Time filter

Source Type

Nanjing, China

Nanjing Agricultural University, NAU, is a public university located in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, China. It offers courses in agriculture and science. Wikipedia.

Tsimilli-Michael M.,Ath. Phylactou str. | Strasser R.J.,Rte du Petit Lullier | Strasser R.J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Strasser R.J.,North West University South Africa | Strasser R.J.,University of Geneva
Photosynthesis Research | Year: 2013

Several models have been proposed for the energetic behavior of the photosynthetic apparatus and a variety of experimental techniques are nowadays available to determine parameters that can quantify this behavior. The Energy Flux Theory (EFT) developed by Strasser 35 years ago provides a straightforward way to formulate any possible energetic communication between any complex arrangement of interconnected pigment systems and any energy transduction by these systems. We here revisit the EFT, starting from the basic general definitions and equations and presenting applications in formulating the energy distribution in photosystem (PS) II units with variable connectivity, as originally derived, where certain simplifications were adopted. We then proceed to the derivation of equations for a PSII model of higher complexity, which corresponds, from the formalistic point of view, to the later formulated and now broadly accepted exciton-radical-pair model. We also compare the formulations derived with the EFT with those obtained, by different approaches, in the classic papers on energetic connectivity. Moreover, we apply the EFT for the evaluation of the excitation energy distribution between PSII and PSI and the distinction between state transitions and PSII to PSI excitation energy migration. Our analysis demonstrates that the EFT is a powerful approach for the formulation of any possible model, at any complexity level, even of models that may be proposed in the future, with the advantage that any possible energetic communication or energy transduction can be easily formulated mathematically by trivial algebraic equations. Moreover, the biophysical parameters introduced by the EFT and applicable for any possible model can be linked with obtainable experimental signals, provided that the theoretical resolution of the model does not go beyond the experimental resolution. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Hu B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang Q.-R.,Rutgers University
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science (English Edition) | Year: 2013

Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the development of efficient food-grade oral nano-delivery systems for encapsulation, protection and target delivery of nutraceuticals to enhance their bioavailability, further to prevent disease and promote human health and well-being. Food proteins represent promising candidates for efficient nutraceutical nanocarriers due to their exceptional characteristics, namely biodegradability, nonantigenicity, high nutritional value, abundant renewable sources and extraordinary binding capacity to various nutraceuticals. In addition, their biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity, low cost, and non-starch polysaccharides possess many favourable characteristics such as stability in the harsh gastric environment, resistance to digestive enzymes, and mucoadhesiveness to intestinal mucosal surface. This review describes the design and formation of nanoscaled delivery systems for nutraceuticals using food-grade proteins (including peptides), polysaccharides and their associative complexes. The toxicity and cellular uptake fate of the nanostructures, as well as their effects on the intestinal absorption of the encapsulated nutraceuticals were also discussed. © 2013 Chinese Chemical Society, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Cao F.L.,Nanjing Forestry University | Zhang X.H.,Nanjing Forestry University | Yu W.W.,Nanjing Forestry University | Zhao L.G.,Nanjing Forestry University | Wang T.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

Aspergillus niger-fermented Ginkgo biloba leaves (FR) and its comparative effect with vitamin E (VE) and nonfermented (NF) Ginkgo leaves on growth, lipid metabolism, antioxidant capacity, and meat quality of broiler chicks were investigated. In total, 360 oneday- old broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 6 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as control group (basal diet), VE group (containing respectively 15 and 30 IU/kg of all-rac-α-tocopherol acetate in the starter and grower phase), NF group (containing respectively 0.35% and 0.7% NF in the starter and grower phase), and FR1, FR2, and FR3 groups containing respectively 0.2, 0.35, and 0.5% FR in the starter and 0.4, 0.7, and 1.0% FR in the grower phase. The results on performance showed that a significant (P < 0.05) reduction of feed:gain ratio of birds in the FR2 group (22-42 d and 1-42 d) was observed when compared with that of the control and NF groups. With dietary FR increasing, the serum α-tocopherol concentration increased linearly (P = 0.001). Compared with the control, broilers had higher (P < 0.05) serum high-density lipoprotein concentration, total superoxide dismutase activities, and total antioxidant capacity when they were provided with the FR2 and FR3 diet. Whereas the low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride concentrations were lower (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) in broilers from FR2 or FR3 groups. As the dietary FR increased, abdominal fat (P = 0.002) and muscle malondialdehyde (P = 0.001) concentrations decreased. Furthermore, 24-h pH, 24-h drip loss, and cooking loss were greatly improved (P < 0.05) as the levels of FR increased. Birds fed with FR had a lower (P < 0.05) C16:0 and C18:0 concentrations but a greater (P = 0.001) concentration of C18:2, C18:3, and C20:4 than that of the control. In conclusion, FR can improve the growth performance and lipid metabolism of broilers with decreased abdominal fat deposition. Also, the antioxidant capacity and meat quality improving effects observed in broilers fed FR products might result from the increased retention of α-tocopherol and reduction in lipid peroxidation, as evidenced by the decrease in malondialdehyde and the increase in total superoxide dismutase activities. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Yang H.W.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of Russian Laser Research | Year: 2012

We apply the shift-operator FDTD (SO-FDTD) method for calculating dispersive media plasmas. We write the dielectric constant of a dispersive medium as a rational fractional function and derive the relation between D and E in the time domain. For a uniform, approximately isothermic, isotropic, warm-collision-plasma slab, the reflection coefficient of electromagnetic waves can be calculated using the SO-FDTD method. We study the influence of temperature on the collisions and absorption of electromagnetic waves in the plasma and discuss the regularity of the relationships obtained. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Wu M.-S.,Nanjing University | Wu M.-S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | He L.-J.,Nanjing University | Xu J.-J.,Nanjing University | Chen H.-Y.,Nanjing University
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2014

This work describes a new electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) system with graphene oxide(GO)-Au/RuSi@Ru(bpy) 3 2+/chitosan (CS) composites as the ECL donor and Au@Ag2S nanoparticles (NPs) as ECL the acceptor for the first time. The ECL signal observed by the application of GO-Au/RuSi@Ru(bpy) 3 2+/CS composites was enhanced for 5-fold compared to that of RuSi@Ru(bpy)3 2+/CS in the presence of coreactant tripropylamine (TPA) due to the increased surface area and improved electrical conductivity by using graphene oxide-gold nanoparticles (GO-Au) composite materials. In addition, we synthesized Au@Ag2S core-shell NPs, whose UV-vis absorption spectrum shows good spectral overlap with the ECL spectrum of GO-Au/RuSi@Ru(bpy)3 2+/CS composites by adjusting the amount of Na2S and AgNO3 in the process of synthesis. The distance between energy donor and acceptor was studied to get the highly effective ECL-RET. Then, this ECL-RET system was developed for sensitive and specific detection of target DNA, and the ECL quenching efficiency (ΔI/I0, ΔI = I0 - I) was found to be logarithmically related to the concentration of the target DNA in the range from 10 aM to 10 pM. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Sun J.,Qingdao Agricultural University | Wu Z.,Qingdao Agricultural University | Xu X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li P.,Qingdao Agricultural University
Meat Science | Year: 2012

In this study, we investigated the impact of peanut protein isolate (PPI) on the functional properties of chicken salt-soluble protein (SSP) prepared from breast and thigh muscles during heat-induced gelation. The addition of PPI increased the water-holding capacity, gel strength and elasticity of heat-induced chicken SSP mixed gel. Breast and thigh SSP had the best gel properties at the addition of 2.5% and 3.5% PPI, respectively. Rheology indicated that thigh SSP showed higher storage modulus (G') than breast SSP. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the addition of PPI changed transition temperatures (T max) and enthalpy of denaturation (δH) of chicken SSP. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the PPI-treated SSP gels had more compact ultrastructures than controls. The results suggested that PPI may be a potential protein additive for improve the characteristics of SSP gelations. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Sang X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu X.,Nanjing Southeast University
Soft Computing | Year: 2016

TOPSIS is a popular used model for multiple attribute decision-making problems. Recently, Chen and Lee (Exp Syst Appl 37(4):2790–2798, 2010) extended TOPSIS method to interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2 FSs) environment. They first compute the ranking values of the elements in fuzzy-weighted decision matrix, and used the ranking values to compute the crisp relative closeness through traditional TOPSIS computing process. Such ranking computation leads to the information loss of the weighted decision matrix. In this paper, we introduce an analytical solution to IT2 FSs-based TOPSIS model. First, we propose the fractional nonlinear programming (NLP) problems for fuzzy relative closeness. Second, based on Karnik–Mendel (KM) algorithm, the switch points of the NLP models are identified, and the analytical solution to IT2 FSs-based TOPSIS model can be obtained. Compared with Chen and Lee’s method, the proposed method operates the IT2 FSs directly and keeps the IT2 FSs formats in the whole process, and the result of which is precise in analytical form. In addition, some properties of the proposed analytical method are discussed, and the computing process is summarized as well. To illustrate the analytical solution, an example is given and the result is compared with that of Chen and Lee’s method (Exp Syst Appl 37(4):2790–2798, 2010). © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Yang Z.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Yang Z.,CAS South China Botanical Garden | Cao S.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Zheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jiang Y.,CAS South China Botanical Garden
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The effects of salicylic acid (SA; 1 mmol L -1) and ultrasound treatment (40 kHz, 10 min) either separately or combined on the chilling injury (CI) in cold-stored peach fruit (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Baifeng) were investigated. The results showed that SA treatment alone alleviated CI during storage. Ultrasound alone had no influence, but when it was combined with SA, it resulted in greater inhibition of CI than SA alone. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase, were induced by a combination of SA with ultrasound. In addition, the combined treatment also increased the endogenous SA concentrations in peaches. These results suggested that the induced tolerance against CI by the combination of ultrasound and SA treatment in cold-stored peach fruit was related to the induction of antioxidant enzymes and the increase in the SA concentration. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Wu X.,Nanjing University | You X.,Nanjing University | You X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shi W.,Nanjing University | Wang B.,Nanjing University
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2010

For systems of oscillatory second-order differential equations y″+My=f with M″Rm×m, a symmetric positive semi-definite matrix, X. Wu et al. have proposed the multidimensional ARKN methods [X. Wu, X. You, J. Xia, Order conditions for ARKN methods solving oscillatory systems, Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 2250-2257], which are an essential generalization of J.M. Franco's ARKN methods for one-dimensional problems or for systems with a diagonal matrix M=w2I [J.M. Franco, Runge-Kutta-Nyström methods adapted to the numerical integration of perturbed oscillators, Comput. Phys. Comm. 147 (2002) 770-787]. One of the merits of these methods is that they integrate exactly the unperturbed oscillators y″+My=0. Regretfully, even for the unperturbed oscillators the internal stages Yi of an ARKN method fail to equal the values of the exact solution y(t) at tn+cih, respectively. Recently H. Yang et al. proposed the ERKN methods to overcome this drawback [H.L. Yang, X.Y. Wu, Xiong You, Yonglei Fang, Extended RKN-type methods for numerical integration of perturbed oscillators, Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 1777-1794]. However, the ERKN methods in that paper are only considered for the special case where M is a diagonal matrix with nonnegative entries. The purpose of this paper is to extend the ERKN methods to the general case with M″Rm×m, and the perturbing function f depends only on y. Numerical experiments accompanied demonstrates that the ERKN methods are more efficient than the existing methods for the computation of oscillatory systems. In particular, if M″Rm×m is a symmetric positive semi-definite matrix, it is highly important for the new ERKN integrators to show the energy conservation in the numerical experiments for problems with Hamiltonian H(p,q)=12pTp+12qTMq+V(q) in comparison with the well-known methods in the scientific literature. Those so called separable Hamiltonians arise in many areas of physical sciences, e.g., macromolecular dynamics, astronomy, and classical mechanics. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Jiang Y.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Sun B.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Jin C.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Jin C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang F.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

The addition of fresh organic matter is known to modify both soil aggregation and soil biotic community composition. We hypothesized that fertilization alters the composition of soil nematode and microbial communities in soil aggregates, and the interaction between nematodes and microbes can stimulate or inhibit microbial activity. We used a field experiment with 9 years of manure application to investigate changes in nematodes and microbial communities among aggregate size fractions in an acid soil planted with maize in subtropical China. Nematodes, microbial communities, and metabolic quotient (qCO2) were examined within three aggregate size fractions from soils under four fertilization regimes. Three aggregate fractions include large macroaggregates (>2000 μm; LA), small macroaggregates (250-2000 μm; SA), and inter-aggregate soil and space (<250 μm; IA). Four manure treatments include no manure (M0), low-rate manure with 150 kg N ha-1 y-1 (M1), high-rate manure with 600 kg N ha-1 y-1 (M2), and high-rate manure with 600 kg N ha-1 y-1 and lime at 3000 kg Ca(OH)2 ha-1 3 y-1 (M3). Fertilization influenced the proportion of the aggregate size fractions. The proportion of the LA fraction significantly increased under M2 and M3 treatments compared to M0 and M1 treatments, while the SA fraction significantly decreased. Aggregate fractions significantly affected the total number of nematodes and the abundance of bacterivorous nematodes (dominant genus Protorhabditis) and plant parasitic nematodes (dominant genus Pratylenchus), with values following the trend of LA > SA > IA. A high value for the nematode structure index (SI) in the LA fraction suggested a complex community structure with many linkages in the food web. Aggregate fractions also influenced microbial biomass and diversity. PLFA signature analysis revealed that microbial biomass and diversity (Shannon index) increased with decreasing aggregate size. However, the SA fraction had a significantly higher soil metabolic quotient (qCO2) than the IA fraction. Only fertilization had a significant effect on the compositions of nematode groups, while both fertilization and aggregate fractions significantly affected microbial community composition. The variations in the composition of nematode and microbial communities could be explained independently by fertilization treatments (44% and 48%, respectively) and aggregate size (6.0% and 21%, respectively). Aggregated boosted trees (ABT) analysis indicated that total C exerted the strongest influence on microbial biomass, while pH influenced the total number of nematodes. The abundance of bacterivores showed a significant positive association with bacterial biomass across fertilization treatments and aggregate fractions (r2 = 0.17, P = 0.026), which could partly explain the significant negative correlation between the total number of nematodes and qCO2 (r2 = 0.25, P = 0.002). The grazing on microbes by microbivores may decrease microbial activity. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Zou X.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering | Year: 2013

To design a rice planthopper recognition system based on digital signal processor and target recognition algorithm over wavelet transform. The hardware system included mobile device using single-chip microcomputer as the core of control, and algorithm processing platform using digital signal processor as the core. The software system consists of image segmentation based on single-threshold segmentation, and target extraction of rice planthopper is based on wavelet transform. It used video camera to shoot crop video. Then input video signal to the digital signal processor of the recognition system and extract pictures, and identify the image of rice planthoppers. This system can realize that people do not need to visit the farm estate and easy to grasp the overview of rice planthopper and to keep abreast of the internal field details of the pest and to develop appropriate treatment measures. © 2013 Springer-Verlag. Source

Fan Z.,University of California at Davis | Wu W.,University of California at Davis | Hildebrand A.,University of California at Davis | Kasuga T.,University of California at Davis | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The conventional biochemical platform featuring enzymatic hydrolysis involves five key steps: pretreatment, cellulase production, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, and product recovery. Sugars are produced as reactive intermediates for subsequent fermentation to fuels and chemicals. Herein, an alternative biochemical route is proposed. Pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and cellulase production is consolidated into one single step, referred to as consolidated aerobic processing, and sugar aldonates are produced as the reactive intermediates for biofuels production by fermentation. In this study, we demonstrate the viability of consolidation of the enzymatic hydrolysis and cellulase production steps in the new route using Neurospora crassa as the model microorganism and the conversion of cellulose to ethanol as the model system. We intended to prove the two hypotheses: 1) cellulose can be directed to produce cellobionate by reducing β-glucosidase production and by enhancing cellobiose dehydrogenase production; and 2) both of the two hydrolysis products of cellobionate-glucose and gluconate-can be used as carbon sources for ethanol and other chemical production. Our results showed that knocking out multiple copies of β-glucosidase genes led to cellobionate production from cellulose, without jeopardizing the cellulose hydrolysis rate. Simulating cellobiose dehydrogenase over-expression by addition of exogenous cellobiose dehydrogenase led to more cellobionate production. Both of the two hydrolysis products of cellobionate: glucose and gluconate can be used by Escherichia coli KO 11 for efficient ethanol production. They were utilized simultaneously in glucose and gluconate co-fermentation. Gluconate was used even faster than glucose. The results support the viability of the two hypotheses that lay the foundation for the proposed new route. © 2012 Fan et al. Source

Katayama H.,Kobe University | Tachibana M.,Oyo Corporation | Iketani H.,Japan National Food Research Institute | Zhang S.-L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Uematsu C.,Osaka City University
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2012

