanjing University of Technology | Zheng G.,Hong Kong Baptist University | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

This study sought to elucidate the effect and mechanism of Galactomyces sp. Z3 in improving the bioleaching of heavy metals from sludge. Results showed that co-inoculation of Galactomyces sp. Z3 and two Acidithiobacillus strains (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5 and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans TS6) reduced the period required for sludge bioleaching by 4.5days compared to Acidithiobacillus alone. Further, removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn and oxidation rate of Fe2+ and S0 were higher in co-inoculation system than the Acidithiobacillus alone. Galactomyces sp. Z3 consumed the acetate, propionate, iso-butyrate, butyrate, and iso-valerate in sludge from the initial concentrations of 109.50, 28.80, 7.70, 34.30, and 18.40mg/L to 10.20, 0.61, 0.63, 19.40 and 1.30mg/L, respectively, after 12h in the co-inoculation system, significantly lower than the concentrations observed in the Acidithiobacillus alone. Meanwhile, the surfactant properties of the extracellular polymeric substances produced by the Galactomyces accelerated the rate of sulfur oxidization by A. thiooxidans. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Wang G.,Huaibei Normal University | Yue W.,Huaibei Normal University | Liu Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li F.,Huaibei Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

The Acetamiprid-degrading bacterium AAP-1 was isolated from contaminated soil, and identified as Pigmentiphaga sp. combined traditionary categorization method with modern molecule method. The strain could utilize Acetamiprid as the sole carbon, nitrogen and energy source for growth and metabolized 100mgL-1 Acetamiprid within 2.5h. During the degradation of Acetamiprid, one N-deacetylation metabolite, was characterized by FT-IR, GC-MS and NMR analysis. A novel microbial biodegradation pathway for Acetamiprid was proposed on the basis of the metabolite. Compared with uninoculated soils, the addition of the AAP-1 strain into soils treated with Acetamiprid gained a higher degradation rate, and the bacteria community analysis by T-RFLP in contaminated soil recovered after inoculation of the AAP-1 strain. On the basis of these results, strain AAP-1 has the potential to be used in the bioremediation of Acetamiprid-contaminated environments. This is the first report of Acetamiprid-degrading isolate from the genus of Pigmentiphaga. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Ma F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lu R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shi B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

Nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and calcium (Ca2+)/calmodulin (CaM) are all required for abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defence. Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) is a strong candidate for the decoder of Ca2+ signals. However, whether CCaMK is involved in ABA-induced antioxidant defence is unknown. The results of the present study show that exogenous and endogenous ABA induced increases in the activity of ZmCCaMK and the expression of ZmCCaMK in leaves of maize. Subcellular localization analysis showed that ZmCCaMK is located in the nucleus, the cytoplasm, and the plasma membrane. The transient expression of ZmCCaMK and the RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of ZmCCaMK analysis in maize protoplasts revealed that ZmCCaMK is required for ABA-induced antioxidant defence. Moreover, treatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced the activation of ZmCCaMK and the expression of ZmCCaMK. Pre-treatments with an NO scavenger and inhibitor blocked the ABA-induced increases in the activity and the transcript level of ZmCCaMK. Conversely, RNAi silencing of ZmCCaMK in maize protoplasts did not affect the ABA-induced NO production, which was further confirmed using a mutant of OsCCaMK, the homologous gene of ZmCCaMK in rice. Moreover, H2O2 was also required for the ABA activation of ZmCCaMK, and pre-treatments with an NO scavenger and inhibitor inhibited the H2O2-induced increase in the activity of ZmCCaMK. Taken together, the data clearly suggest that ZmCCaMK is required for ABA-induced antioxidant defence, and H 2O2-dependent NO production plays an important role in the ABA-induced activation of ZmCCaMK. © 2012 The Author.

Duvivier C.,University of Auvergne | Xiong H.,University of Auvergne | Xiong H.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Environment and Development Economics | Year: 2013

Transboundary pollution is a particularly serious problem as it leads people located at regional borders to disproportionately suffer from pollution. In China, where the environmental policy is decentralized and where environmental conflicts between provinces have occurred several times, transboundary pollution is likely to exist. However, until now, nearly all the studies have focused on developed countries. In this paper we study whether transboundary pollution problems exist in China. To do so, we estimate whether, within Hebei province, polluting firms are more likely to set up in border counties than in interior ones. The estimations of a count-data model allow us to conclude that border counties are more attractive destinations for polluting firms than counties located within the province. Moreover, it appears that this effect has strengthened over time. © Cambridge University Press 2012.

Zhang A.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang J.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Ye N.,Hong Kong Baptist University | And 3 more authors.
Plant and Cell Physiology | Year: 2011

The role of ABA in brassinosteroid (BR)-induced stress tolerance and the relationship between BR, nitric oxide (NO) and ABA under water stress induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) were investigated in leaves of maize (Zea mays) plants. Water stress led to oxidative damage. Pre-treatment with the BR biosynthetic inhibitor brassinazole (Brz) aggravated the oxidative damage induced by PEG treatment, which was alleviated by the application of BR or ABA. Pre-treatment with the ABA biosynthetic inhibitor fluridone also aggravated the oxidative damage induced by PEG treatment; however, this was barely alleviated by the application of BR. BR treatment increased the content of ABA and up-regulated the expression of the ABA biosynthetic gene vp14 in maize leaves, which was blocked by pre-treatments with the NO scavenger cPTIO (2,4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide) and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NAME (NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester. Moreover, BR treatment induced increases in the generation of NO in mesophyll cells of maize leaves, and treatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) up-regulated the content of ABA and the expression of vp14 in maize leaves. Our results suggest that BR-induced NO production and NO-activated ABA biosynthesis are important mechanisms for BR-enhanced water stress tolerance in leaves of maize plants. © 2010 The Author.

Zhang A.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ye N.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Cao J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2010

Brassinosteroids (BRs) have been shown to induce hydrogen peroxide (H 2O2) accumulation, and BR-induced H2O 2 up-regulates antioxidant defence systems in plants. However, the mechanisms by which BR-induced H2O2 regulates antioxidant defence systems in plants remain to be determined. In the present study, the role of ZmMPK5, a mitogen-activated protein kinase, in BR-induced anitioxidant defence and the relationship between the activation of ZmMPK5 and H 2O2 production in BR signalling were investigated in leaves of maize (Zea mays) plants. BR treatment activated ZmMPK5, induced apoplastic and chloroplastic H2O2 accumulation, and enhanced the total activities of antioxidant enzymes. Such enhancements were blocked by pre-treatment with mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) inhibitors and H2O2 inhibitors or scavengers. Pre-treatment with MAPKK inhibitors substantially arrested the BR-induced apoplastic H2O2 production after 6h of BR treatment, but did not affect the levels of apoplastic H2O2 within 1h of BR treatment. BR-induced gene expression of NADPH oxidase was also blocked by pre-treatment with MAPKK inhibitors and an apoplastic H2O2 inhibitor or scavenger after 120min of BR treatment, but was not affected within 30min of BR treatment. These results suggest that the BR-induced initial apoplastic H2O2 production activates ZmMPK5, which is involved in self-propagation of apoplastic H2O2 via regulation of NADPH oxidase gene expression in BR-induced antioxidant defence systems. © 2010 The Author.

Yang Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yang Z.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Cao S.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanisation | Zheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The effects of Chinese bayberry fruit extract (CBFE) ingestion on hepatic and colonic oxidative stress and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced intestinal aberrant crypt foci (ACF) development in rats were investigated. Rats were administered DMH (35. mg/kg body weight) and were supplemented with CBFE (50 or 500. mg/kg body weight every day) for 16. weeks. Results showed that DMH consumption induced intestinal ACF development and adenoma or adenocarcinoma formation, which were significantly reduced with CBFE supplement. The CBFE treatments increased reduced glutathione levels and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase, in both hepatic and colonic tissues; however, the activities of glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase were inhibited. These results indicate that CBFE, rich in phenolic compounds, effectively inhibits DMH-induced ACF and colonic tumour development by alleviating oxidative stress. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Both P.,University of Manchester | Green A.P.,University of Manchester | Gray C.J.,University of Manchester | Sardzik R.,University of Manchester | And 10 more authors.
Nature Chemistry | Year: 2014

Mass spectrometry is the primary analytical technique used to characterize the complex oligosaccharides that decorate cell surfaces. Monosaccharide building blocks are often simple epimers, which when combined produce diastereomeric glycoconjugates indistinguishable by mass spectrometry. Structure elucidation frequently relies on assumptions that biosynthetic pathways are highly conserved. Here, we show that biosynthetic enzymes can display unexpected promiscuity, with human glycosyltransferase pp-α-GanT2 able to utilize both uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine and uridine diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine, leading to the synthesis of epimeric glycopeptides in vitro. Ion-mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) was used to separate these structures and, significantly, enabled characterization of the attached glycan based on the drift times of the monosaccharide product ions generated following collision-induced dissociation. Finally, ion-mobility mass spectrometry following fragmentation was used to determine the nature of both the reducing and non-reducing glycans of a series of epimeric disaccharides and the branched pentasaccharide Man3 glycan, demonstrating that this technique may prove useful for the sequencing of complex oligosaccharides. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Wang D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zheng G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zheng G.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Zhou L.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

Strain NB1 was isolated from aerobic granular sludge capable of degrading nitrobenzene. Effects of several factors including pH, temperature, salinity, and second carbon/nitrogen source as co-substrate on the biodegradation of nitrobenzene by strain NB1 were investigated. Results showed that the optimal conditions for the biodegradation of nitrobenzene by strain NB1 were at pH 7.0 and 28-35°C. Under these conditions, the biodegradation rate of nitrobenzene could reach 9.29mgl -1h -1 when the initial nitrobenzene concentration was 600mgl -1. The addition of 1840mgl -1 glucose or 500mgl -1 ammonium chloride could slightly enhance the biodegradation efficiency, but even more addition of glucose or ammonium chloride delayed the biodegradation. Strain NB1 could degrade nitrobenzene in the presence of less than 3% NaCl (w/v %). Based on morphological and physiological characteristics as well as the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences, strain NB1 was identified as Klebsiella ornithinolytica. © 2012.

News Article | December 22, 2016

For the first time, scientists have measured the movements of high-flying insects in the skies over southern England - and found that about 3.5 trillion migrate over the region every year. This movement of 3,200 tons of biomass, captured by University of Exeter and Rothamsted Research using specialised radar techniques, is more than seven times the mass of the 30 million songbirds which depart the UK for Africa each autumn. It is also the equivalent of about 20,000 flying reindeer. Dr Jason Chapman, of the Centre for Ecology and Conservation at the University of Exeter's Penryn Campus in Cornwall, said: "Insect bodies are rich in nutrients and the importance of these movements is underappreciated. "If the densities observed over southern UK are extrapolated to the airspace above all continental landmasses, high-altitude insect migration represents the most important annual animal movement in ecosystems on land, comparable to the most significant oceanic migrations." Although the origin and destination of each insect was not recorded, evidence from previous research suggests many will have been travelling to and from the UK over the English Channel and North Sea. The scientists recorded movement above radar sites in southern England and found large seasonal differences, with mass migrations of insects generally going northwards in spring and southwards in autumn. Until now, radar studies have measured migrations of relatively few nocturnal species of agricultural pests, and no study previously examined the vast numbers of daytime migrants. The study found seasonal variations from year to year, but overall the net northward spring movements of larger insects were almost exactly cancelled out by net southward movements in autumn over the 10-year research period. Dr Gao Hu, a visiting scholar with Dr Chapman from Nanjing Agricultural University, China, led the analyses of the radar data. He said: "Many of the insects we studied provide important ecological services which are essential for maintaining healthy ecosystems, such as pollination, predation of crop pests and providing food for insectivorous birds and bats." Co-author Dr Ka S (Jason) Lim, of the Radar Entomology Unit of the AgroEcology Department at Rothamsted Research, said migratory insects can serve as indicators of global environmental condition. "Animal migration, especially in insects, is a very complex behaviour which takes millions of year to evolve and is very sensitive to climatic condition," he said. "Global climatic change could cause decline of many species, but equally other highly adaptable species thrive and become agricultural crop pests." The study focussed on insects flying more than 150 metres above the ground, using radar for larger insects (10mg and over) and netting samples for smaller ones. The paper, published in the journal Science, is entitled: "Mass seasonal bioflows of high-flying insect migrants". Explore further: Migrating insects fly in the fast lane

Li Q.-G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li Q.-G.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Zhang L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Root nodule symbiosis (RNS) is one of the most efficient biological systems for nitrogen fixation and it occurs in 90% of genera in the Papilionoideae, the largest subfamily of legumes. Most papilionoid species show evidence of a polyploidy event that occurred approximately 58 Ma. Although polyploidy is considered to be an important evolutionary force in plants, the role of this papilionoid polyploidy event, especially its association with RNS, is not understood. In this study, we explored this role using an integrated comparative genomic approach and conducted gene expression comparisons and gene ontology enrichment analyses. The results show the following: 1) Approximately a quarter of the papilionoid-polyploidy-derived duplicate genes are retained; 2) there is a striking divergence in the level of expression of gene duplicate pairs derived from the polyploidy event; and 3) the retained duplicates are frequently involved in the processes crucial for RNS establishment, such as symbiotic signaling, nodule organogenesis, rhizobial infection, and nutrient exchange and transport. Thus, we conclude that the papilionoid polyploidy event might have further refined RNS and induced a more robust and enhanced symbiotic system. This conclusion partly explains the widespread occurrence of the Papilionoideae. © 2013 The Author.

Li Y.,University of Chicago | Li Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li Y.,Key Laboratory of Soybean Biology and Genetic Improvement | Cheng R.,University of Chicago | And 5 more authors.
Genetics | Year: 2014

Climate change has altered life history events in many plant species; however, little is known about genetic variation underlying seasonal thermal response. In this study, we simulated current and three future warming climates and measured flowering time across a globally diverse set of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. We found that increased diurnal and seasonal temperature (1°-3°) decreased flowering time in two fall cohorts. The early fall cohort was unique in that both rapid cycling and overwintering life history strategies were revealed; the proportion of rapid cycling plants increased by 3-7% for each 1° temperature increase. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify the underlying genetic basis of thermal sensitivity. GWAS identified five main-effect quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling flowering time and another five QTL with thermal sensitivity. Candidate genes include known flowering loci; a cochaperone that interacts with heat-shock protein 90; and a flowering hormone, gibberellic acid, a biosynthetic enzyme. The identified genetic architecture allowed accurate prediction of flowering phenotypes (R2 > 0.95) that has application for genomic selection of adaptive genotypes for future environments. This work may serve as a reference for breeding and conservation genetic studies under changing environments. © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

Liu F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu F.,Center for Molecular Biology | Liu F.,Case Western Reserve University | Putnam A.A.,Center for Molecular Biology | And 2 more authors.
Biochemistry | Year: 2014

DEAD-box RNA helicases bind and remodel RNA and RNA-protein complexes in an ATP-dependent fashion. Several lines of evidence suggest that DEAD-box RNA helicases can also form stable, persistent complexes with RNA in a process referred to as RNA clamping. The molecular basis of RNA clamping is not well understood. Here we show that the yeast DEAD-box helicase Ded1p forms exceptionally long-lived complexes with RNA and the nonhydrolyzable ATP ground-state analogue ADP-BeFx or the nonhydrolyzable ATP transition state analogue ADP-AlFx. The complexes have lifetimes of several hours, and neither nucleotide nor Mg2+ is released during this period. Mutation of arginine 489, which stabilizes the transition state, prevents formation of long-lived complexes with the ATP transition state analogue, but not with the ground state analogue. We also show that two other yeast DEAD-box helicases, Mss116p and Sub2p, form comparably long-lived complexes with RNA and ADP-BeFx. Like Ded1p, Mss116p forms long-lived complexes with ADP-AlFx, but Sub2p does not. These data suggest that the ATP transition state might vary for distinct DEAD-box helicases, or that the transition state triggers differing RNA binding properties in these proteins. In the ATP ground state, however, all tested DEAD-box helicases establish a persistent grip on RNA, revealing an inherent capacity of the enzymes to function as potent, ATP-dependent RNA clamps. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Yang B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Sun Y.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Scientometrics | Year: 2013

The World Wide Web has become an important source of academic information. The linking feature of the Web has been used to study the structure of academic web, as well as the presence of academic and research institutes on the Web. In this paper, we propose an integrated model for exploring the subject macrostructure of a specific academic topic on the Web and automatically depicting the knowledge map that is closer to what a domain expert would expect. The model integrates a hyperlink-induced topic search (HITS)-based link network extending strategy and a semantic based clustering algorithm with the aid of co-link analysis and social network analysis (SNA) to discover subject-based communities in the academic web space. We selected to use websites as analytical units rather than web pages because of the subject stability of a website. Compared with traditional techniques in Webometrics and SNA that have been used for such analyses, our model has the advantages of working on open web space (capability to explore unknown web resources and identify important ones) and of automatically building an extendable and hierarchical web knowledge map. The experiment in the area of Information Retrieval shows the effectiveness of the integrated model in analyzing and portraying of subject clustering phenomenon in academic web space. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Bose J.,University of Tasmania | Xie Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shen W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shabala S.,University of Tasmania
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2013

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is a common denominator in a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, including salinity. In recent years, haem oxygenase (HO; EC has been described as an important component of the antioxidant defence system in both mammalian and plant systems. Moreover, a recent report on Arabidopsis demonstrated that HO overexpression resulted in an enhanced salinity tolerance in this species. However, physiological mechanisms and downstream targets responsible for the observed salinity tolerance in these HO mutants remain elusive. To address this gap, ion transport characteristics (K+ and H+ fluxes and membrane potentials) and gene expression profiles in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana HO-overexpressing (35S:HY1-1/2/3/4) and loss-of-function (hy-100, ho2, ho3, and ho4) mutants were compared during salinity stress. Upon acute salt stress, HO-overexpressing mutants retained more K+ (less efflux), and exhibited better membrane potential regulation (maintained more negative potential) and higher H+ efflux activity in root epidermis, compared with loss-of-function mutants. Pharmacological experiments suggested that high activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in HO overexpressor mutants provided the proton-motive force required for membrane potential maintenance and, hence, better K+ retention. The gene expression analysis after 12h and 24h of salt stress revealed high expression levels of H +-ATPases (AHA1/2/3) and Na+/H+ antiporter [salt overly sensitive1 (SOS1)] transcripts in the plasma membrane of HO overexpressors. It is concluded that HO modifies salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis by controlling K+ retention via regulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase and by altering SOS1 transcript levels in roots. © 2012 The Author(s).

Huang X.-F.,Colorado State University | Chaparro J.M.,Colorado State University | Reardon K.F.,Colorado State University | Zhang R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Botany | Year: 2014

The study of the interactions between plants and their microbial communities in the rhizosphere is important for developing sustainable management practices and agricultural products such as biofertilizers and biopesticides. Plant roots release a broad variety of chemical compounds to attract and select microorganisms in the rhizosphere. In turn, these plant-associated microorganisms, via different mechanisms, influence plant health and growth. In this review, we summarize recent progress made in unraveling the interactions between plants and rhizosphere microbes through plant root exudates, focusing on how root exudate compounds mediate rhizospheric interactions both atthe plant-microbe and plant-microbiome levels. We also discuss the potential of root exudates for harnessing rhizospheric interactions with microbes that could lead to sustainable agricultural practices.

Zhu X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ruusunen M.,University of Helsinki | Gusella M.,University of Padua | Zhou G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Puolanne E.,University of Helsinki
Meat Science | Year: 2011

This study investigated the effect of early post-mortem temperature on broiler protein characteristics and meat quality. Muscles were kept at different temperatures (0, 20 and 40 °C) until 4. h post-mortem and then stored at 4 °C. Rapid degradation of ATP and glycogen, thus inducing a high rate of lactate formation and pH drop, were found in the 40 °C group during incubation. When extracting proteins, a lower protein content of the sarcoplasmic fraction and a higher protein content of the myofibrillar fraction were found in the 40 °C group at 24. h post-mortem; SDS-PAGE and western-blotting results revealed that phosphorylase was associated with the myofibrillar fraction. Furthermore, the 40 °C group had paler surfaces, higher drip loss and lower processing properties. These data suggest that elevated temperature during early post-mortem period, resulting in rapid glycolysis, induced phosphorylase denaturation and association with myofibrillar proteins thus generating pale and exudative characteristics. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Jin P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Jin P.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang S.Y.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Wang C.Y.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Zheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The effects of cultural systems and storage temperatures on antioxidant enzyme activities and non-enzyme antioxidant components in two cultivars ('Earliglow' and 'Allstar') of strawberries were investigated. Fruit samples were hand-harvested from organic and conventional farms in Maryland, USA, and were stored at 10, 5 and 0°C. The results from this study showed that strawberries grown from organic culture exhibited generally higher activities in antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, the organic culture also produced fruits with higher level of antioxidant contents. Strawberries stored at higher temperature (10°C) had higher activities of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant capacities than those stored at lower temperatures (0 or 5°C), in both organic and conventional cultural systems. In conclusion, strawberries produced from organic culture contained significantly higher antioxidant capacities and flavonoid contents than those produced from conventional culture, and even though low storage temperatures retarded decay, they also reduced the increase in antioxidant activities. © 2010.

Wang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhuang H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Zhang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Food Control | Year: 2013

The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and inactivation of Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (generic) and Pseudomonasaeruginosa by TiO2 nanoparticles in aqueous suspension were studied. TiO2 resulted in significant reduction in MB absorption and a shift of MB absorption peak from 664nm to 658nm after a short time of irradiation. The maximum degradation of MB was observed when the concentration of TiO2 in the aqueous suspension was 0.5gL-1. TiO2 was also very effective with inhibiting growth of both Gram-negative bacteria E.coli and P.aeruginosa, although it took more than 60min to observe the inactivation effects. The photocatalytic inactivation towardE.coli and P.aeruginosa by TiO2 showed a similar trend with much higher effectiveness towardE.coli under the same experimental conditions. The inactivation kinetic behaviors could be explained by the modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, and well fitted to a pseudo-first order kinetic equation. The reaction rate constant for E.coli and P.aeruginosa were 7.768×106cfumL-1min-1 and 5.655×106cfumL-1min-1, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium constant for E.coli was 1.053×10-8mLcfu-1, while it was 1.438×10-8mLcfu-1 for P.aeruginosa. These results further demonstrate that in an aqueous system, TiO2 nanoparticles can effectively both degrade organic compounds and inhibit Gram-negative bacteria under UVA light. Compared with the degradation activity of TiO2 towardorganic compounds, its antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria would be delayed by 60min. The antimicrobial activity of TiO2 against Gram-negative bacteria could vary with bacterial species. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Stanghellini C.,Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture | Dai J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Kempkes F.,Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2011

The effect of Near Infrared (NIR)-reflective screen material on ventilation requirement, crop transpiration and water use efficiency of a greenhouse rose crop was investigated in an experiment whereby identical climate was ensured in greenhouse compartments installed with either NIR-reflective or conventional material as internal movable screens. The NIR-filter reduced the energy load of the greenhouse by 8%. The high reflectivity of the canopy in the NIR range caused the energy input of the greenhouse to be reduced by less than the properties of the material would suggest (25%). Both the ventilation requirement of the greenhouse and crop transpiration were reduced by the NIR-selective screen, consistently with the reduction in energy load of the greenhouse and the crop. The potential for commercial application of such material - either as movable screen or semi-permanent screen in addition to cooling - seems limited to high-tech greenhouse production in arid regions, where the reduction in cooling requirement could significantly lower water use for evaporative cooling. The potential for application of a photo-selective paint as alternative to the seasonal whitewash in low-tech greenhouses is obviously much larger. For it to make a difference, however, the NIR-reflectance must be much higher than the value of the present commercially available paints. © 2011 IAgrE.

Jiang L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang L.,Suzhou Academy of Agricultural Science | Shi Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2014

Regulation of peach fruit ripening by heat combined with 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was studied by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight tandem Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). Proteins from peach fruits after harvest (CK) and treated by heat combined with 1-MCP (HM) were then stored at room temperature for 0, 1, 3 and 5. days. Among the identified 42 protein spots, the differential abundant proteins belonged to pathways of defense and response (35.71%), energy and metabolism (30.95%), ripening and senescence (14.29%), cell structure (14.29%) and protein fate (4.76%). Compared with separate heat or 1-MCP treatment, pectinesterase inhibitor (PEI) and heat shock protein (HSP) appeared, and abscisic stress ripening-like protein (ASR) disappeared after the treatment, while HM specifically increased the abundances of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), peroxiredoxin, calmodulin, and decreased those of cytosolic malate dehydrogenase, d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and glutamine synthetase. HM treatment protected fruit cells by enhancing the capabilities of stress response and defense, inhibiting substance and energy metabolism, limiting cell calcium loss. The results suggest that the self-defense capability of peach fruit was boosted by HM treatment. This study is informative in exploring the influences of HM on peach fruit ripening by demonstrating that 1-MCP and heat functioned synergistically. Biological significance: To analyze the functions of differentially expressed proteins and to elucidate the response of early-maturing melting peach fruit (cv. Huiyulu) during ripening, we herein, for the first time, studied the effects of HM treatment on involved protein profiles by a proteomic approach with 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF. This study successfully verified that HM functioned synergistically rather than simply superimposed on the proteome level.In addition, this study explains the molecular mechanism regarding peach fruit development and ripening on the proteome level, offers new insights into relevant physiological mechanism, and provides theoretical evidence for reinforcing quality control of post-harvest peach fruit in practice. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Wang J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology | Soininen J.,University of Helsinki | Zhang Y.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology | Zhang Y.,Anhui Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2011

Aim Data and analyses of elevational gradients in diversity have been central to the development and evaluation of a range of general theories of biodiversity. Elevational diversity patterns have, however, been severely understudied for microbes, which often represent decomposer subsystems. Consequently, generalities in the patterns of elevational diversity across different trophic levels remain poorly understood. Our aim was to examine elevational gradients in the diversity of macroinvertebrates, diatoms and bacteria along a stony stream that covered a large elevational gradient. Location Laojun Mountain, Yunnan province, China. Methods The sampling scheme included 26 sites spaced at elevational intervals of 89m from 1820 to 4050m elevation along a stony stream. Macroinvertebrate and diatom richness were determined based on the morphology of the specimens. Taxonomic richness for bacteria was quantified using a molecular fingerprinting method. Over 50 environmental variables were measured at each site to quantify environmental variables that could correlate with the patterns of diversity. We used eigenvector-based spatial filters with multiple regressions to account for spatial autocorrelation. Results The bacterial richness followed an unexpected monotonic increase with elevation. Diatoms decreased monotonically, and macroinvertebrate richness showed a clear unimodal pattern with elevation. The unimodal richness pattern for macroinvertebrates was best explained by the mid-domain effect (r2=0.72). The diatom richness was best explained by the variation in nutrient supply, and the increase in bacterial richness with elevation may be related to an increased carbon supply. Main conclusions We found contrasting patterns in elevational diversity among the three studied multi-trophic groups comprising unicellular and multicellular aquatic taxa. We also found that there may be fundamental differences in the mechanisms underlying these species diversity patterns. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Liao Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liao Y.,Hunan Province Environmental Monitoring Center | Liang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhou L.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

This study investigates synthesis of biogenic schwertmannite by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and its role and mechanism in adsorption of As(III) from water. Results indicate that schwertmannite particles formed through oxidation of ferrous sulfate by A. ferrooxidans cells for different times vary greatly in size and in morphology. The hedge-hog like schwertmannite formed after reaction for 72h are aggregative spheroid particles with a diameter of approximately 2.5μm and its chemical formula can be expressed as Fe8O8(OH)4.42(SO4)1.79. Batche studies show that both Freundlich and Langmuir model are suitable for describing the adsorption behavior of As(III) on schwertmannite at pH 7.5 and As(III) in simulated groundwater can be effectively removed by biogenic schwertmannite with a maximum adsorption capacity of 113.9mg As(III) g-1 and the optimal pH is in the range of 7-10. The arsenic removal is hardly affected by the competing anions often observed in groundwater unless the mole concentration of PO43- and SO42- in groundwater are 75 or 750 times higher than As(III), respectively. The mechanism of As(III) adsorption on biogenic schwertmannite involves ligand exchanges between arsenic species and surface hydroxyl group and sulfate. In addition, experiments show that As(III)-sorbed biogenic schwertmannite aged in deionized water at 25°C exhibits no mineralogy phase changes even after ageing at pH 6.0 and 8.5 for 90d. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Cheng K.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cheng K.,Colorado State University | Ogle S.M.,Colorado State University | Parton W.J.,Colorado State University | Pan G.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Global Change Biology | Year: 2014