The genome structure of pear chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) is extremely highly conserved in comparison with that of other angiosperms, and therefore, relatively few phylogenetic analyses for pear (Pyrus spp.) have been carried out using cpDNA as a marker. In this study, we identified two hypervariable regions in intergenic spacers of cpDNA from 21 species in Pyrus. One of these regions is 857 bp in length and lies between the accD-psaI genes, and the other is a 904-bp region between the rps16-trnQ genes. The mutation rate of gaps for the two regions was 10 and 26 times higher, respectively, than the base change rate. Twenty-five haplotypes were revealed among 21 species in Pyrus by 36 mutations found in the two regions. These included 27 gaps and 9 base changes but excluded cpSSRs. Phylogenetic relationships between the 25 haplotypes were generated by haplotype network analysis. The 25 haplotypes represented three groups (types A-C) with two large deletions, one 228 bp in length between the accD-psaI genes and the other 141 bp between the rps16-trnQ genes. Types A and B consisted mostly of pears native to East and South Asia. Type C contained mainly Pyrus communis and wild relatives native to Europe, West and Central Asia, Russia, and Africa. Type B might have diverged from primitives such as pea pears in type A. Phylogenetic utility of structural alterations (gaps) occurring in the hypervariable regions of Pyrus cpDNA is discussed. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Merel P.,University of California at Davis | Yi F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lee J.,ETH Zurich | Six J.,ETH Zurich
American Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2014

We develop a programming model of crop production to predict the effects of environmental policies on agriculture and the environment. The model is calibrated against acreages, yields, and exogenous supply elasticities following positive mathematical programming. In addition, crop production functions are calibrated to yield elasticities with respect to nitrogen and irrigation obtained from a biogeochemical model. We study the effects of a nitrogen tax in Yolo County, California, intended to mitigate nitrogen pollution from field crops. The behavioral and environmental responses to the tax are largely due to intensive margin adjustments. Sizable reductions in nitrate leaching are achieved at a low social cost. © 2013 The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association. All rights reserved. Source

Miller M.,University of Texas at Austin | Song Q.,University of Texas at Austin | Shi X.,University of Texas at Austin | Juenger T.E.,University of Texas at Austin | And 2 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2015

The genetic distance between hybridizing parents affects heterosis; however, the mechanisms for this remain unclear. Here we report that this genetic distance correlates with natural variation and epigenetic regulation of circadian clock-mediated stress responses. In intraspecific hybrids of Arabidopsis thaliana, genome-wide expression of many biotic and abiotic stress-responsive genes is diurnally repressed and this correlates with biomass heterosis and biomass quantitative trait loci. Expression differences of selected stress-responsive genes among diverse ecotypes are predictive of heterosis in their hybrids. Stress-responsive genes are repressed in the hybrids under normal conditions but are induced to mid-parent or higher levels under stress at certain times of the day, potentially balancing the tradeoff between stress responses and growth. Consistent with this hypothesis, repression of two candidate stress-responsive genes increases growth vigour. Our findings may therefore provide new criteria for effectively selecting parents to produce high-or low-yield hybrids. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Lai Z.,Purdue University | Li Y.,Purdue University | Li Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang F.,Purdue University | And 6 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2011

Necrotrophic pathogens are important plant pathogens that cause many devastating plant diseases. Despite their impact, our understanding of the plant defense response to necrotrophic pathogens is limited. The WRKY33 transcription factor is important for plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens; therefore, elucidation of its functions will enhance our understanding of plant immunity to necrotrophic pathogens. Here, we report the identification of two WRKY33-interacting proteins, nuclear-encoded SIGMA FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN1 (SIB1) and SIB2, which also interact with plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase SIGMA FACTOR1. Both SIB1 and SIB2 contain an N-terminal chloroplast targeting signal and a putative nuclear localization signal, suggesting that they are dual targeted. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation indicates that WRKY33 interacts with SIBs in the nucleus of plant cells. Both SIB1 and SIB2 contain a short VQ motif that is important for interaction with WRKY33. The two VQ motif-containing proteins recognize the C-terminal WRKY domain and stimulate the DNA binding activity of WRKY33. Like WRKY33, both SIB1 and SIB2 are rapidly and strongly induced by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Resistance to B. cinerea is compromised in the sib1 and sib2 mutants but enhanced in SIB1-overexpressing transgenic plants. These results suggest that dual-targeted SIB1 and SIB2 function as activators of WRKY33 in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved. Source

Xia Z.L.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2013

Two replicate intestine fatty acid binding protein genes (jlFABP2a and jlFABP2b) were cloned from Cyprinus carpio var. jian using PCR. Both ORFs were 399 bp in length sharing 92.2% similarity with each other, and 88.0% and 90.5% with their counterpart in zebrafish, respectively. The gene structure of jlFABP2s was same as other FABPs, which contained four exons and three introns. Sequences and lengths of introns between 2a and 2b. were obviously different Phylogenetic tree displayed that two jlFABP2s corresponded to one zebrafish FABP2 which matches the fact that the chromosome number of common carp was twice of zebrafish. Real time-PCR showed that jlFABP2 genes mainly expressed in intestine and the expression level was very significantly higher than other tissues such as brain, liver, muscle, kidney, and gonad (P<0.01). The expression level of jlFABP2a was significantly (male, P<0.05) or very significantly (females, P<0.01) higher than 2b in intestine; and 2b was expressed slightly higher than 2a in other tissues. It seemed that 2a expressed specifically in intestine, while 2b expressed ubiquitously. Twelve and four SNP loci were found at jlFABP2a and 2b introns through comparison sequences from 8 individuals, respectively. Genotypes of I1-A15G, I1-A99G, I2-C487T, and I3-A27T on jlFABP2a were detected using PCR-RFLP in selection population of C. carpio var. jian. The SNP genotypes and individual weight gain correlation indicated that four SNPs were significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01) associated with adult weight gain. Diplotype analysis displayed that individuals with genotype AGGGCCXX or AGGGXXAT grew faster than other individuals by 15%. The individuals with these two genotypes only occupied 9% in total selection populations, indicating the presence of large selection space. The 4 SNPs detected in this experiment can be used in C. carpio var. Jian growth selection breeding plan. Source

Sharakhova M.V.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Xia A.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Xia A.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Leman S.C.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Sharakhov I.V.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2011

Background: The malaria mosquito species of subgenus Cellia have rich inversion polymorphisms that correlate with environmental variables. Polymorphic inversions tend to cluster on the chromosomal arms 2R and 2L but not on X, 3R and 3L in Anopheles gambiae and homologous arms in other species. However, it is unknown whether polymorphic inversions on homologous chromosomal arms of distantly related species from subgenus Cellia nonrandomly share similar sets of genes. It is also unclear if the evolutionary breakage of inversion-poor chromosomal arms is under constraints. Results: To gain a better understanding of the arm-specific differences in the rates of genome rearrangements, we compared gene orders and established syntenic relationships among Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles funestus, and Anopheles stephensi. We provided evidence that polymorphic inversions on the 2R arms in these three species nonrandomly captured similar sets of genes. This nonrandom distribution of genes was not only a result of preservation of ancestral gene order but also an outcome of extensive reshuffling of gene orders that created new combinations of homologous genes within independently originated polymorphic inversions. The statistical analysis of distribution of conserved gene orders demonstrated that the autosomal arms differ in their tolerance to generating evolutionary breakpoints. The fastest evolving 2R autosomal arm was enriched with gene blocks conserved between only a pair of species. In contrast, all identified syntenic blocks were preserved on the slowly evolving 3R arm of An. gambiae and on the homologous arms of An. funestus and An. stephensi. Conclusions: Our results suggest that natural selection favors specific gene combinations within polymorphic inversions when distant species are exposed to similar environmental pressures. This knowledge could be useful for the discovery of genes responsible for an association of inversion polymorphisms with phenotypic variations in multiple species. Our data support the chromosomal arm specificity in rates of gene order disruption during mosquito evolution. We conclude that the distribution of breakpoint regions is evolutionary conserved on slowly evolving arms and tends to be lineage-specific on rapidly evolving arms. © 2011 Sharakhova et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Song Q.,University of Texas at Austin | Chen Z.J.,University of Texas at Austin | Chen Z.J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2015

Polyploidy or whole-genome duplication occurs in some animals and many flowering plants, including many important crops such as wheat, cotton and oilseed rape. The prevalence of polyploidy in the plant kingdom suggests it as an important evolutionary feature for plant speciation and crop domestication. Studies of natural and synthetic polyploids have revealed rapid and dynamic changes in genomic structure and gene expression after polyploid formation. Growing evidence suggests that epigenetic modifications can alter homoeologous gene expression and reprogram gene expression networks, which allows polyploids to establish new cytotypes, grow vigorously and promote adaptation in local environments. Sequence and gene expression changes in polyploids have been well documented and reviewed elsewhere. This review is focused on developmental regulation and epigenetic changes including DNA methylation and histone modifications in polyploids. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Spaccini R.,University of Naples Federico II | Spaccini R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Song X.,University of Naples Federico II | Cozzolino V.,University of Naples Federico II | Piccolo A.,University of Naples Federico II
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2013

The molecular composition of soil organic matter (SOM) in three agricultural fields under different managements, was evaluated by off-line thermochemolysis followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis (THM-GC-MS). While this technique enabled the characterization of SOM components in coarse textured soil, its efficiency in heavy textured soils was seriously affected by the interference of clay minerals, which catalyzed the formation of secondary artifacts in pyrolysates. Soil demineralization with hydrofluoric acid (HF) solutions effectively improved the reliable characterization of organic compounds in clayey soils by thermochemolysis, while did not alter significantly the results of coarse textured soil. A wide range of lignin monomers and lipids molecules, of plant and microbial origin, were identified in the pyrograms of HF treated soils, thereby revealing interesting molecular differences between SOM management practices. Our results indicated that clay removal provided by HF pretreatment enhanced the capacity of thermochemolysis to be a valuable and accurate technique to study the SOM dynamics also in heavy-textured and OC-depleted cultivated soils. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Mao L.,Nanjing University | Luo S.,Nanjing University | Huang Q.,University of Georgia | Lu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Scientific Reports | Year: 2013

Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) mediates efficient conversion of many phenolic contaminants and thus has potential applications for pollution control. Such potentially important applications suffer however from the fact that the enzyme becomes quickly inactivated during phenol oxidation and polymerization. The work here provides the first experimental data of heme consumption and iron releases to support the hypothesis that HRP is inactivated by heme destruction. Product of heme destruction is identified using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The heme macrocycle destruction involving deprivation of the heme iron and oxidation of the 4-vinyl group in heme occurs as a result of the reaction. We also demonstrated that heme consumption and iron releases resulting from HRP destruction are largely reduced in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG), providing the first evidence to indicate that heme destruction is effectively suppressed by co-dissolved PEG. These findings advance a better understanding of the mechanisms of HRP inactivation. Source

Stanghellini C.,Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture | Dai J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Kempkes F.,Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2011

The effect of Near Infrared (NIR)-reflective screen material on ventilation requirement, crop transpiration and water use efficiency of a greenhouse rose crop was investigated in an experiment whereby identical climate was ensured in greenhouse compartments installed with either NIR-reflective or conventional material as internal movable screens. The NIR-filter reduced the energy load of the greenhouse by 8%. The high reflectivity of the canopy in the NIR range caused the energy input of the greenhouse to be reduced by less than the properties of the material would suggest (25%). Both the ventilation requirement of the greenhouse and crop transpiration were reduced by the NIR-selective screen, consistently with the reduction in energy load of the greenhouse and the crop. The potential for commercial application of such material - either as movable screen or semi-permanent screen in addition to cooling - seems limited to high-tech greenhouse production in arid regions, where the reduction in cooling requirement could significantly lower water use for evaporative cooling. The potential for application of a photo-selective paint as alternative to the seasonal whitewash in low-tech greenhouses is obviously much larger. For it to make a difference, however, the NIR-reflectance must be much higher than the value of the present commercially available paints. © 2011 IAgrE. Source

Zhang Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Bao X.,Nanjing Southeast University | Ren G.,Nanjing Southeast University | Cai X.,Nanjing Southeast University | Li J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2012

The raw material supply bottleneck is one of the obstacles currently facing the development of China's biodiesel industry. The main objective of this paper is to analyse the demands, possibilities, difficulties and suggestions surrounding the participation of restaurant enterprises in the biodiesel supply chain. Based on an analysis of the overall situation of China's biodiesel supply chain, the authors designed a structured questionnaire to survey 246 restaurant enterprises in Nanjing. The questionnaire mainly included basic aspects of restaurant enterprises, disposal of waste cooking oil (WCO), awareness and attitudes towards WCO recycling, understanding and opinion of biodiesel, and willingness and requirements for participating in the production of biodiesel. Factor analysis was then conducted on the motives of industrial restaurant enterprises for disposing of or recycling their WCO, and cluster analysis was used to classify the 246 restaurant enterprises into three clusters. Finally, the authors suggested ways to promote the development of Nanjing's biodiesel supply chain. The significant findings obtained in this paper will help to encourage restaurant enterprises to become suppliers of biodiesel production and promote the healthy development of the biodiesel industry in China. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Gao Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Kispert L.D.,University of Alabama
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2014

The interaction between ethylene and Cu2+ on a silica model surface was studied by density functional theory (DFT) with nine popular functionals. It is found that B3LYP with BSSE correction is the best method by comparing the calculated results with reported experimental data. This method was also used to study the interactions of Cu2+ with β-carotene, 1,3,5,7,9,11,13-tetradecaheptaene and ethylene on a MCM-41 model surface. The relationship between the reorganization energy of an olefin and its conjugation length was studied, and the roles of the electrostatic interaction between the olefin and the Cu2+ were investigated. It is also found that the different environments of Cu2+ affect the Cu2+-olefin interaction significantly. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014. Source

Li J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chan F.T.S.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University
International Journal of Production Research | Year: 2012

This paper describes the impact of collaborative transportation management (CTM) on the performance of manufacturing supply chains using a multi-agent approach. Two supply chain models (with and without CTM) are proposed to show how it realises the real operational interactions between different supply chain partners under demand disruption. Simulation results of the proposed models reveal the evolution of the CTM supply chain with demand disruption. The dynamic delivery ability and order point which are caused by demand disruption in the CTM supply chain are investigated. The results indicate that CTM can significantly reduce costs and improve the flexibility of companies in handling demand disruption problems. It is suggested that CTM is an efficient mechanism to manage supply chains, especially under a demand disruption environment. © 2012 Taylor & Francis. Source

Numerical simulation of interaction between plasma slab and electromagnetic wave which has different incident frequency and incident angle is discussed in this paper. Some parameters contain reflection coefficient, transmission coefficient, reflectance, transmittance and phase are calculated by transfer matrix method. The relation of these parameters with incident frequency and incident angle is analyzed. The results show that the incident angle has low influence on the parameters when the angle varies from 0° to 30° and from 70° to 90°, but it has high influence on the parameters when it changes from 30° to 70°. These rules have certain directive significance to the research of interaction between oblique incidence electromagnetic wave and plasma slab and to the design of plasma layer. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. Source

Chen D.,Hohai University | Chen D.,University of Melbourne | Webber M.,University of Melbourne | Chen J.,Hohai University | Luo Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Ecological Economics | Year: 2011

Emergy theory and method are used to evaluate the feasibility of an irrigation improvement project in China and its contribution to local agricultural development. An emergy method for evaluating the costs and benefits of the project and a composite index named the emergy cost-benefit ratio (EmCBR) were developed. The emergy evaluation shows that the major costs associated with the proposed project come from earthwork (77.4% of the total cost) and concrete work (15.4%), and that water saving (43.0% of the total benefit) and agricultural yield increase (56.9%) are the most important contributions. The calculated EmCBR is 0.97 (the lowest value for a feasible project is 1.0) which indicates that this project would not be feasible in emergy terms. The regional agricultural system could not benefit from the proposed project, according to several emergy indices: emergy yield ratio (EYR), emergy investment ratio (EIR), environmental load ratio (ELR) and environmental sustainability index (ESI). The results show that conventional cost-benefit analysis could fail to provide an adequate decision-making framework because it is unable to value resources and environmental impacts properly. More additional emergy evaluations should be completed on other alternatives to the proposed project to provide adequate guidelines for selecting the best alternative that contributes most to agricultural development with limited environmental impact. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Zhang C.,Jinling Institute of Technology | Li G.,Nanjing Forestry University | Wang J.,Nanjing University | Fang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Bioinformatics | Year: 2012