Understanding the potential for greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in agricultural lands is a critical challenge for climate change policy. This study uses the DAYCENT ecosystem model to predict GHG mitigation potentials associated with soil management in Chinese cropland systems. Application of ecosystem models, such as DAYCENT, requires the evaluation of model performance with data sets from experiments relevant to the climate and management of the study region. DAYCENT was evaluated with data from 350 cropland experiments in China, including measurements of nitrous oxide emissions (N2O), methane emissions (CH4), and soil organic carbon (SOC) stock changes. In general, the model was reasonably accurate with R2 values for model predictions vs. measurements ranging from 0.71 to 0.85. Modeling efficiency varied from 0.65 for SOC stock changes to 0.83 for crop yields. Mitigation potentials were estimated on a yield basis (Mg CO2-equivalent Mg-1Yield). The results demonstrate that the largest decrease in GHG emissions in rainfed systems are associated with combined effect of reducing mineral N fertilization, organic matter amendments and reduced-till coupled with straw return, estimated at 0.31 to 0.83 Mg CO2-equivalent Mg-1Yield. A mitigation potential of 0.08 to 0.36 Mg CO2-equivalent Mg-1Yield is possible by reducing N chemical fertilizer rates, along with intermittent flooding in paddy rice cropping systems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

He X.-H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Qin H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Hu Z.,Wuhan University | Zhang T.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang Y.-M.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

Four-way crosses (4WC) involving four different inbred lines often appear in plant and animal commercial breeding programs. Direct mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in these commercial populations is both economical and practical. However, the existing statistical methods for mapping QTL in a 4WC population are built on the single-QTL genetic model. This simple genetic model fails to take into account QTL interactions, which play an important role in the genetic architecture of complex traits. In this paper, therefore, we attempted to develop a statistical method to detect epistatic QTL in 4WC population. Conditional probabilities of QTL genotypes, computed by the multi-point single locus method, were used to sample the genotypes of all putative QTL in the entire genome. The sampled genotypes were used to construct the design matrix for QTL effects. All QTL effects, including main and epistatic effects, were simultaneously estimated by the penalized maximum likelihood method. The proposed method was confirmed by a series of Monte Carlo simulation studies and real data analysis of cotton. The new method will provide novel tools for the genetic dissection of complex traits, construction of QTL networks, and analysis of heterosis. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Wang A.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Luo C.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Yang R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chen Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2012

One concern about the chelant-enhanced phytoextraction is the potential metal leaching associated with chelant application. A field study was carried out and the metal leaching along the 60-cm depth soil profiles were evaluated within 36 days after the biodegradable chelant EDDS was applied. Results showed EDDS significantly increased soluble Cu in the top 5 cm soil layer 1 day after the application, and the increase of soluble metals was generally limited in the top 20 cm soil. Metal speciation analysis indicated all Cu and Zn were in forms of Cu-EDDS and Zn-EDDS complexes in soil solution, and Ca was the major competitor with trace metals to EDDS. The soluble metals decreased quickly with time, and no significant difference was observed in the extractable Cu between EDDS treatments and the controls 22 days after the EDDS addition. The potential leaching associated with biodegradable EDDS addition may be controlled under field conditions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Yin Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yin Z.,Jiangsu Yanjiang Institute of Agricultural science | Meng F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Song H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2010

Rubisco activase (RCA) catalyzes the activation of Rubisco in vivo and plays a crucial role in photosynthesis. However, until now, little was known about the molecular genetics of RCA in soybean (Glycine max), one of the most important legume crops. Here, we cloned and characterized two genes encoding the longer α-isoform and the shorter β-isoform of soybean RCA (GmRCAα and GmRCAβ, respectively). The two corresponding cDNAs are divergent in both the translated and 3′ untranslated regions. Analysis of genomic DNA sequences suggested that the corresponding mRNAs are transcripts of two different genes and not the products of a single alternatively splicing pre-mRNA. Two additional possible α-form RCA-encoding genes, GmRCA03 and GmRCA14, and one additional β-form RCA-encoding gene, GmRCA11, were also isolated. To examine the function and modulation of RCA genes in soybean, we determined the expression levels of GmRCAα and GmRCAβ, Rubisco initial activity, photosynthetic rate, and seed yield in 184 soybean recombinant inbred lines. Correlation of gene expression levels with three other traits indicates that RCA genes could play an important role in regulating soybean photosynthetic capacity and seed yield. Expression quantitative trait loci mapping revealed four trans-expression quantitative trait loci for GmRCAα and GmRCAβ. These results could provide a new approach for the modulation of RCA genes to improve photosynthetic rate and plant growth in soybean and other plants. © 2009 American Society of Plant Biologists.

Sun S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Gu M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cao Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2012

A number of phosphate (Pi) starvation- or mycorrhiza-regulated Pi transporters belonging to the Pht1 family have been functionally characterized in several plant species, whereas functions of the Pi transporters that are not regulated by changes in Pi supply are lacking. In this study, we show that rice (Oryza sativa) Pht1;1 (OsPT1), one of the 13 Pht1 Pi transporters in rice, was expressed abundantly and constitutively in various cell types of both roots and shoots. OsPT1 was able to complement the proton-coupled Pi transporter activities in a yeast mutant defective in Pi uptake. Transgenic plants of OsPT1 overexpression lines and RNA interference knockdown lines contained significantly higher and lower phosphorus concentrations, respectively, compared with the wild-type control in Pi-sufficient shoots. These responses of the transgenic plants to Pi supply were further confirmed by the changes in depolarization of root cell membrane potential, root hair occurrence, 33P uptake rate and transportation, as well as phosphorus accumulation in young leaves at Pi-sufficient levels. Furthermore, OsPT1 expression was strongly enhanced by the mutation of Phosphate Overaccumulator2 (OsPHO2) but not by Phosphate Starvation Response2, indicating that OsPT1 is involved in the OsPHO2-regulated Pi pathway. These results indicate that OsPT1 is a key member of the Pht1 family involved in Pi uptake and translocation in rice under Pi-replete conditions. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists.

Brar M.S.,University of Hong Kong | Shi M.,University of Sydney | Murtaugh M.P.,University of Minnesota | Leung F.C.C.,University of Hong Kong | Leung F.C.C.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2015

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the leading swine pathogens causing tremendous economic loss to the global swine industry due to its virulence, pathogenesis, infectivity and transmissibility. Although formally recognized only two and half decades ago, molecular dating estimation indicates a more ancient evolutionary history, which involved divergence into two genotypes (type 1 and type 2) prior to the ‘initial’ outbreaks of the late 1980s. Type 2 PRRSV circulates primarily in North America and Asia. The relatively greater availability of sequence data for this genotype from widespread geographical territories has enabled a better understanding of the evolving genotype. However, there are a number of challenges in terms of the vastness of data available and what this indicates in the context of viral diversity. Accordingly, here we revisit the mechanisms by which PRRSV generates variability, describe a means of organizing type 2 diversity captured in voluminous ORF5 sequences in a phylogenetic framework and provide a holistic view of known global type 2 diversity in the same setting. The consequences of the expanding diversity for control measures such as vaccination are discussed, as well as the contribution of modified live vaccines to the circulation of field isolates. We end by highlighting some limitations of current molecular epidemiology studies in relation to inferring PRRSV diversity, and what steps can be taken to overcome these and additionally enable PRRSV sequence data to be informative about viral phenotypic traits such as virulence. © 2015 The Authors.

Cheng K.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cheng K.,Colorado State University | Ogle S.M.,Colorado State University | Parton W.J.,Colorado State University | Pan G.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2013

The prediction of methane (CH4) emissions from rice paddies could play a key role in greenhouse gas mitigation efforts associated with agriculture. We describe a methanogenesis sub-model that has been developed in the DAYCENT ecosystem model for estimating CH4 emissions and assessing mitigation potentials for rice paddies. Methanogenesis is modeled based on the simulation of soil hydrology and thermal regimes, rice plant growth, SOM decomposition, and CH4 transport from the soil to atmosphere. A total of 97 sites from China's rice paddies were used to develop and evaluate the model, in which 25 sites (91 observations) were used for parameterization and 72 sites (204 observations) were used for model evaluation. Comparison of modeled results with measurements demonstrated that CH4 emissions in rice paddies of China can be successfully simulated by the model with an overall R2 of 0.83, and included an evaluation of CH4 emissions for a range of climates and agricultural management practices. The model was most sensitive to parameters influencing the amount of labile C available for methanogenesis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Jia H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ren H.,Zhejiang University | Gu M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhao J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2011

Plant phosphate transporters (PTs) are active in the uptake of inorganic phosphate (Pi) from the soil and its translocation within the plant. Here, we report on the biological properties and physiological roles of OsPht1;8 (OsPT8), one of the PTs belonging to the Pht1 family in rice (Oryza sativa). Expression of a β-glucuronidase and green fluorescent protein reporter gene driven by the OsPT8 promoter showed that OsPT8 is expressed in various tissue organs from roots to seeds independent of Pi supply. OsPT8 was able to complement a yeast Pi-uptake mutant and increase Pi accumulation of Xenopus laevis oocytes when supplied with micromolar 33Pi concentrations at their external solution, indicating that it has a high affinity for Pi transport. Overexpression of OsPT8 resulted in excessive Pi in both roots and shoots and Pi toxic symptoms under the high-Pi supply condition. In contrast, knockdown of OsPT8 by RNA interference decreased Pi uptake and plant growth under both high- and low-Pi conditions. Moreover, OsPT8 suppression resulted in an increase of phosphorus content in the panicle axis and in a decrease of phosphorus content in unfilled grain hulls, accompanied by lower seed-setting rate. Altogether, our data suggest that OsPT8 is involved in Pi homeostasis in rice and is critical for plant growth and development. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists.

Guo M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chen Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Du Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Dong Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 8 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2011

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yap1 protein is an AP1-like transcription factor involved in the regulation of the oxidative stress response. An ortholog of Yap1, MoAP1, was recently identified from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae genome. We found that MoAP1 is highly expressed in conidia and during invasive hyphal growth. The Moap1 mutant was sensitive to H2O2, similar to S. cerevisiae yap1 mutants, and MoAP1 complemented Yap1 function in resistance to H2O2, albeit partially. The Moap1 mutant also exhibited various defects in aerial hyphal growth, mycelial branching, conidia formation, the production of extracellular peroxidases and laccases, and melanin pigmentation. Consequently, the Moap1 mutant was unable to infect the host plant. The MoAP1-eGFP fusion protein is localized inside the nucleus upon exposure to H2O2, suggesting that MoAP1 also functions as a redox sensor. Moreover, through RNA sequence analysis, many MoAP1-regulated genes were identified, including several novel ones that were also involved in pathogenicity. Disruption of respective MGG_01662 (MoAAT) and MGG_02531 (encoding hypothetical protein) genes did not result in any detectable changes in conidial germination and appressorium formation but reduced pathogenicity, whereas the mutant strains of MGG_01230 (MoSSADH) and MGG_15157 (MoACT) showed marketed reductions in aerial hyphal growth, mycelial branching, and loss of conidiation as well as pathogenicity, similar to the Moap1 mutant. Taken together, our studies identify MoAP1 as a positive transcription factor that regulates transcriptions of MGG_01662, MGG_02531, MGG_01230, and MGG_15157 that are important in the growth, development, and pathogenicity of M. oryzae. © 2011 Guo et al.

Liao G.Z.,Yunnan Agricultural University | Wang G.Y.,Yunnan Agricultural Vocational Technical College | Xu X.L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhou G.H.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Meat Science | Year: 2010

Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), potent mutagens/carcinogens, are pyrolysis formed during the cooking of meat and fish. In the present study, the effects of various cooking methods, pan-frying, deep-frying, charcoal grilling and roasting on the formation of HAAs in chicken breast and duck breast were studied. The various HAAs formed during cooking were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that chicken breast cooked by charcoal grilling contained the highest content of total HAAs, as high as 112 ng/g, followed by pan-fried duck breast (53.3 ng/g), charcoal grilled duck breast (32 ng/g), pan-fried chicken breast (27.4 ng/g), deep-fried chicken breast (21.3 ng/g), deep-fried duck breast (14 ng/g), roasted duck breast (7 ng/g) and roasted chicken breast (4 ng/g). For individual HAA, the most abundant HAA was 9H-pyrido-[4,3-b]indole (Norharman), which was detected in charcoal grilled chicken breast at content as high as 32.2 ng/g, followed by 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[4,3-b] indole (Harman) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]pyridine(PhIP) at 32 and 31.1 ng/g in charcoal grilled chicken breast, respectively. The content of PhIP in pan-fried duck and chicken breast were 22 and 18.3 ng/g, respectively. Generally, the type and content of HAAs in cooked poultry meat varies with cooking method and cooking conditions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Badri D.V.,Colorado State University | Chaparro J.M.,Colorado State University | Zhang R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shen Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Vivanco J.M.,Colorado State University
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013

Background: Roots can alter the rhizosphere microbial composition presumably by the secretion of root exudates. Results: Natural blends of phytochemicals present in the root exudates can modulate the soil microbiome in the absence of the plant. Conclusion: Different groups of compounds impact soil microbe composition at various levels. Significance: Identifying natural mixes of compounds that could positively influence plant-microbiome interactions can increase crop yield and sustainability.© 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Wang J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology | Soininen J.,University of Helsinki | Zhang Y.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology | Zhang Y.,Anhui Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2012

Aim While ecologists have long been interested in diversity in mountain regions, elevational patterns in beta diversity are still rarely studied across different life forms ranging from micro- to macroorganisms. Also, it is not known whether the patterns in turnover among organism groups are affected by the degree to which the environment is modified by human activities. Location Laojun Mountain, Yunnan Province, China. Methods The beta diversity patterns of benthic microorganisms (i.e. diatoms and bacteria) and macroorganisms (i.e. macroinvertebrates) in a stony stream were simultaneously investigated between elevations of 1820 and 4050m. Data were analysed by using a distance-based approach and variation partitioning based on canonical redundancy analysis. Results Analyses of community dissimilarities between adjacent sampling sites showed comparable small-scale beta diversity along the elevational gradient for the organism groups. However, bacteria clearly showed the lowest elevational turnover when analyses were conducted simultaneously for all pairwise sites. Variation partitioning indicated that species turnover was mostly related to environmental heterogeneity and spatial gradients including horizontal distance and elevation, while purely human impacts were shown to be less important. Main conclusions The elevational beta diversity at large scales was lower for bacteria than for eukaryotic microorganisms or macroorganisms, perhaps indicative of high dispersal ability and good adaptability of bacteria to harsh environmental conditions. However, the small-scale beta diversity did not differ among the groups. Elevation was the major driver for the turnover of eukaryotic organisms, while the turnover of bacteria was correlated more with environmental variation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Ploger S.,Free University of Berlin | Stumpff F.,Free University of Berlin | Penner G.B.,University of Saskatchewan | Schulzke J.-D.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | And 5 more authors.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2012

Butyrate production in the large intestine and ruminant forestomach depends on bacterial butyryl-CoA/acetate-CoA transferase activity and is highest when fermentable fiber and nonstructural carbohydrates are balanced. Gastrointestinal epithelia seem to use butyrate and butyrate-induced endocrine signals to adapt proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation to the growth of the bacterial community. Butyrate has a potential clinical application in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; ulcerative colitis). Via inhibited release of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 13 and inhibition of histone deacetylase, butyrate may contribute to the restoration of the tight junction barrier in IBD by affecting the expression of claudin-2, occludin, cingulin, and zonula occludens poteins (ZO-1, ZO-2). Further evaluation of the molecular events that link butyrate to an improved tight junction structure will allow for the elucidation of the cofactors affecting the reliability of butyrate as a clinical treatment tool. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

Chen J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chen J.,Washington State University | Dodson M.V.,Washington State University | Jiang Z.,Washington State University
International Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

In the present study, mature adipocytes from pig-derived visceral and intramuscular adipose depots were isolated, purified, and allowed to undergo dedifferentiation and redifferentiation in vitro. During the redifferentiation process at days 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8, we observed that both visceraland intramuscular adipose-derived progeny cells possessed a similar capacity to accumulate lipid. However, at days 10, 12, 14, and 16, the latter progeny cells accumulated lipid much faster-the content almost doubled at day 16 (P < 0.05). Such faster potential of lipid accumulation in the intramuscular adipose-derived progeny cells was then supported by higher expressions of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBP-α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) at all these nine time points, and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase homolog 1 (DGAT1), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) at some time points (P < 0.05). These preliminary data suggest that adipose depot differences exist with respect to ability of purified cells of the adipose lineage to redifferentiate and form viable lipid-assimilating cells in vitro. Therefore, our present study might provide a foundation to develop tools for biomedical and agricultural applications, as well as to determine the regulation of depot-specific cells of the adipose lineage. Further studies with more animals will validate and expand our results. © Ivyspring International Publisher.

Li Q.-G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li Q.-G.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Zhang Y.-M.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Heredity | Year: 2013

P34, a storage protein and major soybean allergen, has undergone a functional transition from a cysteine peptidase to a syringolide receptor. An exploration of the evolutionary mechanism of this functional transition is made. To identify homologous genes of P34, syntenic network was constructed using syntenic relationships from the Plant Genome Duplication Database. The collected homologous genes, along with SPE31, a highly homologous protein to P34 from the seeds of Pachyrhizus erosus, were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. The results show that multiple gene duplications, exon shuffling and following granulin domain loss and some critical point mutations are associated with the functional transition. Although some tests suggested the existence of positive selection, the possibility that random fixation under relaxation of purifying selection results in the functional transition is also supported. In addition, the genes Glyma08g12340 and Medtr8g086470 may belong to a new group within the papain family. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Moore K.L.,University of Oxford | Chen Y.,Rothamsted Research | van de Meene A.M.L.,Rothamsted Research | Hughes L.,Oxford Brookes University | And 6 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2014

Summary: The cellular and subcellular distributions of trace elements can provide important clues to understanding how the elements are transported and stored in plant cells, but mapping their distributions is a challenging task. The distributions of arsenic, iron, zinc, manganese and copper, as well as physiologically related macro-elements, were mapped in the node, internode and leaf sheath of rice (Oryza sativa) using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) and high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). Although copper and silicon generally showed cell wall localization, arsenic, iron and zinc were strongly localized in the vacuoles of specific cell types. Arsenic was highly localized in the companion cell vacuoles of the phloem in all vascular bundles, showing a strong co-localization with sulfur, consistent with As(III)-thiol complexation. Within the node, zinc was localized in the vacuoles of the parenchyma cell bridge bordering the enlarged and diffuse vascular bundles, whereas iron and manganese were localized in the fundamental parenchyma cells, with iron being strongly co-localized with phosphorus in the vacuoles. The highly heterogeneous and contrasting distribution patterns of these elements imply different transport activities and/or storage capacities among different cell types. Sequestration of arsenic in companion cell vacuoles may explain the limited phloem mobility of arsenite. © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

Miller M.,University of Texas at Austin | Song Q.,University of Texas at Austin | Shi X.,University of Texas at Austin | Juenger T.E.,University of Texas at Austin | And 2 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2015

The genetic distance between hybridizing parents affects heterosis; however, the mechanisms for this remain unclear. Here we report that this genetic distance correlates with natural variation and epigenetic regulation of circadian clock-mediated stress responses. In intraspecific hybrids of Arabidopsis thaliana, genome-wide expression of many biotic and abiotic stress-responsive genes is diurnally repressed and this correlates with biomass heterosis and biomass quantitative trait loci. Expression differences of selected stress-responsive genes among diverse ecotypes are predictive of heterosis in their hybrids. Stress-responsive genes are repressed in the hybrids under normal conditions but are induced to mid-parent or higher levels under stress at certain times of the day, potentially balancing the tradeoff between stress responses and growth. Consistent with this hypothesis, repression of two candidate stress-responsive genes increases growth vigour. Our findings may therefore provide new criteria for effectively selecting parents to produce high-or low-yield hybrids. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Zhao F.-J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhao F.-J.,Rothamsted Research | Moore K.L.,University of Oxford | Lombi E.,University of South Australia | And 2 more authors.
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2014

To maintain cellular homeostasis, concentrations, chemical speciation, and localization of mineral nutrients and toxic trace elements need to be regulated. Imaging the cellular and subcellular localization of elements and measuring their in situ chemical speciation are challenging tasks that can be undertaken using synchrotron-based techniques, such as X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectrometry, and mass spectrometry-based techniques, such as secondary ion mass spectrometry and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We review the advantages and limitations of these techniques, and discuss examples of their applications, which have revealed highly heterogeneous distribution patterns of elements in different cell types, often varying in chemical speciation. Combining these techniques with molecular genetic approaches can unravel functions of genes involved in element homeostasis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Song Q.,University of Texas at Austin | Chen Z.J.,University of Texas at Austin | Chen Z.J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2015

Polyploidy or whole-genome duplication occurs in some animals and many flowering plants, including many important crops such as wheat, cotton and oilseed rape. The prevalence of polyploidy in the plant kingdom suggests it as an important evolutionary feature for plant speciation and crop domestication. Studies of natural and synthetic polyploids have revealed rapid and dynamic changes in genomic structure and gene expression after polyploid formation. Growing evidence suggests that epigenetic modifications can alter homoeologous gene expression and reprogram gene expression networks, which allows polyploids to establish new cytotypes, grow vigorously and promote adaptation in local environments. Sequence and gene expression changes in polyploids have been well documented and reviewed elsewhere. This review is focused on developmental regulation and epigenetic changes including DNA methylation and histone modifications in polyploids. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Wei T.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Wei T.,University of Western Ontario | Wei T.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University | Zhang C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2013

All positive-strand RNA viruses induce the biogenesis of cytoplasmic membrane-bound virus factories for viral genome multiplication. We have previously demonstrated that upon plant potyvirus infection, the potyviral 6K2 integral membrane protein induces the formation of ER-derived replication vesicles that subsequently target chloroplasts for robust genome replication. Here, we report that following the trafficking of the Turnip mosaic potyvirus (TuMV) 6K2 vesicles to chloroplasts, 6K2 vesicles accumulate at the chloroplasts to form chloroplast-bound elongated tubular structures followed by chloroplast aggregation. A functional actomyosin motility system is required for this process. As vesicle trafficking and fusion in planta are facilitated by a superfamily of proteins known as SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptors), we screened ER-localized SNARES or SNARE-like proteins for their possible involvement in TuMV infection. We identified Syp71 and Vap27-1 that colocalize with the chloroplast-bound 6K2 complex. Knockdown of their expression using a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based virus-induced gene silencing vector showed that Syp71 but not Vap27-1 is essential for TuMV infection. In Syp71-downregulated plant cells, the formation of 6K2-induced chloroplast-bound elongated tubular structures and chloroplast aggregates is inhibited and virus accumulation is significantly reduced, but the trafficking of the 6K2 vesicles from the ER to chloroplast is not affected. Taken together, these data suggest that Syp71 is a host factor essential for successful virus infection by mediating the fusion of the virus-induced vesicles with chloroplasts during TuMV infection. © 2013 Wei et al.

Jia Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cong R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cong R.,Northwest University, China | Li R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC) plays an important role in glucose homeostasis because it catalyzes the final steps of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy affects G6PC activity, yet it is unknown whether epigenetic regulations of the G6PC gene are also affected. In this study, we fed primiparous, purebred Meishan sows either standard-protein (SP; 12% crude protein) or low-protein (LP; 6% crude protein) diets throughout gestation and analyzed hepatic G6PC expression in both male and female newborn piglets. The epigenetic regulation of G6PC, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and micro RNA (miRNA), was determined to reveal potential mechanisms. Male, but not female, LP piglets had a significantly lower serum glucose concentration and greater hepatic G6PC mRNA expression and enzyme activity. Also, in LP males, glucocorticoid receptor binding to the G6PC promoter was lower compared with SP males, which was accompanied by hypomethylation of the G6PC promoter. Modifications in histones also were gender dependent; LP males had less histone H3 and histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation and more histone H3 acetylation and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation on the G6PC promoter compared with the SP males, whereas LP females had more H3 and greater H3 methylation compared with their SP counterparts. Moreover, two miRNA, ssc-miR-339-5p and ssc-miR-532-3p, targeting the G6PC 3' untranslated region were significantly upregulated by the LP diet only in females. These results suggest that a maternal LP diet during pregnancy causes hepatic activation of G6PC gene expression in male piglets, which possibly contributes to adult-onset hyperglycemia. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.

Yang W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Fang Y.,Nanjing University of Finance and Economics | Liang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Hu Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Hu Q.,Nanjing University of Finance and Economics
Food Research International | Year: 2011

Polysaccharide was testified to be the main component of Flammulina velutipes for inhibiting AChE activity in our preliminary study. Therefore, response surface methodology, based on Box-Behnken design, was used to optimize the ultrasonic extraction conditions of F. velutipes polysaccharides (FVP). Four independent variables (ratio of water to raw material, ultrasonic power, ultrasonic time, and ultrasonic temperature) were taken into consideration. A quadratic model, adequate for reasonably predicting the yield of FVP, was constructed between ultrasonic conditions and yield of FVP. A yield of FVP of 8.33% was obtained under a modified condition (ratio of water to material of 25 ml/g, ultrasonic power of 620 W, ultrasonic time of 20 min, and ultrasonic temperature of 45. °C). Subsequently, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine (DPPH) scavenging activity of FVP were determined. AChE inhibitory rate of 18.51% and DPPH scavenging rate of 61.24% were obtained at 0.6. mg/ml of FVP, indicating a good potential of FVP to enhance learning and cognitive ability. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Chowdhury S.P.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Hartmann A.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Gao X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Gao X.,Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Management of Crop Disease and Pest Insects | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42 is a Gram-positive model bacterium for unraveling plant-microbe interactions in Bacilli. In addition, FZB42 is used commercially as biofertilizer and biocontrol agent in agriculture. Genome analysis of FZB42 revealed that nearly 10% of the FZB42 genome is devoted to synthesizing antimicrobial metabolites and their corresponding immunity genes. However, recent investigations in planta demonstrated that - except surfactin - the amount of such compounds found in vicinity of plant roots is relatively low, making doubtful a direct function in suppressing competing microflora including plant pathogens. These metabolites have been also suspected to induce changes within the rhizosphere microbial community, which might affect environment and plant health. However, sequence analysis of rhizosphere samples revealed only marginal changes in the root microbiome, suggesting that secondary metabolites are not the key factor in protecting plants from pathogenic microorganisms. On the other hand, adding FZB42 to plants compensate, at least in part, changes in the community structure caused by the pathogen, indicating an interesting mechanism of plant protection by beneficial Bacilli. Sub-lethal concentrations of cyclic lipopeptides and volatiles produced by plant-associated Bacilli trigger pathways of induced systemic resistance (ISR), which protect plants against attacks of pathogenic microbes, viruses, and nematodes. Stimulation of ISR by bacterial metabolites is likely the main mechanism responsible for biocontrol action of FZB42. © 2015 Chowdhury, Hartmann, Gao and Borriss.

Spaccini R.,University of Naples Federico II | Spaccini R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Song X.,University of Naples Federico II | Cozzolino V.,University of Naples Federico II | Piccolo A.,University of Naples Federico II
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2013

The molecular composition of soil organic matter (SOM) in three agricultural fields under different managements, was evaluated by off-line thermochemolysis followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis (THM-GC-MS). While this technique enabled the characterization of SOM components in coarse textured soil, its efficiency in heavy textured soils was seriously affected by the interference of clay minerals, which catalyzed the formation of secondary artifacts in pyrolysates. Soil demineralization with hydrofluoric acid (HF) solutions effectively improved the reliable characterization of organic compounds in clayey soils by thermochemolysis, while did not alter significantly the results of coarse textured soil. A wide range of lignin monomers and lipids molecules, of plant and microbial origin, were identified in the pyrograms of HF treated soils, thereby revealing interesting molecular differences between SOM management practices. Our results indicated that clay removal provided by HF pretreatment enhanced the capacity of thermochemolysis to be a valuable and accurate technique to study the SOM dynamics also in heavy-textured and OC-depleted cultivated soils. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Gu M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu K.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chen A.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhu Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Physiologia Plantarum | Year: 2010

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of gene expression regulators that play crucial roles in many biological processes. Recently, several reports have revealed that micoRNAs participate in regulation of symbiotic interaction between plants and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria. However, the role of miRNAs in another type of plant-microbe interaction, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, has not been documented. We carried out a microarray screen and poly(A)-tailed reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validation for miRNA expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) under varying phosphate (Pi) availability and AM symbiosis conditions. In roots, miRNA158, miRNA862-3p, miRNA319, miRNA394 and miR399 were differentially regulated under three different treatments, Pi sufficient (+P), Pi deficient (-P) and AM symbiosis (+M). In leaves, up to 14 miRNAs were up- or down-regulated under either or both of the Pi treatments and AM symbiosis, of which miR158, miR319 and miR399 were responsive to the treatments in both roots and leaves. We detected that miR395, miR779.1, miR840 and miR867 in leaves were specifically responsive to AM symbiosis, which is independent of Pi availability, whereas miR398 in leaves and miR399 in both roots and leaves were Pi starvation induced. Furthermore, miR158 in roots as well as miR837-3p in leaves were responsive to both Pi deprivation and AM colonization. In contrast, miR862-3p in roots was responsive to Pi nutrition, but not to AM symbiosis. Moreover, the group of miRNA consisting miR319 and miR394 in roots and miR158, miR169g*, miR172, miR172b*, miR319, miR771 and miR775 in leaves were up- and down-regulated by Pi starvation, respectively. The data suggest that altered expression of distinct groups of miRNA is an essential component of Pi starvation-induced responses and AM symbiosis. © 2009 Physiologia Plantarum.