Motivation: Trans-acting small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs) play an essential role in the regulation of plant gene expression, but relevant reports are still limited. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that many ta-siRNA-producing loci (TASs) are present in plants, implying the existence of as yet undiscovered ta-siRNAs and related regulatory pathways. To expand our knowledge of these plant gene regulators, we applied high-throughput computational and experimental methods to grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).Results: Based on bioinformatic predictions, we identified 49 TASs from 49 055 small RNA clusters. Using RNA degradome analysis, we experimentally validated 5 TASs, 22 ta-siRNAs and 37 ta-siRNA targets. The cis-activities of ta-siRNAs were also confirmed, which suggested an inactive mechanism of TAS transcription, and a produced mechanism of multiple forms of small RNA from same TAS. We examined the conservation of newly identified ta-siRNA regulatory cascades and found that while the cascade related to vviTAS3 was conserved, cascades related to vviTAS7, vviTAS8, vviTAS9 and vviTAS10 were grape-specific. These results broaden the known scope of ta-siRNA regulation. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Jiang Y.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Jin C.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Jin C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Sun B.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2014

Nitrification plays a central role in global nitrogen cycle, which is affected by interaction between soil microfauna and microorganisms. The impact of synchronized changes in nematodes and ammonia oxidizers within aggregate fractions on nitrification was investigated in an acid soil under 10-year manure application. Nematodes, ammonia oxidizers and potential nitrification activity (PNA) were examined in three soil aggregate fractions under four fertilization regimes. Pyrosequencing data revealed that the dominant bacterial amoA operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were related to Nitrosospira species, while archaeal OTUs were affiliated with Nitrososphaera and Nitrosotalea species. PNA was more strongly correlated with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) abundance than ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) abundance, although AOA were dominant in the acid soil. Plant parasites had a negative effect on AOB abundance; however, bacterivores stimulated AOB abundance and contributed more to PNA than plant parasites. Aggregate fractions exerted significant impacts on AOA abundance and AOB community composition. Total carbon content strongly affected the abundance and composition of AOA community, while soil pH primarily affected that of AOB community. Soil variables explained 62.7% and 58.1% variations, and nematode variables explained 11.7% and 19.5% variations in the AOA and AOB community composition respectively. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Pan L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhu Q.,Jiangnan University | Lu R.,Michigan State University | McGrath J.M.,Michigan State University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Visible and near-infrared spectra in interactance mode were acquired for intact and sliced beet samples, using two portable spectrometers for the spectral regions of 400-1100 nm and 900-1600 nm, respectively. Sucrose prediction models for intact and sliced beets were developed and then validated. The spectrometer for 400-1100 nm was able to predict the sucrose content with correlations of prediction (rp) of 0.80 and 0.88 and standard errors of prediction (SEPs) of 0.89% and 0.70%, for intact beets and beet slices, respectively. The spectrometer for 900-1600 nm had rp values of 0.74 and 0.88 and SEPs of 1.02% and 0.69% for intact beets and beet slices. These results showed the feasibility of using the portable spectrometer to predict the sucrose content of beet slices. Using simple correlation analysis, the study also identified important wavelengths that had strong correlation with the sucrose content. © Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Xiao Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Gao H.,Nanjing Normal University
Journal of Computational and Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2016

This paper is concerned with the asymptotic behavior of the solutions u(x, t) of the Swift-Hohenberg equation with quintic polynomial on the cylindrical domain Q=(0,L)×R+. With the control parameter α in the Swift-Hohenberg equation and the length L of the domain regarded as bifurcation parameters, branches of nontrivial solutions bifurcating from the trivial solution at certain points are shown. Local behavior of these branches is also investigated. With the help of a center manifold analysis, two types of structures in the bifurcation diagrams are presented when the bifurcation points are close, and their stabilities are analyzed. © 2016 by ASME. Source

Zhang W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang X.,Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
Plant Cell Monographs | Year: 2010

Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in different plant processes, ranging from responses to abiotic and biotic stresses to plant development and seed quality. The PLD family consists of multiple members that have distinguishable biochemical and regulatory properties. The differential activation of different PLDs regulates the temporal and spatial production of the lipid messenger, phosphatidic acid (PA), and the selective hydrolysis of membrane lipids. PLD and PA may regulate plant functions through their effects on signal transduction, cytoskeletal reorganization, vesicular trafficking, membrane remodeling, and/or lipid degradation, and the modes of action may differ depending on the specific PLDs and stimulations. The molecular heterogeneity of PLDs plays important roles in their different functions. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010. Source

Yang H.W.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Optik | Year: 2011

In this paper, shift operator finite-difference time-domain (SO-FDTD) method is applied for the calculation of the dispersive medium. The high efficiency and accuracy of this method is verified by calculating the reflection of the plane electromagnetic wave impinging on a muscle slab. For human tissues where multiterm Debye relaxation equations must generally be used. We describe a new differential equation approach, which can be used for general dispersive media. In this method D(t) is expressed in terms of E(t) by means of a differential equation involving D, E, and their time derivatives. The method is illustrated by means of example of media for which relative permittivity is given by a multiterm Debye equation, and for an approximate two-thirds muscle-equivalent model of the human body. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. Source

Lipka A.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Tian F.,Cornell University | Wang Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Peiffer J.,Cornell University | And 7 more authors.
Bioinformatics | Year: 2012

Summary: Software programs that conduct genome-wide association studies and genomic prediction and selection need to use methodologies that maximize statistical power, provide high prediction accuracy and run in a computationally efficient manner. We developed an R package called Genome Association and Prediction Integrated Tool (GAPIT) that implements advanced statistical methods including the compressed mixed linear model (CMLM) and CMLM-based genomic prediction and selection. The GAPIT package can handle large datasets in excess of 10 000 individuals and 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms with minimal computational time, while providing user-friendly access and concise tables and graphs to interpret results. Published by Oxford University Press 2012. Source

Yu Y.,Renmin University of China | Wang J.,Chongqing Technology and Business University | Tian X.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Growth and Change | Year: 2016

In the context of China without a median voter system, this study examines whether the "flypaper effect," an unconditional lump-sum grant from the upper governments to the county governments increases spending in a greater proportion than an equivalent rise in local income, holds true in China. Using China's county-level education data during 2007, the models have been estimated using a spatial econometric technique that accounts for spatial interaction behavior on public education expenditure across local governments. We find that, in the presence of spatial interdependence, there is no evidence of a "flypaper effect" when different spatial weighting schemes and the endogeneity problem of education grants are accounted for. Rather, the "anti-flypaper effect" is found. Important policy implications are drawn for China's fiscal decentralization reform. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Hu Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology | Year: 2010

A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the A-genome of cotton has been constructed from the leaves of G. arboreum L cv. Jianglinzhongmian. It is used as elite A-genome germplasm resources in the present cotton breeding program and has been used to build a genetic reference map of cotton. The BAC library consists of 123,648 clones stored in 322 384-well plates. Statistical analysis of a set of 103 randomly selected BAC clones indicated that each clone has an average insert length of 100.2 kb per plasmid, with a range of 30 to 190 kb. Theoretically, this represents 7.2 haploid genome equivalents based on an A-genome size of 1697 Mb. The BAC library has been arranged in column pools and superpools allowing screening with various PCR-based markers. In the future, the A-genome cotton BAC library will serve as both a giant gene resource and a valuable tool for map-based gene isolation, physical mapping and comparative genome analysis. Source

Cao S.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Yang Z.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Zheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2012

The effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on senescence and quality maintenance of green bell pepper fruit was investigated. To explore the optimum concentration of 1-MCP to delay senescence, pepper fruit were treated with 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5μLL -1 1-MCP and then stored for 10d at 20°C. The results showed that the application of 1-MCP at 1.0μLL -1 was most effective in delaying senescence, manifested as chlorophyll degradation and increase in weight loss. 1-MCP treated peppers had higher levels of chlorophyll, protein and vitamin C and lower respiration rates and ethylene production compared with that in control peppers. In addition, 1-MCP enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase and levels of polyamines including putrescine, spermidine and spermine. These results suggested that the delaying senescence of green bell pepper by 1-MCP treatment is associated with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and polyamine contents. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Two mechanisms that have been proposed to explain success of invasive plants are unusual biotic interactions, such as enemy release or enhanced mutualisms, and increased resource availability. However, while these mechanisms are usually considered separately, both may be involved in successful invasions. Biotic interactions may be positive or negative and may interact with nutritional resources in determining invasion success. In addition, the effects of different nutrients on invasions may vary. Finally, genetic variation in traits between populations located in introduced versus native ranges may be important for biotic interactions and/or resource use. Here, we investigated the roles of soil biota, resource availability, and plant genetic variation using seedlings of Triadica sebifera in an experiment in the native range (China). We manipulated nitrogen (control or 4 g/m(2)), phosphorus (control or 0.5 g/m(2)), soil biota (untreated or sterilized field soil), and plant origin (4 populations from the invasive range, 4 populations from the native range) in a full factorial experiment. Phosphorus addition increased root, stem, and leaf masses. Leaf mass and height growth depended on population origin and soil sterilization. Invasive populations had higher leaf mass and growth rates than native populations did in fresh soil but they had lower, comparable leaf mass and growth rates in sterilized soil. Invasive populations had higher growth rates with phosphorus addition but native ones did not. Soil sterilization decreased specific leaf area in both native and exotic populations. Negative effects of soil sterilization suggest that soil pathogens may not be as important as soil mutualists for T. sebifera performance. Moreover, interactive effects of sterilization and origin suggest that invasive T. sebifera may have evolved more beneficial relationships with the soil biota. Overall, seedlings from the invasive range outperformed those from the native range, however, an absence of soil biota or low phosphorus removed this advantage. Source

Rana R.M.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

Autophagy, a complex and conserved mechanism, serving as a defense response in all eukaryotic organisms, is regulated by several proteins, among which ATG proteins are the most important due to their involvement in autophagosome formation. ATG6/Beclin-1 proteins, reported to be essential for autophagosome formation and assigned as a conserved domain, were subjected to database searches. We found three homologs in the rice (Oryza sativa) genome. A phylogeny tree was constructed to establish their across species relationship, which divided them into three distinct groups; two for plants, i.e., monocots and dicots, and one for animals. Evolutionary study of this family by critical amino acid conservation analysis revealed significant functional divergence. The finding of important stress-related cis-acting elements in the promoter region of rice ATG6 genes demonstrated their involvement in abiotic stress responses. Furthermore, expression profiling of rice ATG6 genes based on microarray data, as well as by semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed differential expression when subjected to different stresses suggesting the involvement of OsATG6 genes in abiotic stresses (heat, cold and drought) and hormone (abscisic acid) responses. Analysis of co-expressed genes showed that most of them annotated to DNA repair pathways and proteolysis, etc. Collectively, these results suggest the involvement of OsATG6 genes in different stresses, and provide a basis for further functional studies to investigate the biological mechanism of action of these genes under abiotic stresses. Source

Ma X.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2012

We studied the resistance of Fusarium fujikuroi against carbendazim, to confirm whether the resistance was related to the beta-tubulin gene. The isolated strains were identified based on TEF-1alpha gene sequence and morphological characteristics. The whole nucleotide sequence of beta-tubulin gene was analyzed from different sensitive strains by the primers designed according to the nucleotide sequence of beta-tubulin gene from the sequenced strain 7600 of F. verticillioides. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was applied to analyze the expression pattern of beta-tubulin gene from different sensitive strains treated with or without carbendazim. The full-length nucleotide sequence of beta-tubulin gene (Accession Number: JQ026022) was cloned from different sensitive strains of F. fujikoroi, which spanned 1671 bp with 4 introns, encoding 447 amino acids. This gene showed 100% nucleotide sequence homology between sensitive and resistant strains. The expression of the beta-tubulin gene in 2 sensitive strains was significantly higher than 3 resistant strains when these strains were cultured on carbendazim-free media (p = 0.05). Carbendazim at the concentration of their EC50 caused the expression of the gene from the five strains increasing significantly (p = 0.05) in comparison with that of strains treated without carbendazim. However, there was no significant difference between strains when treated with carbendazim. The resistance of F. fujikuroi against carbendazim was irrelative to beta-tubulin gene. Source

Guo W.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2012

We studied the formation of carbonate minerals by bacteria to understand the mechanism of microbial mineralization. Cultures of carbonate precipitation using Lagoa Vermelha medium with 6:1 molar ratio of Mg/Ca within 35 days were made under the mediation of Clostridium sp. (MH18 strain) isolated from soil. At the same time, aseptic experiments without the inoculation were done as the control. Mineral species were determined by X-ray diffraction, and the morphologies of precipitated carbonates were observed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In the LV medium, MH18 strain mediated the formation of carbonate mineral, in which high-magnesium calcite was dominant. In the initial stage, the minerals had shapes with dumbbell-like morphology, and finally transformed to spheres. Only a small amount of precipitation appeared in the control, but X-ray diffraction patterns showed that these precipitations were amorphous substance. MH18 strain could induce crystallization of carbonate. Source

Jiang J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Xu R.-K.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Jiang T.-Y.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Jiang T.-Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li Z.,Nanjing Forestry University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

To develop new remediation methods for acidic soils polluted by heavy metals, the chemical fractions of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) in an Ultisol with and without rice straw biochar were compared and the effect of biochar incorporation on the mobility and bioavailability of these metals was investigated. In light of the decreasing zeta potential and increasing CEC, the incorporation of biochar made the negative soil surface charge more negative. Additionally, the soil pH increased markedly after the addition of biochar. These changes in soil properties were advantageous for heavy metal immobilization in the bulk soil. The acid soluble Cu(II) and Pb(II) decreased by 19.7-100.0% and 18.8-77.0%, respectively, as the amount of biochar added increased. The descending range of acid soluble Cd(II) was 5.6-14.1%, which was much lower than that of Cu(II) and Pb(II). When 5.0. mmol/kg of these heavy metals was added, the reducible Pb(II) for treatments containing 3% and 5% biochar was 2.0 and 3.0 times higher than that of samples without biochar, while the reducible Cu(II) increased by 61.6% and 132.6% for the corresponding treatments, respectively. When 3% and 5% biochar was added, the oxidizable portion of Pb(II) increased by 1.18 and 1.94 times, respectively, while the oxidizable portion of Cu(II) increased by 8.13 and 7.16 times, respectively, primarily due to the high adsorption affinity of functional groups of biochar to Cu(II). The residual heavy metal contents were low and changed little with the incorporation of biochar. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Li J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Sheng Z.,Nanjing University | Liu H.,Nanjing University
Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory | Year: 2010

This paper describes a multi-agent simulation model for analyzing the dominant player's behavior of supply chains. The supply chain consists of a raw material supplier and component supplier, a manufacturer and retailer are simulated by the model. The main sources of uncertainty for the dominant players' behavior are identified, including of market information, selling prices, purchasing prices. The economic phenomenon (Players can maintain their profits stably in spite of decreasing the selling price) is shown by the model, and the SPP (Stable Profit Platform) is used to indicate the level of domination power for the player achievement. Moreover, the model can also be extended to various supply chain for better understanding of the dominant players' behavior and improving the effective decision making of supply chain cooperation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Li J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhou Y.,Nanjing University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2012

The purpose of the paper is to study the emergency and effects of conflict resolution rules in self-organizing teams. Intelligent agents are used to simulate team members of self-organizing teams. In the virtual self-organizing team, agents adapt the Q-learning algorithm to adjust their actions. Three sets of experiments are manipulated to study the evolution of rules. The results of few experiments show a new rule for conflict resolution emerged from the dynamic interactions of agents. For the other experiments, agents cannot resolve conflicts by themselves. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Mao S.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2011

We investigated the correlation between the methanogen diversity in the piglet colon and the environmental factor (weaning stress, diet type and age). The colonic contents of piglets at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days old were collected for the determination of volatile fatty acids and total DNA extraction. DNA was subject to PCR-DGGE (Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) analysis and interesting bands were excised and sequenced. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was performed for the correlation between methanogen diversity and environmental factors. As the piglets grew, acetate, propionate and the total volatile fatty acid production increased significantly (P < 0.05), but butyrate concentration remained stable (P > 0.05). The similarity indices of DGGE profiles was higher during the period of the 7 day to 24 day after birth, with grouped in one cluster, and the samples from the 35 days were dropped into another cluster. DGGE analysis showed three dominant bands appeared in samples of 35 d old, with their 16S rRNA gene sequences closely related to Methanobacteria and a novel group of uncultivated Achaean. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that age has the largest relevance to the community structure of bacteria in colonic samples, followed by the diet type. The results indicated that the methanogen community in the piglet colon was stable during the first 24 days after birth, and became more diverse at 35 days of age. The methanogens community was mainly affected by age and the diet type. Source

Jiang T.-Y.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Jiang T.-Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jiang J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Xu R.-K.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Li Z.,Nanjing Forestry University
Chemosphere | Year: 2012

Two Ultisols and one Oxisol from tropical regions of southern China were incubated with rice straw biochar to investigate the effect of biochar on their surface charge and Pb(II) adsorption using batch methods. The incorporation of biochar induced a remarkable increase in soil cation exchange capacity after 30d of incubation. The incorporation of biochar significantly increased the adsorption of Pb(II) by these variable charge soils; the enhancement of adsorption of Pb(II) by these soils increased with the addition level of biochar. Adsorption of Pb(II) involved both electrostatic and non-electrostatic mechanisms; however, biochar mainly increased Pb(II) adsorption through the non-electrostatic mechanism via the formation of surface complexes between Pb2+ and functional groups on biochar. There was greater enhancement of biochar on the non-electrostatic adsorption of Pb(II) by the variable charge soils at relatively low pH. Therefore, the incorporation of biochar decreased the activity and availability of Pb(II) to plants through increased non-electrostatic adsorption of Pb(II) by acidic variable charge soils. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Dou D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhou J.-M.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology
Cell Host and Microbe | Year: 2012

Phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes invade and colonize their host plants through distinct routes. These pathogens secrete diverse groups of effector proteins that aid infection and establishment of different parasitic lifestyles. Despite this diversity, a comparison of different plant-pathogen systems has revealed remarkable similarities in the host immune pathways targeted by effectors from distinct pathogen groups. Immune signaling pathways mediated by pattern recognition receptors, phytohormone homeostasis or signaling, defenses associated with host secretory pathways and pathogen penetrations, and plant cell death represent some of the key processes controlling disease resistance against diverse pathogens. These immune pathways are targeted by effectors that carry a wide range of biochemical functions and are secreted by completely different pathogen groups, suggesting that these pathways are a common battleground encountered by many plant pathogens. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Geng X.,Nanjing Agricultural University
British Food Journal | Year: 2014

Purpose: The study uses survey data obtained in Jiangsu province, China, in June and August of 2012 to analyse the causal relations between aquatic farmers' relationship networks and trust, specific asset investments, joining in cooperatives and modern marketing channels participation. Design/methodology/approach: The authors used the structural equation mode to analyze the variables' causal relationships. Findings: The research results show that Chinese aquatic farmers' relationship networks can positively impact their participation in modern channels through the mediators of trust, specific assets investments and joining in cooperatives. Research limitations/implications: Two constructs are measured by a single item. Further study to incorporate multi-item constructs would be valuable. Practical implications: The policy implication is that the government should pay attention to farmers' relationship networks and can provide them with more public goods, especially channel and price information, to assist their evaluations and decision-making, which can help them to access modern marketing channels. Originality/value: The authors gave the answers that whether farmers' relationship networks affect their marketing channel selection decision and the function mechanism. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

Song Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shumin Z.,China Agricultural University
International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering | Year: 2015

In order to optimize the structure schema of flexible comb-type grass seeder, the effects of combing teeth gap L, rotation speed of comb shaft N, seed metering device inclining angle α and groove strip inclining angle θ on the rate and uniformity of seeding were observed by test and analyzed, then the coefficient of seeding stability variation was explored in the simulating planting environment on the soil tank test bed based on the above four influencing factors, with Festuca arundinacea seeds as example. According to the results of regression analysis, the model fits well with the actual situation. L, N, α, and the interaction term of N and θ are significant, and the interaction term of θ and α is extremely significant. The analysis of interaction factor effect shows that the variation coefficient responds to the interaction of N and θ in the same manner as that responds to the interaction of θ and α, showing ‘saddle’ variation tendency. Suppose the acceptable maximum value of coefficient of seeding uniformity variation is 4%, then the inverse proportion relationship between factors is inferred according to the change trend of the above interaction factors and derivation of regression equation. Then the regression equation was simplified according to the inverse proportion equation, and four groups of parameters were obtained. Each parameter group was tested, and the test results agreed with the regression equation’s predicting value, with the correlation coefficient 0.726. This research can provide reference for the development of seed metering devices and grass seeders. © 2014 Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All Rights reserved. Source

Shao X.,Ningbo University | Tu K.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2014

Absract: Hot air treatment at 38C for 36h significantly improved the chilling resistance of loquat during 4C storage for 28 days, appeared as higher extractable juice, lower firmness, internal browning and decay development. This treatment reduced hydrogen peroxide level by improving superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase activities, then maintained higher unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and lower permeability of membrane at the end of storage. It also reduced phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities, and total phenolic content to control internal browning and lignin synthesis; the enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities also contribute to control them. Meanwhile, heat-treated fruits showed significantly higher levels of water- and chelator-soluble pectins and lower Na2CO3-soluble pectin than controls at the later of storage. It was suggested that the improved chilling resistance by heat treatment maybe mainly due to the enhanced scavenging capacity of oxygen species and solubilization of cell wall polysaccharides. Practical Applications: Loquat fruit is very perishable because of microbial decay and mechanical damage after harvest. Low-temperature storage is an effective method to control pathogenic decay and preserve quality. However, loquat fruit are chilling-sensitive, and chilling injury limits the storage period and shelf-life. This work investigated the effects of hot air treatment on the chilling resistance of loquat fruit. It was found that heat treatment at 38C for 36h can enhance the chilling resistance, reduce the chilling symptoms and maintain higher quality after storage at 4C for 28 days. The information obtained from this study suggested that this heat treatment may be a suitable method for the commercial application on loquat fruits. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Yang H.W.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Optik | Year: 2012

In this paper, the coefficient of reflection and transmission of electromagnetic wave on corn leaf are computed under room temperature. The relationship is given when the thicknesses of leaves are 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm and the proportion of water in the weight are 0.25, 0.5 and 0.68. The rules are concluded that there would be longer period and easier expression of the two coefficients on the incident electromagnetic wave, when leaf is thicker or the proportion of water is heavier. On the contrary, opposite results are obtained. There are less affection that the changes of the leaves thickness on the maxima of the reflectance coefficient and the average of the transmission coefficient, but add the proportion of water can less increase maxima of reflect coefficient, at the same time, the average of the transmission coefficient will come down. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. Source

Li C.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Feng J.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Feng J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang W.-Y.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | An X.-T.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The total phenolic content (TFC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity, and polyphenol composition of extracts of rabbiteye blueberry fruit polyphenols (BBFPs), rabbiteye blueberry pomace polyphenols (BBPPs), and rabbiteye blueberry leaves polyphenols (BBLPs) were investigated. The highest TPC and TFC were found in the extract of BBLPs, followed by the extracts of BBPPs and BBFPs. The extract of BBLPs exhibited the highest antioxidant activity according to five antioxidant methods. All three samples exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activity than the positive control rutin. HPLC-DAD-MSn analysis showed that the extract of BBFPs contained nine different anthocyanins, while the extract of BBPPs contained only four of them. In addition, four caffeoylquinic acids, quercetin, and its three derivatives were detected in the extract of BBLPs. The results indicate that the fruits, pomace, and leaves of rabbiteye blueberry were good sources of polyphenols and natural antioxidants. These could be useful as a functional food ingredient beneficial to human health. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Sang X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu X.,Nanjing Southeast University | Qin J.,Nanjing Southeast University
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2015

Personnel selection is a critical enterprise strategic problem in knowledge-intensive enterprise. Fuzzy number which can be described as triangular (trapezoid) fuzzy number is an adequate way to assess the evaluation and weights for the alternatives. In that case, fuzzy TOPSIS, as a classic fuzzy multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) methods, has been applied in personnel selection problems. Currently, all the researches on this topic either apply crisp relative closeness but causing information loss, or employ fuzzy relative closeness estimate but with complicated computation to rank the alternatives. In this paper, based on Karnik-Mendel (KM) algorithm, we propose an analytical solution to fuzzy TOPSIS method. Some properties are discussed, and the computation procedure for the proposed analytical solution is given as well. Compared with the existing TOPSIS method for personnel selection problem, it obtains accurate fuzzy relative closeness instead of the crisp point or approximate fuzzy relative closeness estimate. It can both avoid information loss and keep computational efficiency in some extent. Moreover, the global picture of fuzzy relative closeness provides a way to further discuss the inner properties of fuzzy TOPSIS method. Detailed comparisons with approximate fuzzy relative closeness method are provided in personnel selection application. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Li J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB / Société française de physiologie végétale | Year: 2012

To elaborate the mechanisms of response of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv.) seedlings to hypoxic stress, plants were grown under either normoxic conditions or hypoxic stress. As expected, plant biomass was significantly reduced under hypoxic stress. Proteomic profiles of cucumber roots were studied at 72 h after treatment; 316 and 425 protein spots were detected on polyacrylamide gels from normoxic and hypoxic-treated plants, respectively. Compared with normoxic-treated plants, protein abundance of 22 proteins was significantly upregulated while protein abundance of 12 proteins decreased in the hypoxic-treated plants. Twenty one of the proteins whose abundance was altered were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis, and categorized into classes corresponding to energy and metabolism proteins, transcription factor proteins, defense stress proteins, structural proteins and regulatory proteins. Under hypoxic stress, glycolysis was induced; energy was channeled to primary metabolism, while secondary pathways and nitrogen metabolism pathways were inhibited. Cucumber plants scavenged reactive oxygen species by antioxidase, and increased Acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] desaturase which defend against reactive oxygen species damage to plant cell structure. This study provides insight that may facilitate a better understanding of the response mechanisms of cucumber plant to hypoxic stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source

Pan J.-J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Pan J.-J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jiang J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Xu R.-K.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

Discharge of Cr(VI)-containing industrial effluents leads to the pollution of surface waters and ground waters. In this study, Cr(VI) was first reduced by Na2SO3 or FeSO4 and then biochar generated from peanut straw at 500°C was used to remove the Cr(III). Results indicated that the reduction of Cr(VI) by Na2SO3 must be conducted under strongly acidic conditions within a narrow pH range of 2.0-2.4, whereas the reduction of Cr(VI) by FeSO4 can be conducted under acidic, neutral and weak alkaline conditions because protons are generated from the hydrolysis of Fe3+ via Fe2+ oxidation. When the initial concentration of Cr(VI) was no more than 1.5mM, and after Cr(VI) had been reduced by Na2SO3 at pH 2.0 or FeSO4 at pH 7.6, 4gL-1, peanut straw biochar was able to neutralize solution acidity and remove Cr from the aqueous solution. The optimal reaction time for biochar in the Cr-containing solutions was 6h. The precipitation of Cr(OH)3 and the formation of Cr3+ surface complexes with the functional groups on the biochar were the main mechanisms for Cr(III) removal by biochar. These results suggested that the combination of reductants (Na2SO3/FeSO4) and biochar generated from peanut straw can be used to efficiently remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Zhang Y.P.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

DNA marker can be used for precise plant cultivar identification. However, DNA markers have often not been used effectively for the identification of plant cultivars due to a lack of an effective analysis strategy. We used a novel strategy for effective identification of plant individuals based on a new way of recording DNA fingerprints of the genotyped plants; a cultivar identification diagram can be manually generated and used as key reference information for quick identification of plant and/or seed samples. Forty-seven pomegranate varieties popularly cultivated in various provinces of China were subjected to RAPD marker analysis. Using the cultivar identification diagram strategy, they were clearly separated by the fingerprints of 11 RAPD primers. The utility and accuracy of the cultivar identification diagram analysis results were confirmed by the identification of three randomly chosen groups of cultivars among the 47 varieties. Source

Chen Z.C.,Okayama University | Yokosho K.,Okayama University | Kashino M.,Okayama University | Zhao F.-J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2013

Yorkshire fog (Holcus lanatus), which belongs to the Poaceae family and is a close relative of the agronomic crop oat (Avena sativa), is a widely adaptable grass species that is able to grow on highly acidic soils with high levels of Al, but the mechanism underlying the high Al tolerance is unknown. Here, we characterized two accessions of H. lanatus collected from an acid plot (soil pH 3.6, HL-A) and a neutral plot (pH 7.1, HL-N) in terms of Al tolerance, organic acid anion secretion and related gene expression. In response to Al (pH 4.5), the HL-A roots secreted approximately twice as much malate as the HL-N roots, but there was no difference in citrate secretion. Cloning of the gene HlALMT1 responsible for malate secretion showed that the encoded amino acid sequence did not differ between two accessions, but the expression level in the outer cell layers of the HL-A roots was twice as high as in the HL-N roots. This difference was not due to the genomic copy number, but was due to the number of cis-acting elements for an Al-responsive transcription factor (HlART1) in the promoter region of HlALMT1, as demonstrated by both a yeast one-hybrid assay and a transient assay in tobacco protoplasts. Furthermore, introduction of HlALMT1 driven by the HL-A promoter into rice resulted in significantly more Al-induced malate secretion than introduction of HlALMT1 driven by the HL-N promoter. These findings indicate that the adaptation of H. lanatus to acidic soils may be achieved by increasing number of cis-acting elements for ART1 in the promoter region of the HlALMT1 gene, enhancing the expression of HlALMT1 and the secretion of malate. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Xie Y.J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2012

Both nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are versatile molecules that mediate a variety of cellular responses in plants. In this chapter, methods for imaging NO and ROS using laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) are presented. Arabidopsis roots, dyed with DAF-FM or H(2)DCF, are observed using the Leica TCS-SP2 LSCM. NO or ROS production are imaged and their kinetic changes monitored with the laser excitation and emission wavelengths at 488 nm and between 500 and 530 nm, respectively. In addition, Leica software is employed to visualize and calculate the fluorescence intensity data. Source

Sun X.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

We optimized RAPD techniques by increasing the length of RAPD primers and performing a strict screening of PCR annealing temperature to distinguish 60 sweet orange cultivars from the Research Institute of Pomology at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. A new approach called cultivar identification diagram (CID) was used to improve the efficiency of RAPD markers for cultivar identification. Thirteen effective primers were first screened from 54 RAPD arbitrary 11-mer primers based on their amplification products and amplified polymorphic bands; they were then used for PCR amplification of all 60 cultivars. All cultivars were manually and completely separated by the polymorphic bands appearing in DNA fingerprints from 13 primers; a CID of the 60 sweet orange cultivars was then constructed. This CID separated all the cultivars from each other, based on the polymorphic bands; the corresponding primers were marked in the correct positions on the sweet orange CID. The CID strategy facilitates the identification of fruit cultivars with DNA markers. This CID of sweet orange cultivars will be very useful for the protection of cultivar rights and for early identification of seedlings in the nursery industry. Source

Zhang R.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Genome / National Research Council Canada = Génome / Conseil national de recherches Canada | Year: 2012

The wheat-alien small segment translocation (SAST) lines carrying the beneficial genes from wild species are useful genetic stocks for wheat improvement. In this study, to introduce the grain hardness-related genes of Haynaldia villosa (L.) Schur. into common wheat (Triticum aesitivum L.), the mature female gametes of whole-arm wheat--H. villosa translocation line T5VS·5DL was irradiated by 60CO-γ ray to develop SAST lines involving 5VS. Among the BC2F2 population, six homozygous SAST lines with different fragment sizes of 5VS were identified by GISH, and the exact fragment sizes were further defined using four 5VS-specific markers and four Ha gene-based markers. The results showed that five lines (NAU5VS-1 to NAU5VS-5) carried the softness gene Dina/Dinb of H. villosa, and that NAU5VS-5 had the smallest alien translocation segment, identified to be a 5VS-6AS·6AL terminal translocation. The translocation chromosome 5VS-6AS·6AL was proved to be stably inherited to the successive generations. In the BC3F2 generation, the individuals having the homozygous 5VS-6AS·6AL translocation chromosomes all showed soft grain texture, with an approximately 50% reduction in the SKCS hardness index compared with that of their backcrossing parent. Both the 5VS-6AS·6AL translocation line and the molecular markers developed in this study will be valuable in wheat breeding for soft grain quality improvement. Source

Gaidenko T.A.,University of California at Davis | Bie X.,University of California at Davis | Bie X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Baldwin E.P.,University of California at Davis | Price C.W.,University of California at Davis
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2011

The stressosome is a multiprotein, 1.8-MDa icosahedral complex that transmits diverse environmental signals to activate the general stress response of Bacillus subtilis. The way in which it senses these cues and the pathway of signal propagation within the stressosome itself are poorly understood. The stressosome core consists of four members of the RsbR coantagonist family together with the RsbS antagonist; its cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) image suggests that the N-terminal domains of the RsbR proteins form homodimers positioned to act as sensors on the stressosome surface. Here we probe the role of the N-terminal domain of the prototype coantagonist RsbRA by making structure-based amino acid substitutions in potential interaction surfaces. To unmask the phenotypes caused by single-copy rsbRA mutations, we constructed strains lacking the other three members of the RsbR coantagonist family and assayed system output using a reporter fusion. Effects of five individual alanine substitutions in the prominent dimer groove did not match predictions from an earlier in vitro assay, indicating that the in vivo assay was necessary to assess their influence on signaling. Additional substitutions expected to negatively affect domain dimerization had substantial impact, whereas those that sampled other prominent surface features had no consequence. Notably, even mutations resulting in significantly altered phenotypes raised the basal level of system output only in unstressed cells and had little effect on the magnitude of subsequent stress signaling. Our results provide evidence that the N-terminal domain of the RsbRA coantagonist affects stressosome function but offer no direct support for the hypothesis that it is a signal sensor. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Lin X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lin X.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Du H.,Hefei University of Technology | Du H.,Nanjing Southeast University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Franklin Institute | Year: 2013