Chen K.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Sun X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Qin Ch.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Tang X.,Beijing Institute of Technology
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2010

Machine vision and support vector machine (SVM) were used to determine color scores of beef fat. One hundred and twenty-three of beef rib eye steaks were selected to sensory evaluation and image processing. After fat color score was assigned to each steak by a five-member panel according to the standard color cards, images were acquired for each steak. The subcutaneous fat was separated from the rib eye by using a sequence of image processing algorithms, boundary tracking, thresholding and morphological operation, etc. Twelve features of fat color (six features were extracted from the subcutaneous fat images and the other six were calculated) were used as input for SVM classifiers. The best SVM classifier was chosen according to percentage of correct classified samples based on the training set and then was validated by a nondependent test set. The proposed SVM classifier achieved the best performance percentage of 97.4%, showing that the machine vision combined with SVM discrimination method can provide an effective tool for predicting color scores of beef fat. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Yu Y.,Renmin University of China | Wang J.,Chongqing Technology and Business University | Tian X.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Growth and Change | Year: 2016

In the context of China without a median voter system, this study examines whether the "flypaper effect," an unconditional lump-sum grant from the upper governments to the county governments increases spending in a greater proportion than an equivalent rise in local income, holds true in China. Using China's county-level education data during 2007, the models have been estimated using a spatial econometric technique that accounts for spatial interaction behavior on public education expenditure across local governments. We find that, in the presence of spatial interdependence, there is no evidence of a "flypaper effect" when different spatial weighting schemes and the endogeneity problem of education grants are accounted for. Rather, the "anti-flypaper effect" is found. Important policy implications are drawn for China's fiscal decentralization reform. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Chen Z.J.,University of Texas at Austin | Chen Z.J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2013

Heterosis, also known as hybrid vigour, is widespread in plants and animals, but the molecular bases for this phenomenon remain elusive. Recent studies in hybrids and allopolyploids using transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, epigenomic and systems biology approaches have provided new insights. Emerging genomic and epigenetic perspectives suggest that heterosis arises from allelic interactions between parental genomes, leading to altered programming of genes that promote the growth, stress tolerance and fitness of hybrids. For example, epigenetic modifications of key regulatory genes in hybrids and allopolyploids can alter complex regulatory networks of physiology and metabolism, thus modulating biomass and leading to heterosis. The conceptual advances could help to improve plant and animal productivity through the manipulation of heterosis. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Zhou P.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Pan G.X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Spaccini R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Piccolo A.,University of Naples Federico II
European Journal of Soil Science | Year: 2010

A combination of solid-state CPMAS-13C-NMR and TMAH thermochemolysis-GC/MS was applied to investigate the molecular composition of particulate organic matter (POM) separated from a Chinese paddy soil, from the Tai Lake region, under a long-term field experiment with different fertilizer treatments. The treatments were: (i) no fertilizer application (NF), (ii) chemical fertilizers only (CF), (iii) chemical fertilizer plus pig manure (CFM) and (iv) chemical fertilizer plus crop straw (CFS). CPMAS-13C-NMR spectra showed that POM from all treated plots was rich in O-alkyl-C compounds, followed by alkyl-C and aromatic-C compounds. However, as compared with a control (NF), POM under CFM and CFS treatments exhibited a smaller relative O-alkyl-C content and a larger contribution of aromatic-C and alkyl-C, thus increasing both aromaticity and hydrophobicity and, hence, recalcitrance of POM samples. Thermochemolysis of POM from all treatments demonstrated a dominance of aliphatic and lignin-derived compounds. However, the distribution of lignin monomers (p-hydroxyphenyl, P, guaiacyl, G, and syringyl, S) revealed significant differences among the treatments. The relative distribution of lignin P, G and S monomers in NF, CF and CFS indicated a preferential contribution of annual crops and maize straw, as compared with that found for CFM. Concomitantly, a larger content of aliphatic thermochemolysis derivatives was found for CFS and CFM. The relative increase of aliphatic molecules in CFS was attributed to hydrophobic polyesters from higher plants. In the CF and CFM systems, the presence of aliphatic components of microbial origin suggested a greater microbial activity in comparison with NF and CFS. The combined application of solid state CPMAS-13C-NMR and TMAH thermochemolysis-GC/MS can be used to assess effectively the accumulation of recalcitrant organic compounds in soil POM under long-term fertilizer application with organic biomass. It is thus inferred that soil organic matter stabilization by molecular recalcitrance contributes to carbon sequestration in Chinese paddy soils under long-term managements. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Society of Soil Science.

Zhao F.-J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhao F.-J.,Rothamsted Research | Zhu Y.-G.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment | Meharg A.A.,Queen's University of Belfast
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Rice is a major source of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in the human diet because paddy rice is efficient at accumulating As. Rice As speciation is dominated by iAs and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Here we review the global pattern in rice As speciation and the factors causing the variation. Rice produced in Asia shows a strong linear relationship between iAs and total As concentration with a slope of 0.78. Rice produced in Europe and the United States shows a more variable, but generally hyperbolic relationship with DMA being predominant in U.S. rice. Although there is significant genotypic variation in grain As speciation, the regional variations are primarily attributed to environmental factors. Emerging evidence also indicates that methylated As species in rice are derived from the soil, while rice plants lack the As methylation ability. Soil flooding and additions of organic matter increase microbial methylation of As, although the microbial community responsible for methylation is poorly understood. Compared with iAs, methylated As species are taken up by rice roots less efficiently but are transported to the grain much more efficiently, which may be an important factor responsible for the spikelet sterility disorder (straight-head disease) in rice. DMA is a weak carcinogen, but the level of ingestion from rice consumption is much lower than that of concern. Questions that require further investigations are identified. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Sun H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Tao J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2014

Strigolactones (SLs) or their derivatives have recently been defined as novel phytohormones that regulate root development. However, it remains unclear whether SLs mediate root growth in response to phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) deficiency. In this study, the responses of root development in rice (Oryza sativa L.) to different levels of phosphate and nitrate supply were investigated using wild type (WT) and mutants defective in SL synthesis (d10 and d27) or insensitive to SL (d3). Reduced concentration of either phosphate or nitrate led to increased seminal root length and decreased lateral root density in WT. Limitation of either P or N stimulated SL production and enhanced expression of D10, D17, and D27 and suppressed expression of D3 and D14 in WT roots. Mutation of D10, D27, or D3 caused loss of sensitivity of root response to P and N deficiency. Application of the SL analogue GR24 restored seminal root length and lateral root density in WT and d10 and d27 mutants but not in the d3 mutant, suggesting that SLs were induced by nutrient-limiting conditions and led to changes in rice root growth via D3. Moreover, P or N deficiency or GR24 application reduced the transport of radiolabelled indole-3-acetic acid and the activity of DR5::GUS auxin reporter in WT and d10 and d27 mutants. These findings highlight the role of SLs in regulating rice root development under phosphate and nitrate limitation. The mechanisms underlying this regulatory role involve D3 and modulation of auxin transport from shoots to roots. © 2014 © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

Guan X.,University of Texas at Austin | Pang M.,University of Texas at Austin | Nah G.,University of Texas at Austin | Shi X.,University of Texas at Austin | And 4 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2014

Although polyploidy is common in plants and some animals, mechanisms for functional divergence between homoeologous genes are poorly understood. MYB2 gene promotes cotton fibre development and is functionally homologous to Arabidopsis GLABROUS1 (GL1) in trichome formation. The most widely cultivated cotton is an allotetraploid (Gossypium hirsutum, AADD) that contains GhMYB2A and GhMYB2D homoeologs. Here we show that GhMYB2D mRNA accumulates more than GhMYB2A during fibre initiation and is targeted by miR828 and miR858, generating trans-acting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs) in the TAS4 family. Overexpressing GhMYB2A but not GhMYB2D complements the gl1 phenotype. Mutating the miR828-binding site or replacing its downstream sequence in GhMYB2D abolishes ta-siRNA production and restores trichome development in gl1 mutants. Moreover, disrupting Dicer-like protein 4 or RDR6, the biogenesis genes for ta-siRNAs, in the gl1 GhMYB2D overexpressors restores trichome development. These data support a unique role for microRNAs in functional divergence between target homoeologous genes that are important for evolution and selection of morphological traits. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Zhu Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yu G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ran W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shen Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

A two-temperature-stage process was developed for the production of lipopeptides under SSF conditions. The effects of various temperatures, ranging from 25 to 40. °C, on the bacterial growth during the growth stage and on the production of lipopeptides during the productive stage were investigated. The optimum temperatures were found to be 30. °C for the growth of the strain and 37. °C for the biosynthesis of lipopeptides. The two-stage fermentation temperatures should be 30. °C in the initial 24. h and then 37. °C for the enhanced production of lipopeptides. The bioprocess results obtained in a 50. L fermenter verified the efficacy of this technique, which increased the yield of lipopeptides by 8.40% in flasks and by 13.11% in the fermenter, with a 4. h decrease of fermentation time in the fermenter. The 1000-fold scale-up of fermentation in a fermenter was successfully achieved. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Cai S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cai T.,Nanjing Agricultural University | He J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

Piperazine is widely used as an intermediate in the manufacture of insecticides, rubber chemicals, corrosion inhibitors, and urethane. In this study, a highly effective piperazine-degrading bacteria strain, TOH, was isolated from the acclimated activated sludge of a pharmaceutical plant. This strain, identified as Paracoccus sp., utilises piperazine as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy for growth. The optimal pH and temperature for the growth of TOH were 8.0 and 30°C, respectively. The effects of co-substrates and heavy metals on the degradation efficiency of piperazine were investigated. The results indicated that exogenously supplied glucose promoted the degradation of piperazine, while the addition of ammonium chloride slightly inhibited piperazine degradation. Metal ions such as Ni2+ and Cd2+ inhibited the degradation of piperazine, whereas Mg2+ increased it. In addition, metabolic intermediates were identified by mass spectrometry, allowing a degradation pathway for piperazine to be proposed for the first time. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Li Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chen Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang C.-H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cai S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

Two bacterial strains Sphingobium quisquiliarum DC-2 and Sphingobium baderi DE-13 were isolated from activated sludge. Acetochlor was transformed by S. quisquiliarum DC-2 to a transitory intermediate 2-chloro- N-(2-methyl-6-ethylphenyl)acetamide (CMEPA), which was further transformed to 2-methyl-6-ethylaniline (MEA), and MEA could not be degraded by strain DC-2. S. baderi DE-13, incapable of degrading acetochlor, showed capability of degrading MEA to an intermediate 2-methyl-6-ethylaminophenol (MEAOH). MEAOH was further transformed to 2-methyl-6-ethylbenzoquinoneimine (MEBQI), which was mineralized by strain DE-13. A gene, cmeH, encoding an amidase that catalyzed the amide bond cleavage of CMEPA was cloned from strain DC-2. CmeH was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and homogenously purified using Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity. CmeH efficiently hydrolyzed CMEPA and other important herbicide, such as propanil, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl and clodinafop-propargyl. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Chen Z.-G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang D.-N.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cao L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Han Y.-B.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

A total of nine lipases and three proteases were tested for enzymatic regioselective acylation(s) of cordycepin with vinyl acetate in organic media. The highest conversion with better initial reaction rate was achieved with immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435). An eco-friendly solvent 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) was thought to be the most suitable reaction medium. Novozym 435 was found to be a useful biocatalyst for the 25-g scale syntheses of cordycepin acetate (96.2% isolated yield), and the biocatalyst displayed excellent regioselectivity and high operational stability during the transformation. The 5'-substituted cordycepin derivative was the sole detectable product from each acylation reaction. Novozym 435 could be recycled for the synthesis of cordycepin derivative on a 25-g scale and 63% of its original activity was maintained after being reused for 7 batches. MeTHF could be considered as an eco-friendly solvent for the large scale use in biotransformation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Cao Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ling N.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yuan Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2011

Fusarium wilt is one of the major constraints on cucumber production worldwide. Several strategies have been used to control the causative pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum J. H. Owen, including soil solarization, fungicide seed treatment and biological control. In this study, F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was successfully controlled by a newly isolated strain, Bacillus subtilis SQR 9, in vitro and in vivo. Greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of inoculation and solid fermentation of organic fertilizer with B. subtilis SQR 9, hereby defined as bio-organic fertilizer (BIO), on the control of Fusarium wilt. In comparison with the control, the wilt incidence was significantly reduced (49-61% reduction) by application of BIO. The rhizosphere population of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, as detected both by selective plating and realtime PCR, was significantly lower in BIO-treated plants than the control. The localization of bacterial cells, pattern of colonization and survival of B. subtilis SQR 9 in the rhizsosphere of cucumber, was examined by fluorescent microscopy and explored following recovery of the green fluorescent protein (gfp)-labeled SQR 9 with the new gfp-marked shuttle vector pHAPII through selective plating. The preferential sites of the labeled strain were the differentiation and elongation zone, root hair and the lateral root junctions. The population of the strain was 106 cfu/g root in rhizoplane. These results indicate that the strain was able to survive well in the rhizosphere of cucumber, suppressed growth of F. oxysporum in the rhizosphere of cucumber and protected the host from the pathogen. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Wang F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jing W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang W.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Plant Science | Year: 2014

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways have been implicated in signal transduction of both biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In this study, we found that the transcript of a rice (Oryza sativa) MAPKK (OsMKK1) was markedly increased by salt stress. By examining the survival rate and Na+ content in shoot, we found that OsMKK1-knockout (osmkk1) mutant was more sensitive to salt stress than the wild type. OsMKK1 activity in the wild-type seedlings and protoplasts was increased by salt stress. Yeast two-hybrid and in vitro and in vivo kinase assays revealed that OsMKK1 targeted OsMPK4. OsMPK4 activity was increased by salt, which was impaired in osmkk1 plants. In contrast, overexpression of OsMKK1 increased OsMPK4 activity in protoplasts. By comparing the transcription factors levels between WT and osmkk1 mutant, OsMKK1 was necessary for salt-induced increase in OsDREB2B and OsMYBS3. Taken together, the data suggest that OsMKK1 and OsMPK4 constitute a signaling pathway that regulates salt stress tolerance in rice. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Yao S.-H.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Yao S.-H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang B.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Zhang B.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Hu F.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Although it is well known that fluctuations in soil moisture affect the decomposition of organic matter, few studies have provided direct evidence of the underlying biophysical mechanisms. Cycles of wetting and drying (W/D) may not only alter soil pore structure, but also stimulate a proliferation of fungi, since these organisms are typically less affected by drought stress than bacteria, and hence the development of fungal-induced soil water repellency. The biophysical interaction between these processes is likely to influence the decomposition of organic matter amendments to soil and carbon sequestration. By using soil cores amended with rice straw, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of drying intensity and frequency of W/D cycles on decomposition rate after rewetting, soil pore-size distribution, soil microbial biomass (SMB) and soil water repellency, and to assess their biophysical interaction. One W/D cycle consisted of wetting a soil core from the bottom for 1.5-days at -0.03 kPa followed by 1.5, 3.5 or 6.5 days of drying in open air at 25 ± 2.5 °C. This resulted in different intensities of drying and frequencies of W/D cycles over a 120-d incubation period. The decomposition rate decreased with repeated W/D cycles and increasing drying intensity, particularly between the 3rd and 9th W/D cycles. The SMB-C concentration and soil water repellency peaked at the 3rd W/D cycle. The peak size of the SMB-C concentration was larger in the drier soils and soil water repellency was significantly related to SMB-C concentration (R = 0.57, P = 0.025). The soil with the strongest drying treatment had a greater concentration of particulate organic carbon (POC) and the lowest C:N ratio in POC. Although the decomposition rate was significantly correlated to the concentration of soil organic carbon (SOC) (P < 0.01), POC (P < 0.01) and SMB-C (P < 0.05), stepwise regression analysis further identified that it was largely correlated to soil pore characteristics. The decrease in the decomposition rate in the drier soil was largely explained by the increase in macropores >300 μm in diameter (R = 0.98). The results suggest that an increased drying intensity or a longer duration of drying after rainfall or irrigation may favour SOC sequestration through inhibiting decomposition of amended residue. This may be due to the formation of macropores and their subsequent stabilization via fungal growth and fungal-induced soil water repellency. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Ji H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Dong H.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

Many plant- and animal-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria employ the type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins from bacterial cells into the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells. The effector translocation occurs through an integral component of T3SS, the channel-like translocon, assembled by hydrophilic and hydrophobic proteinaceous translocators in a two-step process. In the first, hydrophilic translocators localize to the tip of a proteinaceous needle in animal pathogens, or a proteinaceous pilus in plant pathogens, and associate with hydrophobic translocators, which insert into host plasma membranes in the second step. However, the pilus needs to penetrate plant cell walls in advance. All hydrophilic translocators so far identified in plant pathogens are characteristic of harpins: T3SS accessory proteins containing a unitary hydrophilic domain or an additional enzymatic domain. Two-domain harpins carrying a pectate lyase domain potentially target plant cell walls and facilitate the penetration of the pectin-rich middle lamella by the bacterial pilus. One-domain harpins target plant plasma membranes and may play a crucial role in translocon assembly, which may also involve contrapuntal associations of hydrophobic translocators. In all cases, sensory components in the target plasma membrane are indispensable for the membrane recognition of translocators and the functionality of the translocon. The conjectural sensors point to membrane lipids and proteins, and a phosphatidic acid and an aquaporin are able to interact with selected harpin-type translocators. Interactions between translocators and their sensors at the target plasma membrane are assumed to be critical for translocon assembly. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

Deinlein U.,University of California at San Diego | Stephan A.B.,University of California at San Diego | Horie T.,Shinshu University | Luo W.,University of California at San Diego | And 3 more authors.
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2014

Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhang T.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Zhang W.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Zhang W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jiang J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Plant Physiology | Year: 2015

The fundamental unit of chromatin is the nucleosome that consists of a protein octamer composed of the four core histones (Hs; H3, H4, H2A, and H2B) wrapped by 147 bp of DNA. Nucleosome occupancy and positioning have proven to be dynamic and have a critical impact on expression, regulation, and evolution of eukaryotic genes. We developed nucleosome occupancy and positioning data sets using leaf tissue of rice (Oryza sativa) and both leaf and flower tissues of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We show that model plant and animal species share the fundamental characteristics associated with nucleosome dynamics. Only 12% and 16% of the Arabidopsis and rice genomes, respectively, were occupied by well-positioned nucleosomes. The cores of positioned nucleosomes were enriched with G/C dinucleotides and showed a lower C→T mutation rate than the linker sequences. We discovered that nucleosomes associated with heterochromatic regions were more spaced with longer linkers than those in euchromatic regions in both plant species. Surprisingly, different nucleosome densities were found to be associated with chromatin in leaf and flower tissues in Arabidopsis. We show that deep MNase-seq data sets can be used to map nucleosome occupancy of specific genomic loci and reveal gene expression patterns correlated with chromatin dynamics in plant genomes. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Chen Z.G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Tan R.X.,Nanjing University | Huang M.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2010

For the first time, PSL-C, an immobilized lipase from Burkholderia cepacia, was successfully applied to the regioselective acylation of andrographolide by vinyl acetate in acetone. FT-IR spectra demonstrated the occurrence of acylation reaction. The 13C NMR, ESI-MS and elemental analysis confirmed that the 14-acetylandrographolide was formed exclusively. Water activity and reaction temperature had a significant effect on the initial rate and the substrate conversion, but little effect on the regioselectivity of the reaction. The optimal water activity and reaction temperature were 0.11 and 50 °C, respectively. Under these conditions, the initial rate and substrate conversion were 50.2 mM h-1 and 99.0%, respectively, after a reaction time of around 4 h. Besides, immobilized lipase also displayed higher operational stability and 83.5% of its original activity was maintained after being reused for eight batches. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ma B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xie J.,Nanjing University | Wei L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li W.,Nanjing Agricultural University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2013

The formation of amyloid fibrils by β-lactoglobulin in the presence of GndHCl has been monitored by using thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence, Congo Red and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Large quantities of aggregated protein are formed by incubating β-lactoglobulin in 2. M GndHCl at room temperature and pH 7.0 for about 20 days. The kinetics of fibrillation process can be described by the lag time for formation of stable nuclei (nucleation) and the apparent rate constant for the growth of fibrils (elongation). Moreover, the effects of macromolecular crowding agents, Dextran 70 and polyethylene glycols (PEG), on the amyloid formation of β-lactoglobulin at pH 7.0 are studied. The results show that the increase in macromolecular crowding agent concentrations results in shorter lag time and faster growth of fibrils. It proves that macromolecular crowding can effectively accelerate the fibril formation of β-lactoglobulin at neutral pH. At the same time, it can be observed that the amplitude of the ThT fluorescence intensity decreases as the Dextran 70 concentration is increased. The observation suggests that the yield of amyloid fibrils is significantly reduced by the addition of macromolecular crowding agents. The conclusion is further confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the results of transmission electron microscopy also indicate that macromolecular crowding can alter the fibril morphology of β-lactoglobulin. In brief, our findings demonstrate that the effects of macromolecular crowding are essential to the understanding of protein amyloid self-assembly occurring in vivo. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Li J.,Nanjing University | Wang B.,Nanjing University | You X.,Nanjing University | You X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wu X.,Nanjing University
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2011

In this paper, two-step extended Runge-Kutta-Nyström-type methods for the numerical integration of perturbed oscillators are presented and studied. The new methods inherit the framework of two-step hybrid methods and are adapted to the special feature of the true flows in both the internal stages and the updates. Based on the EN-trees theory [H.L. Yang, X.Y. Wu, X. You, Y.L. Fang, Extended RKN-type methods for numerical integration of perturbed oscillators, Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 1777-1794], order conditions for the new methods are derived via the BBT-series defined on the set BT of branches and the BBWT-series defined on the subset BWT of BT. The stability and phase properties are analyzed. Numerical experiments show the applicability and efficiency of our new methods in comparison with the well-known high quality methods proposed in the scientific literature. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

You X.,Nanjing University | You X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhao J.,Nanjing University
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2011

In this paper, a new family of trigonometrically-fitted Scheifele two-step (TFSTS) methods for the numerical integration of perturbed oscillators is proposed and investigated. An essential feature of TFSTS methods is that they are exact in both the internal stages and the updates when solving the unperturbed harmonic oscillator y″=-ω2y for known frequency ω. Based on the linear operator theory, the necessary and sufficient conditions for TFSTS methods of up to order five are derived. Two specific TFSTS methods of orders four and five respectively are constructed and their stability and phase properties are examined. In the five numerical experiments carried out the new integrators are shown to be more efficient and competent than some well-known methods in the literature. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Korir N.K.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Han J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shangguan L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Plant variety and cultivar identification is one of the most important aspects in agricultural systems. The large number of varieties or landraces among crop plants has made it difficult to identify and characterize varieties solely on the basis of morphological characters because they are non stable and originate due to environmental and climatic conditions, and therefore phenotypic plasticity is an outcome of adaptation. To mitigate this, scientists have developed and employed molecular markers, statistical tests and software to identify and characterize the required plant cultivars or varieties for cultivation, breeding programs as well as for cultivar-right-protection. The establishment of genome and transcriptome sequencing projects for many crops has led to generation of a huge wealth of sequence information that could find much use in identification of plants and their varieties. We review the current status of plant variety and cultivar identification, where an attempt has been made to describe the different strategies available for plant identification. We have found that despite the availability of methods and suitable markers for a wide range of crops, there is dearth of simple ways of making both morphological descriptors and molecular markers easy, referable and practical to use although there are ongoing attempts at making this possible. Certain limitations present a number of challenges for the development and utilization of modern scientific methods in variety or cultivar identification in many important crops. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Jin Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhu K.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cui W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xie Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2013

Hydrogen gas (H2) was recently proposed as a novel antioxidant and signalling molecule in animals. However, the physiological roles of H2 in plants are less clear. Here, we showed that exposure of alfalfa seedlings to paraquat stress increased endogenous H2 production. When supplied with exogenous H2or the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-inducer hemin, alfalfa plants displayed enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress induced by paraquat. This was evidenced by alleviation of the inhibition of root growth, reduced lipid peroxidation and the decreased hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radical levels. The activities and transcripts of representative antioxidant enzymes were induced after exposure to either H2or hemin. Further results showed that H2 pretreatment could dramatically increase levels of the MsHO-1 transcript, levels of the protein it encodes and HO-1 activity. The previously mentioned H2-mediated responses were specific for HO-1, given that the potent HO-1-inhibitor counteracted the effects of H2. The effects of H2 were reversed after the addition of an aqueous solution of 50% carbon monoxide (CO). We also discovered enhanced tolerance of multiple environmental stresses after plants were pretreated with H2. Together, these results suggested that H2 might function as an important gaseous molecule that alleviates oxidative stress via HO-1 signalling. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Wang Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yu Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Gao J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yang Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2012

To develop a safe, effective, and convenient vaccine for the prevention of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), we have successfully constructed two recombinant lactobacillus strains (LA4356-pH and DLD17-pH) that express the foreign HPAI virus protein hemagglutinin 1 (HA 1). The mucosal and systemic immune responses triggered by these two recombinant lactobacilli following oral administration to BALB/c mice were evaluated. The results showed that both LA4356-pH and DLD17-pH could significantly increase the specific anti-HA 1 IgA antibody level in the mucosa and the anti-HA 1 IgG level in serum, as well as stimulating the splenic lymphocyte proliferative reaction through increased expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4). Compared with LA4356-pH, DLD17-pH was more effective at inducing systemic and mucosal immune responses, with higher anti-HA 1-specific IgA and IgG levels. Therefore, DLD17-pH could be a promising oral vaccine candidate against HPAI. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Ju C.-X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Gu H.-W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lu C.-P.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2012

Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) is an important swine and human pathogen responsible for septicemia and meningitis. A novel gene, designated atl and encoding a major autolysin of S. suis 2 virulent strain HA9801, was identified and characterized in this study. The Atl protein contains 1,025 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 113 kDa and has a conserved N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase domain. Recombinant Atl was expressed in Escherichia coli, and its bacteriolytic and fibronectin-binding activities were confirmed by zymography and Western affinity blotting. Two bacteriolytic bands were shown in the sodium dodecyl sulfate extracts of HA9801, while both were absent from the atl inactivated mutant. Cell chains of the mutant strain became longer than that of the parental strain. In the autolysis assay, HA9801 decreased to 20% of the initial optical density (OD) value, while the mutant strain had almost no autolytic activity. The biofilm capacity of the atl mutant was reduced_30% compared to the parental strain. In the zebrafish infection model, the 50% lethal dose of the mutant strain was increased up to 5-fold. Furthermore, the adherence to HEp-2 cells of the atl mutant was 50% less than that of the parental strain. Based on the functional analysis of the recombinant Atl and observed effects of atl inactivation on HA9801, we conclude that Atl is a major autolysin of HA9801. It takes part in cell autolysis, separation of daughter cells, biofilm formation, fibronectinbinding activity, cell adhesion, and pathogenesis of HA9801. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

Kamboh A.A.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhu W.-Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2013