In this paper, finite-time boundedness and finite-time l2 gain analysis for a class of discrete-time switched linear systems are investigated. Not only linear matrix inequality conditions for the system dynamics but also average dwell-time of switching signal is given to guarantee finite-time boundedness of discrete-time switched linear systems. Moreover, sufficient conditions which guarantee finite-time boundedness of discrete-time switched linear systems with a finite-time l2 gain are also presented. Detail proofs are given by using multiple Lyapunov-like functions. A numerical example is employed to verify the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2013 The Franklin Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Mcgrath S.P.,Rothamsted Research | Zhao F.J.,Rothamsted Research | Zhao F.J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Soil Use and Management | Year: 2015

This review focusses on the transfers of metals and metalloids from soil to food and feed, based mostly on UK information. Published information on the behaviour of a number of these contaminants in soil-plant systems is used to evaluate which elements are likely to transfer to food and feed. Data on the concentrations of metals and metalloids in soils and other soil properties in England and Wales are used in models to illustrate the likelihood of transfers exceeding the maximum concentration limits in food and feed in European legislation. Information from crop and herbage quality surveys is used to compare with the output from models. In most cases, the modelled or observed concentrations in food and feed do not reach the maximum allowable concentrations. Of all the contaminants considered, Cd appears to be most likely to exceed limit concentrations under UK conditions, but at present, there is some difficulty predicting Pb uptake and As uptake into the edible parts of crops from soil. However, crops exceeding the food limits are more likely to be grown if those crops are vegetables and if soil limit concentrations and best soil management practices have not been followed (e.g. maintenance of high soil pH in the case of cationic metals). We discuss the gaps and uncertainties for different metals and metalloids and show the need to review the situation if food or feed maximum concentration limits are changed as new information becomes available on toxicology and dietary exposure. © 2015 British Society of Soil Science. Source

Du H.,Nanjing Southeast University | Du H.,Hefei University of Technology | Li S.,Nanjing Southeast University | Lin X.,Nanjing Agricultural University
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control | Year: 2013

Summary Finite-time formation control of multiple second-order agents via dynamic output feedback is investigated in this paper. Under the assumption that the velocities of all agents cannot be measured, a continuous consensus algorithm is first proposed such that the states of all agents will reach an agreement in finite time. Then, the consensus algorithm is applied to the finite-time formation control, including stationary formation and moving formation, respectively. Rigorous proof shows that all agents will converge to the desired formation pattern in finite time. Finally, an example is given to verify the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Gu S.-H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang S.-P.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang X.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wu K.-M.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

Insect odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are required for insect olfaction perception and play a key role in transporting hydrophobic semiochemicals across the sensillum lymph to the olfactory receptors (Ors). We constructed two high-quality cDNA libraries from the male and female antennae of the lucerne plant bug, Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae), a hemipteran species in a large and economically important phylogenetic group of phytophagous insects. A total of 1538 male ESTs and 1576 female ESTs were sequenced and analyzed, which produced 2915 high-quality ESTs for further analysis. The 2915 ESTs were assembled to 1423 unigenes. Of the 1423 unigenes, 895 (63%) showed no significant similarity with any known GenBank entry. The most prevalent transcripts in the cDNA libraries are OBPs, chemosensory proteins (CSPs), protein takeout precursors, antennae-specific proteins. We identified 14 genes encoding 12 " classical OBPs" with only six conserved cysteines and 2 " Plus-C OBPs" with two additional conserved cysteines and a conserved proline immediately after the sixth cysteine. AlinOBP4 has a very high amino acid identity of 89% to LAP, a well studied OBP of the tarnished plant bug Lygus lineolaris. The expression profiles of the 14 OBPs in different tissues (antennae, heads, thoraxes, abdomens, legs and wings) were measured by real-time qPCR. The results revealed some OBP genes are highly and differentially expressed in male and female antennae, and four OBP genes have an extremely high transcript level in the legs. Of two Plus-C OBP genes, one (AlinOBP14) is highly expressed only in the heads and another (AlinOBP7) is expressed in all olfactory tissues with much lower transcript levels comparing to other OBPs. The possible physiological functions of these OBPs are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lin X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lin X.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Du H.,Nanjing Southeast University | Li S.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zou Y.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology
IET Control Theory and Applications | Year: 2013

Finite-time stability and finite-time boundedness for a class of switched linear systems with time-varying delay are studied. Sufficient conditions which guarantee switched linear systems with time-varying delay finite-time stable or finite-time bounded are presented. These conditions are delay-dependent and are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Average dwell time of switching signals is also given such that switched linear systems are finite-time stable or finite-time bounded. Moreover, finite-time weighted L2-gain of switched linear systems with time-varying delay are also given to measure its disturbance tolerance capability in the fixed time interval. Detail proofs are accomplished by using multiple Lyapunov-like functions. An example is employed to verify the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2013 The Institution of Engineering and Technology. Source

Liu Y.X.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to investigate the variation of HSP70 mRNA level in dairy cows and relationships of its closely linked microsatellite loci with heat tolerance traits. Blood samples were collected from ten healthy Holstein cows with the same age and milking stage at different temperatures-humid-index (THI) (86.2, high temperature; 70.9, critical high temperature, and 56.8, optimum temperature). The mRNA levels of HSP70 of lymphocytes in peripheral blood were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR. The mRNA level of HSP70 was increased with the THI; the mRNA level of HSP70 at high temperature was higher than others (P<0.01). This indicated that the bovine HSP70 gene may act as a potential can-didate gene for response to heat shock. Genetic variation of three microsatellite loci BMS468, BM1258, and BM1815, which were closely linked to HSP70 gene on chromosome 23, was analyzed in 160 Holstein cows with non-denaturing poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The association between these microsatellite loci and heat tolerance traits were analyzed by least square linear model. The results showed that 134 bp/128 bp at BMS468 and 186 bp/148 bp at BM1815 were the most favorable genotypes for HTC, red cell potassium, and decrement rate of milk yield in high temperature (P<0.05); 101 bp/99 bp at BM1258 was the most favorable genotype for decrement rate of milk yield in high temperature (P<0.05). Source

Lin P.F.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research / "Dong wu xue yan jiu" bian ji wei yuan hui bian ji | Year: 2010

The whole antral follicles were isolated from porcine ovaries and classified as follows: healthy follicles (HF), early atretic follicles (EF) and progressed atretic follicles (PF). The isolated porcine follicles were used for routine histological section and HE staining after examination by eyesight. Morphological research shows that the accuracy rate of eyesight examination for HF is 92%. Healthy follicles were chosen for further experiment and divided into 3 groups: large follicles (greater than 5 mm in diameter), medium follicles (3-5 mm in diameter) and small follicles (less than 3 mm in diameter). All follicles were cultured for 8, 16 and 24 h, respectively and the apoptosis of of their granulosa cells were examined by Annexin V-FITC/PI double-labeling. It showed that the total apoptotic rate of granulosa cells derived from cultured follicles could reach over 70% at 8 h after culture and be 81.1% - 94.6% at 24 h after culture. Granulosa cells from groups were collected at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h after culture without serum and used for the examination of expression of FasL and Fas mRNA with real time PCR SYBRgreen method. The expression level of FasL mRNA of granulosa cells from different size of follicles increased with culture time and reached the highest level at 24 h after culture (P<0.05). Expression level of FasL mRNA of granulosa cells from small follicles was higher than those from large and medium follicles. There exists no difference for expression level of Fas mRNA of granulosa cells among groups before culture but significantly increased at 8 h after culture and reached the highest level at 48 h after culture. It showed in the present experiment that the follicular culture system without serum used could effectively induce the apoptosis of follicular granulosa cells. Cell apoptosis is the main cause of follicular atresia, the degree of which varied with the size of follicles. Small follicles seemed to be easier atretic than medium and large follicles. Source

Zhang F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Deharveng L.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute
Zoologica Scripta | Year: 2015

Entomobryidae, the largest collembolan family, is traditionally classified at suprageneric level using a limited set of morphological structures, such as scales, antennal segmentation. Most tribal and subfamilial delimitations appear, however, disputable in the light of recent works. Integrating molecular and morphological evidence, we propose here a revision of the systematics of the family. In addition to traditional taxonomic characters, tergal specialized chaetae (S-chaetae) are newly introduced, and their patterns are shown to be diversified at all levels from species to subfamilies. S-chaetotaxic pattern on phylogenetic tree shows that evolution of S-chaetae is not parallel between the different terga and that their patterns coincide well with the known molecular phylogeny, providing a powerful tool for the systematics of Entomobryidae. Orchesellinae sensu Soto-Adames et al. (Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 101, 2008, 501); is divided into three subfamilies: Orchesellinae s. s., Bessoniellinae and Heteromurinae, the latter two upgraded from the original tribal level. Entomobryinae sensu Szeptycki (Morpho-Systematic Studies on Collembola. IV. Chaetotaxy of the Entomobryidae and its Phylogenetical Significance, 1979), is no longer divided into scaled and unscaled tribes, and Lepidosira-group is transferred from Seirinae to Entomobryinae. A key to subfamilies and tribes and a comparison with previous classifications of the Entomobryidae are provided. This study greatly improves the understanding of primary and secondary characters and erects the fundamental framework for the taxonomy of Entomobryidae. © 2014 Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Source

Li S.,Nanjing Southeast University | Du H.,Nanjing Southeast University | Lin X.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Automatica | Year: 2011

In this paper, we discuss the finite-time consensus problem for leaderless and leaderfollower multi-agent systems with external disturbances. Based on the finite-time control technique, continuous distributed control algorithms are designed for these agents described by double integrators. Firstly, for the leaderless multi-agent systems, it is shown that the states of all agents can reach a consensus in finite time in the absence of disturbances. In the presence of disturbances, the steady-state errors of any two agents can reach a region in finite time. Secondly, for the leaderfollower multi-agent systems, finite-time consensus algorithms are also designed based on distributed finite-time observers. Rigorous proof is given by using Lyapunov theory and graph theory. Finally, one example is employed to verify the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Chen Z.J.,University of Texas at Austin | Chen Z.J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2013

Heterosis, also known as hybrid vigour, is widespread in plants and animals, but the molecular bases for this phenomenon remain elusive. Recent studies in hybrids and allopolyploids using transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, epigenomic and systems biology approaches have provided new insights. Emerging genomic and epigenetic perspectives suggest that heterosis arises from allelic interactions between parental genomes, leading to altered programming of genes that promote the growth, stress tolerance and fitness of hybrids. For example, epigenetic modifications of key regulatory genes in hybrids and allopolyploids can alter complex regulatory networks of physiology and metabolism, thus modulating biomass and leading to heterosis. The conceptual advances could help to improve plant and animal productivity through the manipulation of heterosis. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Cipriany B.R.,Cornell University | Zhao R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Murphy P.J.,Cornell University | Levy S.L.,Cornell University | And 3 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

Epigenetic states are governed by DNA methylation and a host of modifications to histones bound with DNA. These states are essential for proper developmentally regulated gene expression and are perturbed in many diseases. There is great interest in identifying epigenetic mark placement genome wide and understanding how these marks vary among cell types, with changes in environment or according to health and disease status. Current epigenomic analyses employ bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation, but query only one type of epigenetic mark at a time, DNA methylation, or histone modifications and often require substantial input material. To overcome these limitations, we established a method using nanofluidics and multicolor fluorescence microscopy to detect DNA and histones in individual chromatin fragments at about 10 Mbp/min. We demonstrated its utility for epigenetic analysis by identifying DNA methylation on individual molecules. This technique will provide the unprecedented opportunity for genome wide, simultaneous analysis of multiple epigenetic states on single molecules. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Wu W.,Wenzhou Medical College | Wu W.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics | Hu H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li F.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics | And 4 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2011

We designed a single-fluorophore-tagged hairpin-structured nano-beacon probe by using a superquencher, graphene oxide (GO), based on which a new method for the analysis of DNA phosphorylation detection was developed. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

The Asteraceae family is at the forefront of the evolution due to frequent hybridization. Hybridization is associated with the induction of widespread genetic and epigenetic changes and has played an important role in the evolution of many plant taxa. We attempted the intergeneric cross Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum. To obtain the success in cross, we have to turn to ovule rescue. DNA profiling of the amphihaploid and amphidiploid was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, start codon targeted polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Hybridization induced rapid changes at the genetic and the epigenetic levels. The genetic changes mainly involved loss of parental fragments and gaining of novel fragments, and some eliminated sequences possibly from the noncoding region of L. paludosum. The MSAP analysis indicated that the level of DNA methylation was lower in the amphiploid (∼45%) than in the parental lines (51.5-50.6%), whereas it increased after amphidiploid formation. Events associated with intergeneric genomic shock were a feature of C. morifolium × L. paludosum hybrid, given that the genetic relationship between the parental species is relatively distant. Our results provide genetic and epigenetic evidence for understanding genomic shock in wide crosses between species in Asteraceae and suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a genetic/epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand wide crosses. Source

Jiang B.C.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

Although growth hormone gene transgenic animals are much larger than normal animals, they manifest differences that have adverse effects on survival due to overexpression of growth hormone. We developed a stable pig embryonic fibroblast cell line expressing pig growth hormone (pGH) using the Tet-On system, with which we can conditionally manipulate expression of pGH in vivo. Inducible expression of pGH was achieved by combining reserve Tet-controlled transcriptional activator and tetracycline-responsive element in a single plasmid. The mRNA expression of pGH was significantly increased compared to the non-induced group by about 10-fold. The controlled secretion of pGH induced by doxycycline was further tested in stably transfected cells. We conclude that inducible GH expression can be achieved in pig embryonic fibroblasts. Source

Shao X.,East China University of Science and Technology | Lee P.W.,East China University of Science and Technology | Liu Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu X.,East China University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Resistance development and limited lepidopteran activities call for the discovery of "super-neonicotinoids" solving these problems. Compounds with the cis-configuration offer an opportunity for further optimization. Fixing the nitro group in the cis-configuration provided a new approach for neonicotinoid molecular design. Introductions of the heterocycle or a bulky group are two synthesis concepts to fix the cis-configuration of the nitro group. The design, synthesis, bioactivity, and preliminary modes of action of five types of cis-neonicotinoids are reviewed. cis-and trans-Neonicotinoids have some differences in bioactivities and modes of action. This study focused, especially, on the reaction diversities of nitromethylene analogues of imidacloprid with various aldehydes. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Huang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: We isolated and characterized phosphate-dissolving endophytic bacteria from two commonly cultivated crops. METHODS: Phosphate-dissolving endophytic bacteria were isolated by plating and screening from interior tissues of rape and maize plants on NBRIP medium with tricalcium phosphate as sole phosphate source. Bacteria were characterized regarding characteristics that may be relevant for a beneficial plant-microbe interaction-indoleacetic acid, siderophore and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase production,and further classified by restriction analysis of 16S rDNA. Eleven typical strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-two phosphate-dissolving endophytic bacteria were isolated from maize and rape plants and classified by restriction analysis of 16S rDNA in 8 different taxonomic groups at the similarity level of 76%. All the isolates could release phosphate from tricalcium phosphate and decrease the pH of the medium. The maximum phosphate content (537.6 mg/L) in the solution was obtained with strain M1L5. Thirteen isolates isolated from rape produced indoleacetic acid and siderophore, 68.4% and 63.2% of the strains isolated from maize produced indoleacetic acid and siderophore,respectively. 63.2% of the strains isolated from maize were able to grow on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid as the sole nitrogen source. The eleven strains belonged to five different genera including Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Acinetobacter and Ralstonia. CONCLUSIONS: Phosphate-dissolving endophytic bacteria isolated from rape and maize plants have abundant characteristics relative to promoting plant growth and genetic diversity. Source

Na R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Na R.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Yu D.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Yu D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | Year: 2013

Phytophthora sojae is an oomycete and a pathogen of soybean that causes root rot. During infection P. sojae delivers effector proteins into host cells to foster disease. However, effector-triggered immunity (ETI) results when pathogen factors are recognized by host resistance (R) proteins. We have now identified the P. sojae Avr1d gene, which encodes a predicted effector protein with the amino acid motif Arg- X-Leu-Arg (RXLR). Genetic mapping of 16 different P. sojae isolates and of a segregating F2 population of 40 individuals shows that the predicted RXLR effector gene Avh6 precisely cosegregates with the Avr1d phenotype. Transient expression assays confirm that Avr1d triggers cell death specifically in Rps1d soybean plants. The Avr1d gene is present in P. sojae strains that are avirulent on Rps1d, whereas the gene is deleted from the genome of virulent strains. Two sequence variants of the Avr1d gene encoding different protein products occur in P. sojae strains, but both are recognized by Rps1d and cause ETI. Liposome binding assays show that Avr1d has affinity for phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and that binding can be disrupted by mutation of lysine residues in the carboxy-terminal effector domain of the protein. The identification of Avr1d aids pathogen diagnostics and soybean cultivar development. © 2013 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

Zhang W.,East China University of Science and Technology | Chen Y.,East China University of Science and Technology | Chen W.,East China University of Science and Technology | Liu Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li Z.,East China University of Science and Technology
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

A series of tetrahydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of 2-vinyl-4,5-dihydroimidazole derivatives with substituted benzylidenemalononitrile via a catalyst-free aza-Diels-Alder reaction. Insecticidal activities of target compounds were tested against pea aphids (Aphis craccivora), which showed that activities were strongly influenced by the substituents and their positions. Especially, the introduction of a fluoro group at the 2- position increased activities. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Ito J.,Kyoto University | Bao Z.,Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Social science | Su Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Food Policy | Year: 2012

This paper examines the treatment effects of the agricultural cooperative and publicly funded extension services on individual household economy, using data collected by the author from watermelon-producing farm households in rural Nanjing. The cooperative addressed in this study restricts the participation of small-scale farmers, implying that selection into the program must be taken into consideration for an accurate assessment of the treatment effect. The econometric analysis revealed that government extension services have a modest effect on farm income. In contrast, the treatment effect of the agricultural cooperative is robust and substantially large, accounting for nearly 70% of the pre-matching difference. This suggests that the agricultural cooperative system is an important avenue for farmers to improve their economic status. The treatment effect of the agricultural cooperative is highly heterogeneous; the economic benefits arising from the cooperative are significant only for small-scale farms. We can argue that a coexistence of smallholder exclusion and the treatment effect in favor of small-scale farms poses serious challenges to pro-poor agricultural growth in China. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Wang Y.,Tongji University | Zhang Q.,Tongji University | Zhang Q.,Anhui University | Zhang C.-L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Chitosan was combined with nano-ZnO to increase its antimicrobial activity, using polyvinyl alcohol as a support, and then were electronspun to form composite nanofibres. Through SEM, EDX and XRD observations, chitosan was seen to be able to incorporate nano-ZnO in the composite nanofibres. Escherichia coli, expressing recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein, and Candida albicans were used to test the antimicrobial efficacy of the newly synthesised chitosan/nano-ZnO antimicrobial composite. The CdTe quantum dots were used to rapidly detect the residual changes of C. albicans and determine the end point of using antimicrobial agents. Minimal minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), post-antibiotic effect and continuous agent effect of the composite were determined. The MIC of chitosan/nano-ZnO against C. albicans was 160 μg/ml, close to the concentration of the treated composite with the lowest fluorescence intensity. The cell damage was observed by SEM, which indicated that nano-ZnO in the nanofibrous membranes played a cooperative role in the antimicrobial process of chitosan. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Gandahi J.A.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Poultry science | Year: 2012

The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are widely believed to be neuroeffector cells of smooth muscle activity in all tubular organs, including the oviduct. The avian oviduct involves the secretion, sheathing, and transportation of a large-sized egg, but there is no information available on ICC in this special organ. We have demonstrated the presence of ICC in different segments throughout the oviduct in the laying hen and provided details on their ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy technique, for the first time. The observed ICC appeared bipolar and multipolar cells of different shapes, with varying nuclear morphologies, a thin rim of electron-dense cytoplasm, and an infrequent basal lamina. They showed moniliform primary processes with one or 2 secondary or terminal processes. We found ICC near smooth muscle cells, nerve fibers, and the epithelia, where they make specialized contacts in the form of close membrane associations or gap-like junctions and peg-and-socket-like junctions. Intricate labyrinthine-type networking contacts were also present in ICC processes. Moreover, we report for the first time, that ICC in avian oviduct make interdigitating contacts with the epithelium. Cytoplasmic organelles identified in ICC include numerous well-developed mitochondria, abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, and dispersed intermediate filaments. Many caveolae and vesicles were also present. Golgi bodies and centrioles were rare. Fibroblasts, on the other hand, were distinct cells with larger cytoplasmic area, more rough endoplasmic reticulum, and less mitochondrial content. No basal lamina, intermediate filaments, or caveolae were present in fibroblasts. Their processes were shorter and showed no contacts with smooth muscle cells or nerves. We conclude that these ICC might also have a key role in the regulatory mechanisms of motility and transportation in the hen oviduct, as already proved in mammalian oviduct. Such role of ICC might also be responsible for the function of the muscular infundibulum, where the fertilization takes place, and that moves to surround the released ovum, failure of which results in the internal laying. Source

Li P.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2010

S-layer proteins of Lactobacillus acidophilus were extracted and purified, then the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and its S-layer proteins against the adhesion and invasion of salmonella typhimurium to caco-2 cells were investigated. S-layer proteins were purified by anion-exchange column {diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) DE52}, and the inhibition of Lactobacillus acidophilus and its S-layer proteins were studied against the adhesion and invasion of salmonella typhimurium on Caco-2 cells. S-layer proteins exhibited strongly inhibitory effects of adhesive and invading properties of Salmonella typhimurium. In the adhesive experiments (competitive, exclusive and displacement), Salmonella typhimurium adhesion was reduced by S-layer proteins and the ability of adherence to Caco-2 cells were 1.17% +/- 5.97%, 8.71% +/- 1.36% and 10.56% +/- 0.92%, respectively (P < 0.01). The influence to inhibit the competitive adhesion of Salmonella typhimurium was optimal. Furthermore, the S-layer proteins showed a stronger effect than Lactobacillus acidophilus to inhibit Salmonella typhimurium adhesion on Caco-2 monolayers (P < 0.01). Moreover, invasion of Salmonella typhimurium to Caco-2 monolayers was inhibited by S-layer proteins. S-layer proteins inhibited adherence and invasion of Salmonella typhimurium. The result can merit a highlight for preventive or probiotic therapy in human or animals with disease caused by Salmonella typhimurium. Source

Noble G.T.,University of Manchester | Craven F.L.,University of Manchester | Voglmeir J.,University of Manchester | Voglmeir J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

A fluoro-tagged N-acetylglucosamine-capped glycolipid that can form lipid microdomains in fluid phospholipid bilayers has been shown to be enzymatically galactosylated by bovine β(1,4)-galactosyltransferase. MALDI MS, HPLC, and LC-MS revealed that the rate of enzymatic transformation was significantly enhanced by lipid clustering; at a 1% mol/mol loading, clustered glycolipids were galactosylated 9-fold faster than glycolipids dispersed across the bilayer surface. The transformation of the GlcNAc "glycocalyx" into a Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc "glycocalyx" relabeled these vesicles, making them susceptible to agglutination by Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL). The kinetic parameters for this transformation revealed a lower apparent K m when the substrate lipids were clustered, which is attributed to multivalent binding to an extended substrate cleft around the active site. These observations may have important implications where soluble enzymes act on substrates embedded within cellular lipid rafts. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Chen J.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yang Z.M.,Nanjing Agricultural University
BioMetals | Year: 2012

Mercury (Hg) contamination in soils has become a great concern as a result of its natural release and anthropogenic activities. This review presents broad aspects of our recent understanding of mercury contamination and toxicology in plants including source of Hg contamination, toxicology, tolerant regulation in plants, and minimization strategy. We first introduced the sources of mercury contamination in soils. Mercury exists in different forms, but ionic mercury (Hg2+) is the predominant form in soils and readily absorbed by plants. The second issue to be discussed is the uptake, transport, and localization of Hg2+ in plants. Mercury accumulated in plants evokes severe phytotoxicity and impairs numerous metabolic processes including nutrient uptake, water status, and photosynthesis. The mechanisms of mercury-induced toxicology, molecular response and gene networks for regulating plant tolerance will be reviewed. In the case of Hg recent much progress has been made in profiling of transcriptome and more importantly, uncovering a group of small RNAs that potentially mediates plant tolerance to Hg. Several newly discovered signaling molecules such as nitric oxide and carbon monoxide have now been described as regulators of plant tolerance to Hg. A recently emerged strategy, namely selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize Hg (or other metals) accumulation will be discussed in the last part of the review. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2012. Source

Chowdhury S.P.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Hartmann A.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Gao X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Gao X.,Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Management of Crop Disease and Pest Insects | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42 is a Gram-positive model bacterium for unraveling plant-microbe interactions in Bacilli. In addition, FZB42 is used commercially as biofertilizer and biocontrol agent in agriculture. Genome analysis of FZB42 revealed that nearly 10% of the FZB42 genome is devoted to synthesizing antimicrobial metabolites and their corresponding immunity genes. However, recent investigations in planta demonstrated that - except surfactin - the amount of such compounds found in vicinity of plant roots is relatively low, making doubtful a direct function in suppressing competing microflora including plant pathogens. These metabolites have been also suspected to induce changes within the rhizosphere microbial community, which might affect environment and plant health. However, sequence analysis of rhizosphere samples revealed only marginal changes in the root microbiome, suggesting that secondary metabolites are not the key factor in protecting plants from pathogenic microorganisms. On the other hand, adding FZB42 to plants compensate, at least in part, changes in the community structure caused by the pathogen, indicating an interesting mechanism of plant protection by beneficial Bacilli. Sub-lethal concentrations of cyclic lipopeptides and volatiles produced by plant-associated Bacilli trigger pathways of induced systemic resistance (ISR), which protect plants against attacks of pathogenic microbes, viruses, and nematodes. Stimulation of ISR by bacterial metabolites is likely the main mechanism responsible for biocontrol action of FZB42. © 2015 Chowdhury, Hartmann, Gao and Borriss. Source

Liu Z.J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

We investigated and described the kinetics of heat shock protein (Hsp) 110 expression and distribution in rat primary myocardial cells exposed to heat stress in vitro. After incubation at 37°C for 72 h, myocardial cells were heat stressed at 42°C for 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 120, 240, 360, and 480 min. Significant increases in aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase enzymatic activities in the myocardial cell culture media were observed during heat stress, suggesting that the integrity of the myocardial cells was altered. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the expressed Hsp110 was constitutively localized in the cytoplasm and in the nuclei in small amounts characterized by a granular pattern. Nuclear Hsp110 levels increased significantly after 240 min of heat stress compared with levels in the control. The overall levels of Hsp110 expression increased significantly after 20 min. After 240 min, Hsp110 levels were approximately 1.2-fold higher than those in the control. Increasing levels of hsp110 messenger RNA detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction were observed after 20 min of heat stress, and the levels peaked with a 10-fold increase after 240 min of heat stress. These results indicate that the expression of Hsp110 in primary myocardial cells in vitro is sensitive to hyperthermic stress and that Hsp110 is involved in the potential acquisition of thermotolerance after heat stress. Therefore, Hsp110 might play a fundamental role in opposing and alleviating heat-induced damage caused by hyperthermic stress in primary myocardial cells. Source

Some plants can tolerate and even detoxify soils contaminated with heavy metals. This detoxification ability may depend on what chemical forms of metals are taken up by plants and how the plants distribute the toxins in their tissues. This, in turn, may have an important impact on phytoremediation. We investigated the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus intraradices, on the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium (Cd) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) that were grown in Cd-added soils. The fungus significantly colonized alfalfa roots by day 25 after planting. Colonization of alfalfa by G. intraradices in soils contaminated with Cd ranged from 17% to 69% after 25-60 days and then decreased to 43%. The biomass of plant shoots with AM fungi showed significant 1.7-fold increases compared to no AM fungi addition under the treatment of 20 mg kg(-1) Cd. Concentrations of Cd in the shoots of alfalfa under 0.5, 5, and 20 mgkg(-1) Cd without AM fungal inoculation are 1.87, 2.92, and 2.38 times higher, respectively, than those of fungi-inoculated plants. Fungal inoculation increased Cd (37.2-80.5%) in the cell walls of roots and shoots and decreased in membranes after 80 days of incubation compared to untreated plants. The proportion of the inactive forms of Cd in roots was higher in fungi-treated plants than in controls. Furthermore, although fungi-treated plants had less overall Cd in subcellular fragments in shoots, they had more inactive Cd in shoots than did control plants. These results provide a basis for further research on plant-microbe symbioses in soils contaminated with heavy metals, which may potentially help us develop management regimes for phytoremediation. Source

Zhang T.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Zhang W.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Zhang W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jiang J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Plant Physiology | Year: 2015

The fundamental unit of chromatin is the nucleosome that consists of a protein octamer composed of the four core histones (Hs; H3, H4, H2A, and H2B) wrapped by 147 bp of DNA. Nucleosome occupancy and positioning have proven to be dynamic and have a critical impact on expression, regulation, and evolution of eukaryotic genes. We developed nucleosome occupancy and positioning data sets using leaf tissue of rice (Oryza sativa) and both leaf and flower tissues of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We show that model plant and animal species share the fundamental characteristics associated with nucleosome dynamics. Only 12% and 16% of the Arabidopsis and rice genomes, respectively, were occupied by well-positioned nucleosomes. The cores of positioned nucleosomes were enriched with G/C dinucleotides and showed a lower C→T mutation rate than the linker sequences. We discovered that nucleosomes associated with heterochromatic regions were more spaced with longer linkers than those in euchromatic regions in both plant species. Surprisingly, different nucleosome densities were found to be associated with chromatin in leaf and flower tissues in Arabidopsis. We show that deep MNase-seq data sets can be used to map nucleosome occupancy of specific genomic loci and reveal gene expression patterns correlated with chromatin dynamics in plant genomes. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved. Source

Zeng H.,Hangzhou Normal University | Wang G.,Hangzhou Normal University | Hu X.,Hangzhou Normal University | Wang H.,Hangzhou Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2014

Background: Plants must acquire at least 14 mineral nutrients from the soil to complete their life cycles. Insufficient availability or extreme high levels of the nutrients significantly affect plant growth and development. Plants have evolved a series of mechanisms to adapt to unsuitable growth conditions where nutrient levels are too low or too high. microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small RNAs, are known to mediate post-transcriptional regulation by transcript cleavage or translational inhibition. Besides regulating plant growth and development, miRNAs are well documented to regulate plant adaptation to adverse environmental conditions including nutrient stresses. Scope: In this review, we focus on recent progress in our understanding of how miRNAs are involved in plant response to stresses resulting from deficiency in nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, copper and iron, as well as toxicities from heavy metal ions. Conclusions: Accumulated evidence indicates that miRNAs play critical roles in sensing the abundance of nutrients, controlling nutrient uptake and phloem-mediated long-distance transport, and nutrient homeostasis. miRNAs act as systemic signals to coordinate these physiological activities helping plants respond to and survive nutrient stresses and toxicities. Knowledge about how miRNAs are involved in plant responses to nutrient stresses promise to provide novel strategies to develop crops with improved nutrient use efficiency which could be grown in soils with either excessive or insufficient availability of nutrients. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Five new eyed species of Sinella from China, respectively with 3, 3, 2, 1, 1 ommatidia on each side, are described here: S. longisensilla sp. nov., S. yui sp. nov., S. pseudobrowni sp. nov., S. sacellum sp. nov. and S. gracilis sp. nov. Clypeal chaetae and chaetae along cephalic groove exhibit differences among these species and could be used to distinguish species in Sinella and Coecobrya. A key to the eyed species of the genus is given. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press. Source

We evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation with anthraquinone extract (from Rheum officinale Bail) on the resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Megalobrama amblycephala. The fish were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (fed a standard diet) and a treatment group (standard diet supplemented with 0.1% anthraquinone extract) and fed for 10 weeks. We then challenged the fish with A. hydrophila and recorded mortality and changes in serum cortisol, lysozyme, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and the relative expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA for a period of 5 d. Supplementation with 0.1% anthraquinone extract significantly increased serum lysozyme activity before infection, serum ALP activity at 24 h after infection, serum total protein concentration 12 h after infection, hepatic CAT activity 12 h after infection, hepatic SOD activity before infection, and the relative expression of hepatic HSP70 mRNA both before infection and 6 h after infection. In addition, the supplemented group had decreased levels of serum cortisol 6 h after infection, serum AST and ALT activities 12 h after infection, and hepatic MDA content 12 h after infection. Mortality was significantly lower in the treatment group (86.67%) than the control (100%). Our results suggest that ingestion of a basal diet supplemented with 0.1% anthraquinone extract from R. officinale Bail can enhance resistance against pathogenic infections in M. amblycephala. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Wu S.-F.,Zhejiang University | Wu S.-F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu G.,Zhejiang University | Qi Y.-X.,Zhejiang University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2014