There is growing interest in improving the production and meat quality of farm animals through dietary supplementation with phytochemical (e.g. flavonoids)-rich plants and/or their extracts. This study was conducted to analyse the supplemental effects of two purified flavonoids (genistein and hesperidin) individually and in combination on the oxidative status, sensory score and quality of breast meat in meat-type broiler chickens. RESULTS: A significant increase (P < 0.05) in meat colour (L score) and pH was observed for the group supplemented with 20mgkg-1 genistein and hesperidin. Water-holding capacity was also improved significantly (P < 0.01) for all genistein- and hesperidin-treated groups, while the sensory quality of breast meat remained unaffected. Lipid oxidation of breast meat was reduced significantly (P < 0.01) at 0 and 15days of refrigeration in a dose-dependent manner for all supplemented groups. Meanwhile, some treated groups showed improved (P < 0.05) body weight, feed/gain ratio and hot carcass weight. CONCLUSION: Genistein and hesperidin supplementation to broilers improved meat quality in a dose-dependent fashion, with pronounced effects of combined treatment. The results indicated that purified flavonoids such as genistein and hesperidin could potentially be used as feed additives in broiler production to promote meat quality. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

Iovene M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Iovene M.,CNR Institute of Plant Genetics | Zhang T.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Lou Q.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 3 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2013

Summary Copy number variation (CNV) has been revealed as a significant contributor to the genetic variation in humans. Although CNV has been reported in several model animal and plant species, the presence of CNV and its biological impact in polyploid species has not yet been documented. We conducted a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based CNV survey in potato, a vegetatively propagated autotetraploid species (2n = 4x = 48). We conducted FISH analysis using 18 randomly selected potato bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones in a set of 16 potato cultivars with diverse breeding backgrounds. Six BACs (33%) with insert sizes of 137-145 kb were found to be associated with large CNV events detectable at the cytological level. We demonstrate that the large CNVs associated with two specific BACs (RH102I10 and RH83C08) were widespread among potato cultivars developed in North America and Europe. We measured the transcript abundance of four genes associated with the CNV spanned by BAC RH102I10. All four genes displayed a dosage effect in transcription. Although potato is vegetatively propagated, we observed that female gametes lacking the RH102I10-associated CNV were inferior to those with at least one copy of this CNV, indicating that the RH102I10-associated CNV can impact on the growth and development of the potato plants. Our results show that CNV is highly abundant in the potato genome and may play a significant role in genetic variation of this important food crop. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Shi B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ni L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang A.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2014

It has been shown that the Ca 2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) OsDMI3 is a novel component of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in the induction of antioxidant defense in leaves of rice. However, it is not clear how OsDMI3 participates in this process in plants. In this study, we provide evidence to show that there exists a cross-talk between OsDMI3 and the major ABA-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) OsMPK1 in ABA signaling, in which OsDMI3 functions upstream of OsMPK1 to regulate the antioxidant defense systems in rice. These findings provide a novel and interesting insight into the mechanism of CCaMK- induced antioxidant defense in ABA signaling. In rice, the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) OsDMI3 has been shown to be required for abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defence. However, it is not clear how OsDMI3 participates in this process in rice. In this study, the cross-talk between OsDMI3 and the major ABA-activated MAPK OsMPK1 in ABA-induced antioxidant defence was investigated. ABA treatment induced the expression of OsDMI3 and OsMPK1 and the activities of OsDMI3 and OsMPK1 in rice leaves. In the mutant of OsDMI3, the ABA-induced increases in the expression and the activity of OsMPK1 were substantially reduced. But in the mutant of OsMPK1, the ABA-induced increases in the expression and the activity of OsDMI3 were not affected. Pretreatments with MAPKK inhibitors also did not affect the ABA-induced activation of OsDMI3. Further, a transient expression analysis in combination with mutant analysis in rice protoplasts showed that OsMPK1 is required for OsDMI3-induced increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the production of H2O2. Our data indicate that there exists a cross-talk between OsDMI3 and OsMPK1 in ABA signalling, in which OsDMI3 functions upstream of OsMPK1 to regulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the production of H2O2 in rice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Xu Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhou L.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2013

Ammonium and hydronium jarosite were prepared by hydrothermal method with urea as the homogeneous precipitant. X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectrum, UV-vis spectra and fourier transform infrared spectrum were used to characterize the resulting products. The photodegradation efficiency of the prepared ammonium and hydronium jarosite was studied in a photo-Fenton-like process using methyl orange (MO) as target pollutant. The photocatalytic degradation of MO over synthetic ammonium and hydronium jarosite under various conditions, such as catalysts loading, H 2O2 concentration and initial pH, has been investigated. Results show that ammonium and hydronium jarosite have satisfactory photocatalysis effect in degradation of MO azo dye, and that the reactivity of hydronium jarosite toward the mineralization of MO was higher than that of ammonium jarosite. The novel ammonium and hydronium jarosite catalysts would be important for industrial applications due to their high photoactivity, little iron leaching and low cost. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xiong Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xiong Z.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Yan X.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2011

The estimation of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions based on specific cropping systems is important for accurate national N2O budgets. Intensively managed vegetable cultivation is responsible for large N2O emissions in mainland China. However, little information can be obtained on the nationwide estimation of direct N2O emissions from vegetable fields. Estimates of fertilizer-induced direct N2O emissions from vegetable fields in mainland China were thus obtained by compiling and analyzing reported data in peer-reviewed journals and research reports. The results indicated that the seasonal N2O emissions from vegetable fields significantly increased with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application (p < 0.0001). According to the ordinary least squares (OLS) model, the fertilizer-induced emission factor (EF) and background emissions of N2O were estimated to be 0.55 ± 0.05% and 1.067 ± 0.277 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. The EF was reduced and the background emission of N2O increased when the measurement duration was prolonged from ≤100 d to >100 and ≤200 d. Comparable results were obtained by the maximum likelihood (ML) model, with an EF of 0.49 ± 0.06% and background N2O emissions of 1.228 ± 0.189 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Based on the OLS-derived parameters, the fertilizer-induced direct emissions and background emissions of N2O were estimated to be 66.95 Gg N and 19.63 Gg N, respectively, in 2009, and the annual N2O emissions were much higher in the provinces of Shandong, Henan, Hebei and Sichuan. The estimated N2O emissions from vegetable fields accounted for 21.4% of the total direct N2O emissions from Chinese croplands, with large uncertainties. Therefore, the EF and background emissions of N2O for each cropping system, particularly for intensively managed vegetable fields, should be specifically determined for accurate national N2O inventories. © 2011.

Liu X.-D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang A.-M.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Insect Science | Year: 2013

Small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) numbers usually drop sharply in the summer and revive quickly in the autumn. However, it is unclear whether and how the high temperature plays a role in this process. The effects of durations of heat exposure (33°C) on life-history traits were examined here. Exposure of adults for 1 day during the oviposition stage led to a very low survival of nymphs. The average longevity of L. striatellus exposed for 1-31 days from oviposition was significantly longer than that of the control (27°C). Short-term (1-5 days) heat exposure of the third instar nymphs did not significantly influence eclosion, but exposure of the fourth instar nymphs significantly increased eclosion. Lifespan from egg to adult was significantly lengthened when the third instar nymphs were exposed to heat for 2-15 days, or the fourth instar were exposed for 10 days. The preoviposition period was prolonged by heat exposure of the third or fourth instar nymphs. Short-term heat exposure of less than 3 days of the third or fourth instar nymphs did not restrict fecundity, but when the exposure duration exceeded 5 days the total eggs per female and hatchability decreased. Exposure to high temperature increased the brachypter rate of adults. In summary, low survival and slowing development under heat exposure resulted in population decline in the summer, and the relatively high fecundity and brachypter rate led to quick revival in autumn. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Li J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chan F.T.S.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University
International Journal of Production Research | Year: 2012

This paper describes the impact of collaborative transportation management (CTM) on the performance of manufacturing supply chains using a multi-agent approach. Two supply chain models (with and without CTM) are proposed to show how it realises the real operational interactions between different supply chain partners under demand disruption. Simulation results of the proposed models reveal the evolution of the CTM supply chain with demand disruption. The dynamic delivery ability and order point which are caused by demand disruption in the CTM supply chain are investigated. The results indicate that CTM can significantly reduce costs and improve the flexibility of companies in handling demand disruption problems. It is suggested that CTM is an efficient mechanism to manage supply chains, especially under a demand disruption environment. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

Shen W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chen H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jia K.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ni J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

A novel amidase gene, designated pamh, was cloned from Paracoccus sp. M -1. Site-directed mutagenesis and bioinformatic analysis showed that the PamH protein belonged to the amidase signature enzyme family. PamH was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. The molecular mass of PamH was determined to be 52 kDa with an isoelectric point of 5.13. PamH displayed its highest enzymatic activity at 45°C and at pH 8.0 and was stable within a pH range of 5.0-10.0. The PamH enzyme exhibited amidase activity, aryl acylamidase activity, and acyl transferase activity, allowing it to function across a very broad substrate spectrum. PamH was highly active on aromatic and short-chain aliphatic amides (benzamide and propionamide), moderately active on amino acid amides, and possessed weak urease activity. Of the anilides examined, only propanil was a good substrate for PamH. For propanil, the K cat and K m were 2.8 s -1 and 158 μM, respectively, and the catalytic efficiency value (K cat/K m) was 0.018 μM -1 s -1. In addition, PamH was able to catalyze the acyl transfer reaction to hydroxylamine for both amide and anilide substrates, including acetamide, propanil, and 4-nitroacetanilide; the highest reaction rate was shown with isobutyramide. These characteristics make PamH an excellent candidate for environmental remediation and an important enzyme for the biosynthesis of novel amides. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Cai H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Tian S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Dong H.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Molecular Biotechnology | Year: 2012

The MYB proteins constitute one of the largest transcription factor families in plants. Much research has been performed to determine their structures, functions, and evolution, especially in the model plants, Arabidopsis, and rice. However, this transcription factor family has been much less studied in wheat (Triticum aestivum), for which no genome sequence is yet available. Despite this, expressed sequence tags are an important resource that permits opportunities for large scale gene identification. In this study, a total of 218 sequences from wheat were identified and confirmed to be putative MYB proteins, including 1RMYB, R2R3-type MYB, 3RMYB, and 4RMYB types. A total of 36 R2R3-type MYB genes with complete open reading frames were obtained. The putative orthologs were assigned in rice and Arabidopsis based on the phylogenetic tree. Tissue-specific expression pattern analyses confirmed the predicted orthologs, and this meant that gene information could be inferred from the Arabidopsis genes. Moreover, the motifs flanking the MYB domain were analyzed using the MEME web server. The distribution of motifs among wheat MYB proteins was investigated and this facilitated subfamily classification. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

You X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xie C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu K.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Gu Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2010

This study involved the development of the method for removing proteins impurities from lily non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) with fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was different from Sevag and trichloroacetic acid methods. We optimized the extraction conditions of NSP; meanwhile, the optimal deproteinization conditions were determined. Firstly, a Plackett-Burman design was utilized to evaluate the effects of variables on the NSP yield and the ratio of protein removed (RPR). Lily bulb powder, temperature, pH and KH2PO4 exerted significant effects on NSP yield (P < 0.05), whereas lily bulb powder and pH had significant effects (P < 0.01) on RPR. Subsequently, these four factors were optimized using response surface analysis. The analysis revealed that the optimum conditions were 60.0 g/L lily bulb powder, 1.50 g/L KH2PO4, pH4.8 and temperature 26.9 °C. In the verification experiments, the experimental NSP yield of 8.81 ± 0.18% and RPR of 91.71 ± 0.08% perfectly matched with the predicted values (8.99% for NSP yield and 91.70% for RPR), which verified the practicability of this optimum strategy. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zhao L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Dong Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chen G.,China Pharmaceutical University | Hu Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2010

Ultrasonic-aid extraction (UAE) was applied to the extraction of polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum and then the crude polysaccharides were purified by filtration, DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 size-exclusion chromatography in that order. Two main fractions, GP-1 and GP-2, were obtained through the extraction and purification steps. The characterizations, such as molecular weight, monosaccharides composition, ultraviolet spectrum and infrared spectrum of the two fractions were analyzed in this study. Furthermore, the influence of G. lucidum polysaccharides fractions upon activation of macrophage cell (RAW 264.7) and antitumor activities to the human breast cancer cell (MDA-MB-231) in vitro were evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. The results indicated that GP-1 and GP-2 can increase the proliferation and pinocytic activity of macrophage significantly and play an inhibited effect on the cancer cell, moreover, the antitumor activity of the GP-1 and GP-2 increased with the participation of the antitumor factors induced from macrophage by polysaccharides fractions. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ge C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Sun J.-T.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cui Y.-N.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Hong X.-Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2013

Tetranychus truncatus Ehara is a phytophagous spider mite that is now one of the most important pests of agricultural and economic crops in East and Southeast Asia. However, population genetics and other studies of T. truncatus have been impeded by the lack of microsatellite markers, which are expensive and time-consuming to identify. Previous studies indicated a high potential of cross-amplification of microsatellites in Tetranychus species, meaning that the microsatellite flanking sequences are sufficiently homologous among Tetranychus species that the primers for one species may work in another species. Here, we tested 205 primer pairs designed from the whole genome sequence of Tetranychus urticae Koch, a sister species of T. truncatus, for microsatellite markers in three populations of T. truncatus in China (N = 94). About half (102) of these primer pairs yielded the desired PCR products, 36 of which revealed polymorphism in T. truncatus. Each of the 36 markers harbored between 2 and 23 alleles, with a mean polymorphic information content of 0.589 (0.119-0.922 range). The mean observed and expected heterozygosity across loci and the three populations were 0.468 and 0.628, respectively. Of the 36 primer pairs, 22 also worked in Tetranychus piercei, but only a few of them worked in T. ludeni and T. phaselus. Cross-amplification is thus a cost-effective way to develop microsatellite markers, which can be of great value in population genetics studies. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Jin L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wei Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yang Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Evolutionary Applications | Year: 2013

Evolution of resistance by insect pests threatens the long-term benefits of transgenic crops that produce insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Previous work has detected increases in the frequency of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in populations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, from northern China where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown extensively for more than a decade. Confirming that trend, we report evidence from 2011 showing that the percentage of individuals resistant to a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac was significantly higher in two populations from different provinces of northern China (1.4% and 2.3%) compared with previously tested susceptible field populations (0%). We isolated two resistant strains: one from each of the two field-selected populations. Relative to a susceptible strain, the two strains had 460- and 1200-fold resistance to Cry1Ac, respectively. Both strains had dominant resistance to a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac in diet and to Bt cotton leaves containing Cry1Ac. Both strains had low, but significant cross-resistance to Cry2Ab (4.2- and 5.9-fold), which is used widely as the second toxin in two-toxin Bt cotton. Compared with resistance in other strains of H. armigera, the resistance in the two strains characterized here may be especially difficult to suppress. © 2013 The Authors. Evolutionary Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Wu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Tan X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wu C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cao K.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Plant | Year: 2013

Proper vesicle tethering and membrane fusion at the cell plate are essential for cytokinesis. Both the vesicle tethering complex exocyst and membrane fusion regulator KEULE were shown to function in cell plate formation, but the exact mechanisms still remain to be explored. In this study, using yeast two-hybrid (Y-2-H) assay, we found that SEC6 interacted with KEULE, and that a small portion of C-terminal region of KEULE was required for the interaction. The direct SEC6-KEULE interaction was supported by further studies using in vitro pull-down assay, immunoprecipitation, and in vivo bimolecular florescence complementation (BIFC) microscopy. sec6 mutants were male gametophytic lethal as reported; however, pollen-rescued sec6 mutants (PRsec6) displayed cytokinesis defects in the embryonic cells and later in the leaf pavement cells and the guard cells. SEC6 and KEULE proteins were co-localized to the cell plate during cytokinesis in transgenic Arabidopsis. Furthermore, only SEC6 but not other exocyst subunits located in the cell plate interacted with KEULE in vitro. These results demonstrated that, like KEULE, SEC6 plays a physiological role in cytokinesis, and the SEC6-KEULE interaction may serve as a novel molecular linkage between arriving vesicles and membrane fusion machinery or directly regulate membrane fusion during cell plate formation in plants.© The Author 2013.