The octopamine and tyramine, as the invertebrate counterparts of the vertebrate adrenergic transmitters, control and modulate many physiological and behavioral processes. Both molecules mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors belonging to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. So far, four families of octopamine and tyramine receptors have been reported. Here, we described the functional characterization of one putative octopamine/tyramine receptor gene from the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. By a mechanism of alternative splicing, this receptor gene (CsOA3) encodes two molecularly distinct transcripts, CsOA3S and CsOA3L. CsOA3L differs from CsOA3S on account of the presence of an additional 30 amino acids within the third intracellular loop. When heterologously expressed, both receptors cause increases of intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The short form, CsOA3S, was activated by both octopamine and tyramine, resulting in decreased intracellular cAMP levels ([cAMP]i) in a dose-dependent manner, whereas dopamine and serotonin are not effective. However, CsOA3L did not show any impact on [cAMP]i. Studies with series of agonists and antagonists confirmed that CsOA3 has a different pharmacological profile from that of other octopamine receptor families. The CsOA3 is, to our knowledge, a novel family of insect octopamine receptors. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry. Source

Zhang H.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Plant signaling & behavior | Year: 2012

Heterotrimeric G-proteins play an important regulatory role in multiple physiological processes, including the plant immune response, and substantial progress has been made in elucidating the G-protein-mediated defense-signaling network. This mini-review discusses the importance of G-proteins in plant immunity. We also provide an overview of how G-proteins affect plant cell death and stomatal movement. Our recent studies demonstrated that G-proteins are involved in signal transduction and induction of stomatal closure and defense responses. We also discuss future directions for G-protein signaling studies involving plant immunity. Source

Yang B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Sun Y.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Scientometrics | Year: 2013

The World Wide Web has become an important source of academic information. The linking feature of the Web has been used to study the structure of academic web, as well as the presence of academic and research institutes on the Web. In this paper, we propose an integrated model for exploring the subject macrostructure of a specific academic topic on the Web and automatically depicting the knowledge map that is closer to what a domain expert would expect. The model integrates a hyperlink-induced topic search (HITS)-based link network extending strategy and a semantic based clustering algorithm with the aid of co-link analysis and social network analysis (SNA) to discover subject-based communities in the academic web space. We selected to use websites as analytical units rather than web pages because of the subject stability of a website. Compared with traditional techniques in Webometrics and SNA that have been used for such analyses, our model has the advantages of working on open web space (capability to explore unknown web resources and identify important ones) and of automatically building an extendable and hierarchical web knowledge map. The experiment in the area of Information Retrieval shows the effectiveness of the integrated model in analyzing and portraying of subject clustering phenomenon in academic web space. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. Source

Wang J.,Yangzhou University | Li Y.,Yangzhou University | Han Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhu Y.,Yangzhou University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are the targets of two novel classes of synthetic insecticidal chemicals, phthalic acid diamides and anthranilic diamides. Isolation of full-length RyR cDNAs is a critical step towards the structural and functional characterization of insect RyRs and an understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the species selective toxicity of diamide insecticides. However, there has been little research on the insect RyR genes due to the high molecular weight of the RyR proteins. In this study, we isolated a full-length RyR cDNA (named as CmRyR) from Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, an important rice pest throughout Southeast Asia. The composite CmRyR gene contains an ORF of 15264 bp encoding a protein of 5087 amino acid residues, which shares 79% overall identity with its Drosophila melanogaster homologue. All hallmarks of the RyR proteins are conserved in the CmRyR protein, suggesting that CmRyR is a structural and functional analogue of known RyRs. A multiple sequence alignment illustrates that the insect RyRs share high levels of amino acid sequence identity at the the COOH-terminal region. However, the amino acid residues analogous to the CmRyR residues N4922, N4924, N4935, L4950, L4981, N5013 and T5064 are unique to lepidopteran RyRs compared with non-lepidopteran insect RyRs. This finding suggests that these residues may be involved in the differences in channel properties between lepidopteran and non-lepidopteran insect RyRs and in the species selective toxicity of diamide insecticides. Furthermore, two alternative splicing sites were identified in the CmRyR gene, one of which was located in the central part of the predicted second SPRY domain. Diagnostic PCR showed that the inclusion frequencies of two mutually exclusive exons (a/b) and one optional exon (c) differed between developmental stages or adult anatomical regions. Our results imply that alternative splicing may be a major means of generating functional diversity in C. medinalis RyR channel. © 2012 Wang et al. Source

Liu F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu F.,Center for Molecular Biology | Liu F.,Case Western Reserve University | Putnam A.A.,Center for Molecular Biology | And 2 more authors.
Biochemistry | Year: 2014

DEAD-box RNA helicases bind and remodel RNA and RNA-protein complexes in an ATP-dependent fashion. Several lines of evidence suggest that DEAD-box RNA helicases can also form stable, persistent complexes with RNA in a process referred to as RNA clamping. The molecular basis of RNA clamping is not well understood. Here we show that the yeast DEAD-box helicase Ded1p forms exceptionally long-lived complexes with RNA and the nonhydrolyzable ATP ground-state analogue ADP-BeFx or the nonhydrolyzable ATP transition state analogue ADP-AlFx. The complexes have lifetimes of several hours, and neither nucleotide nor Mg2+ is released during this period. Mutation of arginine 489, which stabilizes the transition state, prevents formation of long-lived complexes with the ATP transition state analogue, but not with the ground state analogue. We also show that two other yeast DEAD-box helicases, Mss116p and Sub2p, form comparably long-lived complexes with RNA and ADP-BeFx. Like Ded1p, Mss116p forms long-lived complexes with ADP-AlFx, but Sub2p does not. These data suggest that the ATP transition state might vary for distinct DEAD-box helicases, or that the transition state triggers differing RNA binding properties in these proteins. In the ATP ground state, however, all tested DEAD-box helicases establish a persistent grip on RNA, revealing an inherent capacity of the enzymes to function as potent, ATP-dependent RNA clamps. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Tong X.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Tong X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu R.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science
Journal of Environmental Sciences (China) | Year: 2013

The removal efficiency of copper (Cu(II)) from an actual acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from canola, rice, soybean and peanut straws was investigated. The biochars simultaneously removed Cu(II) from the effluent, mainly through the mechanisms of adsorption and precipitation, and neutralized its acidity. The removal efficiency of Cu(II) by the biochars followed the order: peanut straw char > soybean straw char > canola straw char > rice straw char ≫ a commercial activated carbonaceous material, which is consistent with the alkalinity of the biochars. The pH of the effluent was a key factor determining the removal efficiency of Cu(II) by biochars. Raising the initial pH of the effluent enhanced the removal of Cu(II) from it. The optimum pyrolysis temperature was 400°C for producing biochar from crop straws for acidic wastewater treatment, and the optimum reaction time was 8 hr. © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Source

Kamali M.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Xia A.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Xia A.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Tu Z.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Sharakhov I.V.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2012

Understanding phylogenetic relationships within species complexes of disease vectors is crucial for identifying genomic changes associated with the evolution of epidemiologically important traits. However, the high degree of genetic similarity among sibling species confounds the ability to determine phylogenetic relationships using molecular markers. The goal of this study was to infer the ancestral-descendant relationships among malaria vectors and nonvectors of the Anopheles gambiae species complex by analyzing breakpoints of fixed chromosomal inversions in ingroup and several outgroup species. We identified genes at breakpoints of fixed overlapping chromosomal inversions 2Ro and 2Rp of An. merus using fluorescence in situ hybridization, a whole-genome mate-paired sequencing, and clone sequencing. We also mapped breakpoints of a chromosomal inversion 2La (common to An. merus, An. gambiae, and An. arabiensis) in outgroup species using a bioinformatics approach. We demonstrated that the "standard" 2R+p arrangement and "inverted" 2Ro and 2La arrangements are present in outgroup species Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The data indicate that the ancestral species of the An. gambiae complex had the 2Ro, 2R+p, and 2La chromosomal arrangements. The "inverted" 2Ro arrangement uniquely characterizes a malaria vector An. merus as the basal species in the complex. The rooted chromosomal phylogeny implies that An. merus acquired the 2Rp inversion and that its sister species An. gambiae acquired the 2R+o inversion from the ancestral species. The karyotype of nonvectors An. quadriannulatus A and B was derived from the karyotype of the major malaria vector An. gambiae. We conclude that the ability to effectively transmit human malaria had originated repeatedly in the complex. Our findings also suggest that saltwater tolerance originated first in An. merus and then independently in An. melas. The new chromosomal phylogeny will facilitate identifying the association of evolutionary genomic changes with epidemiologically important phenotypes. © 2012 Kamali et al. Source

Fang Y.,Zaozhuang University | You X.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of Mathematical Chemistry | Year: 2014

This paper focuses on adapted two-derivative Runge-Kutta (TDRK) type methods for solving the Schrödinger equation. Two new TDRK methods are derived by nullifying their phase-lags and the first derivatives of the phase-lags. Error analysis is carried out by means of asymptotic expressions of the local errors. Numerical results are reported to show the efficiency and robustness of the new methods in comparison with some RK type methods specially tuned to the integration of the radial time-independent Schrödinger equation with the Woods-Saxon potential. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Wu L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wu L.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Zhang X.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Chen Q.-Q.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Zhou A.-K.,Harbin Institute of Technology
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2012

We report here a novel C(sp3)-P bonds formation via copper-catalyzed reductive coupling of N-tosylhydrazones with H-phosphorus oxides. A variety of aliphatic and aromatic substrates bearing electron-rich and electron-deficient substituents affords phosphine oxide derivatives with moderate to good yields. This work suggests a new transformation of aldehydes/ketones via N-tosylhydrazones to organophosphorus compounds. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Xu C.,Nanjing University | Huang Z.Y.X.,Wageningen University | Chi T.,Nanjing University | Chen B.J.W.,University Utrecht | And 2 more authors.
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2014

Aim: Although the influence on species richness of landscape attributes representing landscape composition and spatial configuration has been well documented at landscape scales, its effects remain little understood at macroecological scales. We aim to assess the role of landscape attributes, and their relative importance compared with climate, habitat heterogeneity and human influence (CHH) in particular, in shaping broad-scale richness patterns. Location: Mainland China. Methods: Species richness data for mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians were derived from the China Species Information Service. Together with the richness data, CHH variables and class- and landscape-level landscape metrics were calculated using grain sizes of 50km×50km, 100km×100km and 200km×200km. At these multiple scales, the species richness of each taxonomic group was correlated with CHH and landscape variables using both ordinary least square (OLS) and simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models; variation partitioning was used to assess the relative strength of landscape attributes versus CHH variables. Results: In general, climate is the most influential factor shaping richness patterns. Landscape attributes, especially class-level attributes, can also explain considerable variation in richness. Variation partitioning showed largely overlapped fractions of explained variation between landscape attributes and CHH variables. The pure explanatory power of landscape attributes was small for mammals, reptiles and amphibians, showing R2 of 1-3%, while it was considerably larger for birds, showing R2 of 5-10%. The environment-richness correlations showed scale dependency, but the pure explanatory power of landscape attributes appeared to show small changes across the scale range used in this study. Main conclusions: In addition to CHH variables, landscape attributes can explain some broad-scale richness patterns, especially for birds. The incorporation of landscape attributes will be conducive to better understanding the drivers of richness patterns and modelling species richness at macroecological scales. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Flannery B.M.,Michigan State University | Wu W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Pestka J.J.,Michigan State University
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2011

A short-term mouse model was devised to investigate induction of food refusal by the common foodborne trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON). DON dose-dependently induced anorexia within 2. h of exposure when administered either by intraperitoneal (ip.) injection or by oral gavage. The no observed adverse effect and lowest observed adverse effect levels in this assay were 0.5 and 1. mg/kg. bw for ip. exposure and 1 and 2.5. mg/kg. bw for oral exposure, respectively. DON's effects on food intake were transient, lasting up to 3. h at 1. mg/kg. bw and up to 6. h at 5. mg/kg. bw. Interestingly, a dose-dependent orexigenic response was observed in the 14. h following the initial 2. h food intake measurement. Toxin-treated mice exhibited partial resistance to feed refusal when exposed to DON subsequently after 2. d, but not after 7. d suggesting that this modest tolerance was reversible. The short-term mouse bioassay described here was useful in characterizing DON-induced anorexia and should be applicable to elucidating mechanisms underlying this adverse nutritional effect. © 2011. Source

Wang R.,University of California at San Diego | Guan P.,University of California at San Diego | Chen M.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Xing X.,University of California at San Diego | And 2 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2010

To accommodate fluctuating nutrient levels in the soil, plants modulate their metabolism and root development via signaling mechanisms that rapidly reprogram the plant transcriptome. In the case of nitrate, over 1,000 genes are induced or repressed within minutes of nitrate exposure. To identify cis-regulatory elements that mediate these responses, an enhancer screen was performed in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. A 1.8-kb promoter fragment from the nitrate reductase gene NIA1 was identified that acts as a nitrate enhancer when fused to a 35S minimal promoter. Enhancer activity was localized to a 180-bp fragment, and this activity could be enhanced by the addition of a 131-bp fragment from the nitrite reductase promoter. A promoter construct containing the 180- and 131-bp fragments was also induced by nitrite and repressed by ammonium, indicating that it was responsive to multiple nitrogen signals. To identify specific regulatory elements within the 180-bp NIA1 fragment, a transient expression system using agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana was developed. Deletion analysis identified three elements corresponding to predicted binding motifs for homeodomain/E-box, Myb, and Alfin1 transcription factors. A fully active promoter showing nitrate and nitrite enhancer activity equivalent to that of the wild-type 180-bp fragment could be built from these three elements if the spacing between the homeodomain/E-box and Myb-Alfin1 sites was equivalent to that of the native promoter. These findings were validated in transgenic Arabidopsis plants and identify a cisregulatory module containing three elements that comprise a nitrate enhancer in the NIA1 promoter. © 2010 American Society of Plant Biologists. Source

Mcgrath S.P.,Rothamsted Research | Zhao F.J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Soil Use and Management | Year: 2013

This review focusses on the transfers of metals and metalloids from soil to food and feed, based mostly on UK information. Published information on the behaviour of a number of these contaminants in soil-plant systems is used to evaluate which elements are likely to transfer to food and feed. Data on the concentrations of metals and metalloids in soils and other soil properties in England and Wales are used in models to illustrate the likelihood of transfers exceeding the maximum concentration limits in food and feed in European legislation. Information from crop and herbage quality surveys is used to compare with the output from models. In most cases, the modelled or observed concentrations in food and feed do not reach the maximum allowable concentrations. Of all the contaminants considered, Cd appears to be most likely to exceed limit concentrations under UK conditions, but at present, there is some difficulty predicting Pb uptake and As uptake into the edible parts of crops from soil. However, crops exceeding the food limits are more likely to be grown if those crops are vegetables and if soil limit concentrations and best soil management practices have not been followed (e.g. maintenance of high soil pH in the case of cationic metals). We discuss the gaps and uncertainties for different metals and metalloids and show the need to review the situation if food or feed maximum concentration limits are changed as new information becomes available on toxicology and dietary exposure. © 2013 British Society of Soil Science. Source

Yu S.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Liang Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2012

During biosynthesis many membrane and secreted proteins are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum, through the Golgi and on to the plasma membrane in small transport vesicles. These transport vesicles have to undergo budding, movement, tethering, docking, and fusion at each organelle of the biosynthetic pathway. The transport protein particle (TRAPP) complex was initially identified as the tethering factor for endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived COPII vesicles, but the functions of TRAPP may extend to other areas of biology. Three forms of TRAPP complexes have been discovered to date, and recent advances in research have provided new insights on the structures and functions of TRAPP. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the recent findings in TRAPP biology. © Springer Basel AG 2012. Source

Li C.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Genetika | Year: 2011

During past decades, edible chrysanthemum (Dendranthema x grandiflorum) has become a popular dietary supplement. However, only numberable cultivars are available, cytogenetic studies especially meiotic behaviour in them remaind largely unexplored. In the present study, we analyzed the karyotype and meiotic behaviour during microsporogenesis in accessions of edible chrysanthemum. This information can be useful in cultivar improvement, as well as in elucidation of the evolution of the species. The three edible cultivars studied all had an intermediate type of interphase nucleus, and their mitotic prophase chromosomes were of the interstitial type. The chromosome number of "Baohuatangyijin" (Bn) varies from 55 to 62. "Zifengmudan" (Zn) has the karyotype 2n = 54 = 38m + + 12sm + 4st, while "Jingxingxiying" (Jg) has 2n = 55 = 38m + 15sm + 2st. Male meiosis was largely normal. Mean pairing configuration ofZn at diakinesis and metaphase I was 0.941 + + 25.07II + 0.14III + 0.63IV, while for Jg, the equivalent was 1.32I + 24.64II + 0.16III + 0.85IV + 0.05V + + 0.04VI. Chromatid separation was normal during anaphase I and anaphase II in most meiocytes. All three edible chrysanthemums appear to be allopolyploid, and the edible type is probably more primitive than the ornamental type. However, the edible type is probably more closely related to the ornamental than to the medicinal type. Source