Li M.-Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jiang Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2013

The AP2/ERF family is one of the largest groups of transcription factors in plants. Members of this family are involved in various biological processes, such as plant development, pathogen defense and stress responses. Here, we identified a total of 289 AP2/ERF transcription factors from Chinese cabbage based on the genome sequence. According to sequence similarity and the number of AP2/ERF domains, the 289 AP2/ERF proteins were classified into five groups (DREB, ERF, AP2, RAV and Soloist). The amino acid sequence, composition, physical and chemical characterization, phylogenetic tree and conserved domain were predicted and analyzed. The analysis results showed that AP2/ERF transcription factors from Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis share high similarity. The sequences of 286 AP2/ERF genes were distributed unevenly among the ten chromosomes of the Chinese cabbage genome. Three genes could not be assigned to any specific chromosome, and were located on scaffold sequences. Gene duplication events of AP2/ERF family genes exist on Chinese cabbage chromosomes. Eight AP2/ERF genes, chosen from five subfamilies, respectively, were further investigated for their stress response by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. In total, eight genes were expressed differentially during cold or heat stress conditions. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Li H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li H.,Henan Agricultural University | Wang L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yang Z.M.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Gene | Year: 2015

Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plant growth and development. Iron deficiency results in abnormal metabolisms from respiration to photosynthesis. Exploration of Fe-deficient responsive genes and their networks is critically important to understand molecular mechanisms leading to the plant adaptation to soil Fe-limitation. Co-expression genes are a cluster of genes that have a similar expression pattern to execute relatively biological functions at a stage of development or under a certain environmental condition. They may share a common regulatory mechanism. In this study, we investigated Fe-starved-related co-expression genes from Arabidopsis. From the biological process GO annotation of TAIR (The Arabidopsis Information Resource), 180 iron-deficient responsive genes were detected. Using ATTED-II database, we generated six gene co-expression networks. Among these, two modules of PYE and IRT1 were successfully constructed. There are 30 co-expression genes that are incorporated in the two modules (12 in PYE-module and 18 in IRT1-module). Sixteen of the co-expression genes were well characterized. The remaining genes (14) are poorly or not functionally identified with iron stress. Validation of the 14 genes using real-time PCR showed differential expression under iron-deficiency. Most of the co-expression genes (23/30) could be validated in pye and fit mutant plants with iron-deficiency. We further identified iron-responsive cis-elements upstream of the co-expression genes and found that 22 out of 30 genes contain the iron-responsive motif IDE1. Furthermore, some auxin and ethylene-responsive elements were detected in the promoters of the co-expression genes. These results suggest that some of the genes can be also involved in iron stress response through the phytohormone-responsive pathways. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Niu Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu X.-F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yang S.-X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2013

Seed size and shape traits are closely related to seed yield and appearance quality in soybean (Glycine max L.). Previous studies were mainly derived from bi-parental segregating populations and relatively little is known about the results in soybean cultivars. In this study, 257 soybean cultivars obtained by stratified random sampling from six geographic ecotypes in China were used to carry out association mapping for these traits using information from 135 simple sequence repeat markers and an epistatic association mapping approach implemented using an empirical Bayes algorithm. In this analysis, seed size was measured by seed length (SL), width (SW) and thickness (ST), and seed shape was evaluated by seed length-to-width (SLW), length-to-thickness (SLT) and width-to-thickness (SWT) ratios, in 2008-2010. A total of 59 main-effect quantitative trait loci (QTL) and 31 QTL-by-environment interactions were identified. Among them, 25 QTL were associated simultaneously with at least two traits; 80 QTL (90 %) could be confirmed by enriched compression mixed linear model analysis; and the size for a large number of detected QTL was minor, except for qSL-5, qSW-7e, qST-5-2 and qSLW-2. According to the estimates for the allelic effects of the detected QTL, elite alleles could be mined: for example, the 307-bp allele of QTL linked to satt453 was the best for seed length. These elite alleles could be used to design parental combinations; e. g., the cross of Zhenghezhibanzi and Nannongdahuangdou might improve seed length, and the combination of cultivars Lindou10, Deqingxiangzhudou, Ninghaixiazhidou, Zhenghezhibanzi, 0803, Shangqiu7605 and 0831 might pyramid 42 elite alleles. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Li H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jiang W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xing Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li F.,Nanjing Agricultural University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a serious pest worldwide that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, genetic resources for the beet armyworm is extremely scarce. To improve these resources we sequenced the transcriptome of S. exigua representing all stages including eggs, 1st to 5th instar larvae, pupae, male and female adults using the Illumina Solexa platform. We assembled the transcriptome with Trinity that yielded 31,414 contigs. Of these contigs, 18,592 were annotated as protein coding genes by Blast searches against the NCBI nr database. It has been shown that knockdown of important insect genes by dsRNAs or siRNAs is a feasible mechanism to control insect pests. The first key step towards developing an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique is to find suitable target genes. To screen for effective target genes in the beet armyworm, we selected nine candidate genes. The sequences of these genes were amplified using the RACE strategy. Then, siRNAs were designed and chemically synthesized. We injected 2 μl siRNA (2 μg/μl) into the 4th instar larvae to knock down the respective target genes. The mRNA abundance of target genes decreased to different levels (∼20-94.3%) after injection of siRNAs. Knockdown of eight genes including chitinase7, PGCP, chitinase1, ATPase, tubulin1, arf2, tubulin2 and arf1 caused a significantly high level of mortality compared to the negative control (P<0.05). About 80% of the surviving insects in the siRNA-treated group of five genes (PGCP, chitinase1, tubulin1, tubulin2 and helicase) showed retarded development. In chitinase1-siRNA and chitinase7-siRNA administered groups, 12.5% survivors exhibited "half-ecdysis". In arf1-siRNA and arf2-siRNA groups, the body color of 15% became black 48 h after injections. In summary, the transcriptome could be a valuable genetic resource for identification of genes in S. exigua and this study provided putative targets for RNAi pest control. © 2013 Li et al.

Raza W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yang W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jun Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shakoor F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

The extracellular polysaccharide produced by a newly isolated strain Pseudomonas fluorescens WR-1 was purified and characterized and its production was optimized using response surface methodology. The results showed that the strain WR-1 produced one kind of EPS that was composed of arabinose, glucose and uronic acid. The molecular weight of the EPS was determined to be 6.78 × 106 Da. The preferable culture conditions for EPS production were pH 7.0, temperature 28 °C for 72 h with peptone and maltose as best N and C sources, respectively. The model predicted that the maximum EPS production (39.6 g L-1) was appeared with maltose 48.65 g L-1, Mn 2+ 1118 μM and Zn2+ 901 μM. The EPS also showed good H2O2 scavenging activity while moderate free radical scavenging activity and reductive ability were determined. The EPS from WR-1 may be a new source of natural antioxidants with potential value for health, food and industry. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chai H.-N.,Yangzhou University | Du Y.-Z.,Yangzhou University | Zhai B.-P.,Nanjing Agricultural University
International Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

The complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were determined and analyzed. The circular genomes were 15,388 bp long for C. medinalis and 15,395 bp long for C. suppressalis. Both mitogenomes contained 37 genes, with gene order similar to that of other lepidopterans. Notably, 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs) utilized the standard ATN, but the cox1 gene used CGA as the initiation codon; the cox1, cox2, and nad4 genes in the two mitogenomes had the truncated termination codons T, T, and TA, respectively, but the nad5 gene was found to use T as the termination codon only in the C. medinalis mitogenome. Additionally, the codon distribution and Relative Synonymous Codon Usage of the 13 PCGs in the C. medinalis mitogenome were very different from those in other pyralid moth mitogenomes. Most of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures. However, the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of the trnS1(AGN) gene did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Forty-nine helices in six domains, and 33 helices in three domains were present in the secondary structures of the rrnL and rrnS genes of the two mitogenomes, respectively. There were four major intergenic spacers, except for the A+T-rich region, spanning at least 12 bp in the two mitogenomes. The A+T-rich region contained an ′ATAGT(A)′-like motif followed by a poly-T stretch in the two mitogenomes. In addition, there were a potential stem-loop structure, a duplicated 25-bp repeat element, and a microsatellite ′(TA)13′ observed in the A+T-rich region of the C. me-dinalis mitogenome. A poly-T motif, a duplicated 31-bp repeat element, and a 19-bp triplica-tion were found in the C. suppressalis mitogenome. However, there are many differences in the A+T-rich regions between the C. suppressalis mitogenome sequence in the present study and previous reports. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships of these insects were recon-structed based on amino acid sequences of mitochondrial 13 PCGs using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods. These molecular-based phylogenies support the traditional morphologically based view of relationships within the Pyralidae. © Ivyspring International Publisher.

RNA extraction is the first step in the study of gene isolation and expression. However, it is difficult to extract high quantity and quality RNA from tissues containing large quantities of polysaccharides and polyphenols. Peach (Prunus persica), in addition to containing high levels of polysaccharides and polyphenols, is a challenging starting material for RNA isolation using a single method because of different amounts of those substances in diverse tissues. Based on three reported methods, we developed a modified RNA isolation protocol to solve this problem, leading to high quality and quantity of total RNA from peach mesocarp tissues of fruits which were sampled from all developmental stages and different storage periods, as well as from other tissues including flowers, leaves, stems, and roots. With our modified method, 28-650 μg of total RNA was routinely obtained from per gram of fresh material, gave at least a 1.16-fold improvement by compared with those isolated by other seven methods. The RNA extracts were successfully used in downstream applications such as RT-PCR, RACE, and real-time PCR.

Kong H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | He J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Gao Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wu H.,Nanjing University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] stalk-based biochar was prepared using oxygen-limited pyrolysis. We evaluated phenanthrene (PHE) and Hg(II) sorption, from single and binary component solutions, onto prepared biochar. We found that the prepared biochar efficiently removed PHE and Hg(II) from aqueous solutions. The isotherms for PHE and Hg(II) sorption could be described using linear and Tóth models, respectively, both with high regression coefficients (R 2 > 0.995). When PHE and Hg(II) coexisted in an aqueous solution, we observed direct competitive sorption, each one suppressing another. Our results provide insight into the recycling of agricultural residues, and also a new application for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals from contaminated water utilizing biochar from agricultural residue. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Song X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Qiang S.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Pest Management Science | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Studies of hybrid fitness, of which agronomic performance may be an indicator, can help in evaluating the potential for introgression of a transgene from a transgenic crop to wild relatives. The objective of this study was to assess the agronomic performance of reciprocal hybrids between two transgenic glufosinate-resistant rice lines, Y0003 and 99-t, and two weedy rice accessions, WR1 and WR2, in the greenhouse. RESULTS: F 1 hybrids displayed heterosis in height, flag leaf area and number of spikelets per panicle. The agronomic performance of F1 between WR1 and Y0003 was not affected by crossing direction. The tiller and panicle numbers of F1 individuals were higher than their F2 counterparts. However, these traits did not change significantly from the F2 to the F3 generation or in hybrids with weedy rice as maternal or paternal plants. For all hybrids, the in vitro germination rates of fresh pollen were similar and significantly lower than those of their parents, seed sets were similar to or of lower value than those of weedy rice parents and seed shattering characteristics were partially suppressed, but the survival of hybrids over winter in the field was similar to that of weedy rice parents. All F1, F2 and F3 hybrids had similar composite agronomic performance to weedy rice parents. CONCLUSION: There was no significant decrease in the composite agronomic performance of any of the hybrids compared with weedy rice. This implies that gene flow from transgenic cultivated rice to weedy rice could occur under natural conditions. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

Zhou J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cheng J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2011

The robotic ego-motion and the motion of moving obstacle were overlapped when an agricultural mobile robot need to detect the moving obstacle based on machine vision. So two images were taken from the mobile robot and the Harris feature points were extracted and matched. Then a bilinear model was applied to model the movement between the two images, and a least square optimization method was used to calculate the model parameters. A transformation matrix was obtained with this model to compensate the first image to eliminate the effect of the ego-motion of the mobile robot. Finally, a frame difference between the compensated image and the second image was carried out to detect the moving obstacle in the environment. Experimental results showed that this algorithm could eliminate the image movement caused by the ego-motion of the mobile robot, and the moving obstacles were able to be detected effectively with machine vision for the agricultural mobile robot.

Wang H.-H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ye K.-P.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang Q.-Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Dong Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2013

Using polystyrene surfaces for attachment, we evaluated biofilm formation and cell surface hydrophobicities of 17 Salmonella enterica strains (belonging to 9 different serovars), and further assessed the effect of cell-free culture supernatants (CFS) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (containing acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs)), on the growth and biofilm development of S. enterica. The results indicated that most of the 17 strains readily formed biofilms on polystyrene surfaces, but the development of biofilms were significantly influenced by serovars and incubation conditions. Strains of S1 (S. London), S2 (S. London), S9 (S. Indiana) and S16 (S. Typhimurium) produ