Wang W.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2012

Histone is one of critical components of chromatin, which amino acid residues at the N-terminus can be covalently modified. Histone modification (HM) can change the chromatin conformation and induce transcription or gene silencing. Not only can HM control gene expression, but also participate in cell division, cell apoptosis and memory formation by recruiting protein complex and affecting downstream proteins. HM can also have the impact on immune system and inflammatory reaction. In addition, lots of recent studies have indicated that histone code (or HM) is related to the CTD code, circadian clock and DNA repair, implying the significance of HM. The domains of protein complex can never be replaced, because they play a mediating role during the formation and deciphering of histone code, as well as the modification cascade and the recruitment of protein complex. Therefore, these domains are very important to comprehend the histone code. Because of the widespread use of analytical techniques, such as mass-spectrometry, new domains will be discovered. Herein, our review focuses on the basic concept, recent progress and hot points of the histone code study. Source

Hartley T.N.,Rothamsted Research | Macdonald A.J.,Rothamsted Research | McGrath S.P.,Rothamsted Research | Zhao F.-J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2013

Archived samples from the Park Grass Experiment, established in 1856, were analysed to determine the impacts of long-term phosphate fertiliser applications on arsenic concentrations in soil and herbage. In plots receiving 35 kg P ha-1 annually (+P), topsoil As concentrations almost doubled from an initial value of ∼10 mg kg-1 during 1888-1947 and remained stable thereafter. The phosphate fertilisers used before 1948 contained 401-1575 mg As kg-1, compared to 1.6-20.3 mg As kg-1 in the later samples. Herbage samples from the +P plots collected during 1888-1947 contained significantly more As than those from the -P plots, but later samples did not differ significantly. Mass-balance calculations show that the increase in soil As can be explained by the As input from P fertiliser applications before 1948. The results demonstrate that the P fertilisers used on the Park Grass Experiment before 1948 caused substantial As contamination of the soil. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Zhu Y.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhu Y.,Cornell University | Du B.,Cornell University | Du B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

Activation of plant immune responses is often associated with an inhibition of plant growth. The molecular mechanisms underlying this fitness cost are unknown. Here, we utilize the autoimmune response mutant suppressor of npr1, constitutive1 (snc1) resulting from an activated form of the Disease Resistance (R) gene to dissect the genetic component mediating growth inhibition in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The radical-induced cell death1 (rcd1) mutant defective in responses to reactive oxygen species (ROS) was isolated as an enhancer of the snc1 mutant in growth inhibition but not in defense response activation. Similarly, the vitamin C2 (vtc2) and vtc3 mutants defective in ROS detoxification enhanced the growth defects of snc1. Thus, perturbation of ROS status by R gene activation is responsible for the growth inhibition, and this effect is independent of defense response activation. This was further supported by the partial rescue of growth defects of rcd1 snc1 by the respiratory burst oxidase homolog D (rbohD) and rbohF mutations compromising the generation of ROS burst. Collectively, these findings indicate that perturbation of ROS homeostasis contributes to the fitness cost independent of defense activation. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved. Source

Teixeira da Silva J.A.,Kagawa University | Shinoyama H.,Fukui Agricultural Experiment Station | Aida R.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Matsushita Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 2 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

Chrysanthemum is globally the second most important ornamental in terms of socioeconomic importance. Even though the vast range of flower colors, shapes and forms were initially created using conventional and mutation breeding, transgenic strategies are now more frequently used with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation being the most popular form of introducing foreign genes into chrysanthemums. Even so, transformation efficiency remains dependent on cultivar and regeneration procedure. Transgenic molecular breeding has seen the introduction of important traits such as novel flower color and form and plant architecture, prolonged cut-flower vase-life, resistance to biotic stresses such as viruses/viroids, pathogens and insects. However, chimerism and transgene silencing continue to be limiting factors. Transgenic strategies, despite opening up new avenues for creating new cultivars with improved agronomic and horticultural traits, may be limited due to the risk of transgenic pollen escaping into the wild. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Zhang X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang X.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Shen Y.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yu X.-Y.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu X.-J.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2012

The analytical method for the residues of chlorpyrifos in rice plants, water and soil was developed and dissipation of chlorpyrifos under field conditions was studied. The limit of detection (LOD) of chlorpyrifos was 0.006mgkg -1 and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 0.04mgkg -1 in rice plant (water) and 0.02mgkg -1 in the other substrates, respectively. The results showed that the initial residues of chlorpyrifos in Nanjing and Guangxi were 4.99 and 6.05mgkg -1 (rice plant), 1.35 and 1.58mgkg -1 (water) and 0.51 and 0.63mgkg -1 (soil), respectively. The half-lives of chlorpyrifos in rice plant, water and soil from Nanjing were 4.28, 0.58 and 1.35 day, respectively, and the half-lives of those from Guangxi were 3.86, 0.52 and 1.21 day, respectively. The husked rice, rice hull and straw samples were found to contain chlorpyrifos well below the maximum residue limit (MRL) following the recommended dosage, the residues of chlorpyrifos in soil were undetectable under all application levels and frequencies after 28 day of applications. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Gao H.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials | Year: 2011

To optimize the preparation conditions of Epimedium polysaccharide liposome (EPSL). EPSL was prepared by membrane distribution-supersound method. In preparation of EPSL test, an orthogonal L9 (3(4)) test was used to optimize the preparation conditions, with four factors of ratio of drug to lipid, ratio of lecithin to cholesterol, ultrasonic time and water bath temperature and two indexes of encapsulation efficiency and drug-loading rate. The encapsulation efficiency of EPSL was determined by protamine method. Optimal preparation condition of EPSL was that ratio of drug to lipid, ratio of lecithin to cholesterol, ultrasonic time and water bath temperature were 1: 30, 4: 1,10 min and 40 degrees C respectively. EPSL prepared under Optimal conditions has the property of high encapsulation efficiency and drug-loading rate. Source

Li J.,Nanjing University | Wang B.,Nanjing University | You X.,Nanjing University | You X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wu X.,Nanjing University
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2011

In this paper, two-step extended Runge-Kutta-Nyström-type methods for the numerical integration of perturbed oscillators are presented and studied. The new methods inherit the framework of two-step hybrid methods and are adapted to the special feature of the true flows in both the internal stages and the updates. Based on the EN-trees theory [H.L. Yang, X.Y. Wu, X. You, Y.L. Fang, Extended RKN-type methods for numerical integration of perturbed oscillators, Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 1777-1794], order conditions for the new methods are derived via the BBT-series defined on the set BT of branches and the BBWT-series defined on the subset BWT of BT. The stability and phase properties are analyzed. Numerical experiments show the applicability and efficiency of our new methods in comparison with the well-known high quality methods proposed in the scientific literature. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Zhao F.-J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhao F.-J.,Rothamsted Research | Moore K.L.,University of Oxford | Lombi E.,University of South Australia | And 2 more authors.
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2014

To maintain cellular homeostasis, concentrations, chemical speciation, and localization of mineral nutrients and toxic trace elements need to be regulated. Imaging the cellular and subcellular localization of elements and measuring their in situ chemical speciation are challenging tasks that can be undertaken using synchrotron-based techniques, such as X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectrometry, and mass spectrometry-based techniques, such as secondary ion mass spectrometry and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We review the advantages and limitations of these techniques, and discuss examples of their applications, which have revealed highly heterogeneous distribution patterns of elements in different cell types, often varying in chemical speciation. Combining these techniques with molecular genetic approaches can unravel functions of genes involved in element homeostasis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Huang W.-Y.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang H.-C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu W.-X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li C.-Y.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Zhejiang University: Science B | Year: 2012

Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated. Blueberry, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW), exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC., 9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC., 36.08 mg rutin/g DW), and total anthocyanidin content (TAC., 24.38 mg catechin/g DW). A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone: luteolin; flavonols: rutin, myricetin, quercetrin, and quercetin; flavanols: gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins: malvidin-3-galactoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin). In particular, the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins, which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical. © Zhejiang University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012. Source

Hu M.Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Mao F.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Sun H.,GuangXi Meteorological Bureau
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation | Year: 2011

Using NOAA/AVHRR 10-day composite NDVI data and 10-day meteorological data, including air temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure, wind velocity and sunshine duration, at 19 weather stations in the three-river-source region in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China from 1982 to 2000, the variations of NDVI and climate factors were analyzed for the purpose of studying the correlation between climate change and vegetation growthasrepresentedbyNDVIin this region. Results showed that the NDVI values in this region gradually grew from the west to the east, and the distribution was consistent with that of moisture status. The growing season came earlier due to climate warming, yet because of the reduction of precipitation, maximal NDVI during 1982-2000 did not show a significant change. NDVI related positively to air temperature, vapor pressure and precipitation, but negatively related to sunshine duration and wind velocity. Furthermore, the response of NDVI to climate change showed time lags for different climate factors. Water condition and temperature were found to be the most important factors effecting the variation of NDVI during the growing season in both the semi-arid and the semi-humid areas.In addition, NDVI had a better correlation with vapor pressure than with precipitation. The ratio of precipitation to evapotranspiration, representing water gain and loss, can be regarded as a comprehensive index to analyze NDVI and climate change, especially in areas where the water condition plays a dominant role. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Guo X.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2010

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) possesses a type III secretion system (T3 S), encoded by a hpa-hrp-hrc cluster, including hrpD6, to inject T3S effectors into plant cells to trigger hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost tobacco and pathogenicity in susceptible host rice. However, it is unclear what roles of Xoo hrpD6 gene plays in HR in tobacco and in pathogenicity in rice. In this study, we constructed a deletion mutant of hrpD6 gene by using marker-exchange method. PCR and Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the hrpD6 gene was knocked out successfully. in planta assays indicated the hrpD6 mutant, delta PhrpD6, lost the ability to induce HR in tobacco, to trigger water-soaked symptoms in seedlings rice and to cause bacterial blight in adult rice. Importantly, the bacterial growth in rice tissues was tremendously reduced. Complementation assays confirmed that hrpD6 gene could restore HR induction in tobacco, pathogenicity and bacterial growth in rice to the mutant delta PhrpD6. Reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that the expression of hrpD6 was not only induced by rice cells, but also controlled by hrpG and hrpX. Intriguyingly, the expression of hpal, encoding a harpin protein, was found to be dependent on hrpD6, implying that hrpD6 regulates the expression of hpal. Immunobloting assay confirmed that the mutation of hrpD6 affect the secretion of Hpal through T3S. The mutant lost the ability of triggering hypersensitive response in nonhost tobacco and pathogenicity in host rice is due to that hrpD6 regulates the expression of hpal gene and the mutation in hrpD6 affects the secretion of T3S effectors, like Hpa1, through T3SS. Our results provide molecular clues to understand whether hrpD6 is involved in the formation of T3S apparatus and in regulation of other hpa-hrp-hrc gene expression or not for HR induction in tobacco and pathogenicity in rice. Source

Xue J.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Xue J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Grift T.E.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Hansen A.C.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

As a renewable, sustainable and alternative fuel for compression ignition engines, biodiesel instead of diesel has been increasingly fueled to study its effects on engine performances and emissions in the recent 10 years. But these studies have been rarely reviewed to favor understanding and popularization for biodiesel so far. In this work, reports about biodiesel engine performances and emissions, published by highly rated journals in scientific indexes, were cited preferentially since 2000 year. From these reports, the effect of biodiesel on engine power, economy, durability and emissions including regulated and non-regulated emissions, and the corresponding effect factors are surveyed and analyzed in detail. The use of biodiesel leads to the substantial reduction in PM, HC and CO emissions accompanying with the imperceptible power loss, the increase in fuel consumption and the increase in NOx emission on conventional diesel engines with no or fewer modification. And it favors to reduce carbon deposit and wear of the key engine parts. Therefore, the blends of biodiesel with small content in place of petroleum diesel can help in controlling air pollution and easing the pressure on scarce resources without significantly sacrificing engine power and economy. However, many further researches about optimization and modification on engine, low temperature performances of engine, new instrumentation and methodology for measurements, etc., should be performed when petroleum diesel is substituted completely by biodiesel. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Iovene M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Iovene M.,CNR Institute of Plant Genetics | Zhang T.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Lou Q.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 3 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2013

Summary Copy number variation (CNV) has been revealed as a significant contributor to the genetic variation in humans. Although CNV has been reported in several model animal and plant species, the presence of CNV and its biological impact in polyploid species has not yet been documented. We conducted a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based CNV survey in potato, a vegetatively propagated autotetraploid species (2n = 4x = 48). We conducted FISH analysis using 18 randomly selected potato bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones in a set of 16 potato cultivars with diverse breeding backgrounds. Six BACs (33%) with insert sizes of 137-145 kb were found to be associated with large CNV events detectable at the cytological level. We demonstrate that the large CNVs associated with two specific BACs (RH102I10 and RH83C08) were widespread among potato cultivars developed in North America and Europe. We measured the transcript abundance of four genes associated with the CNV spanned by BAC RH102I10. All four genes displayed a dosage effect in transcription. Although potato is vegetatively propagated, we observed that female gametes lacking the RH102I10-associated CNV were inferior to those with at least one copy of this CNV, indicating that the RH102I10-associated CNV can impact on the growth and development of the potato plants. Our results show that CNV is highly abundant in the potato genome and may play a significant role in genetic variation of this important food crop. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Li S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li S.,Rutgers University | Huang K.,Rutgers University | Zhang X.,Rutgers University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2014

The first highly chemo- and enantioselective hydrogenation of α,β-disubstituted nitroalkenes was accomplished with rhodium/JosiPhos-J2 as a catalyst, with the yield and enantioselectivity of up to 95% and 94%, respectively. The α-chiral nitroalkanes will provide an entry to valuable chiral amphetamines which are otherwise not so easily accessed. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014. Source

Yang H.W.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Optik | Year: 2013

A method for applying the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method to dispersive media with complex permittivity described by function with a single first-order pole was presented. This method involved the recursive evaluation of a discrete convolution, and was therefore relatively efficient. In this paper, a shift operator approach is extended to media with dispersions described by multiple second-order poles. The significant change from the first-order implementation is that the formulation is simple. The approach is demonstrated for a pulsed plane wave incident on a medium with a complex permittivity described by two second-order poles, and excellent agreement is obtained with the exact solution. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Brar M.S.,University of Hong Kong | Shi M.,University of Sydney | Murtaugh M.P.,University of Minnesota | Leung F.C.C.,University of Hong Kong | Leung F.C.C.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2015

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the leading swine pathogens causing tremendous economic loss to the global swine industry due to its virulence, pathogenesis, infectivity and transmissibility. Although formally recognized only two and half decades ago, molecular dating estimation indicates a more ancient evolutionary history, which involved divergence into two genotypes (type 1 and type 2) prior to the ‘initial’ outbreaks of the late 1980s. Type 2 PRRSV circulates primarily in North America and Asia. The relatively greater availability of sequence data for this genotype from widespread geographical territories has enabled a better understanding of the evolving genotype. However, there are a number of challenges in terms of the vastness of data available and what this indicates in the context of viral diversity. Accordingly, here we revisit the mechanisms by which PRRSV generates variability, describe a means of organizing type 2 diversity captured in voluminous ORF5 sequences in a phylogenetic framework and provide a holistic view of known global type 2 diversity in the same setting. The consequences of the expanding diversity for control measures such as vaccination are discussed, as well as the contribution of modified live vaccines to the circulation of field isolates. We end by highlighting some limitations of current molecular epidemiology studies in relation to inferring PRRSV diversity, and what steps can be taken to overcome these and additionally enable PRRSV sequence data to be informative about viral phenotypic traits such as virulence. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Seed dormancy (SD) is an important agronomic trait affecting crop yield and quality. In this study, one rice population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was used to determine the genetic characteristics of SD at the early (4 weeks after heading), middle (5 weeks after heading) and late (6 weeks after heading) development stages. The level of SD decreased with the process of seed development, and the SD was significantly affected by the heading date (HD) and temperature at the early and middle development stages. A total of eight additive quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for SD were identified at three development stages, and more QTLs were expressed at the early and late development stages. Among them, four, one and three additive QTLs were identified at the early, middle and late development stages, respectively. Epistatic QTLs and QTL-by-development interactions were detected by the joint analysis of multi-development phenotypic values, and one additive and two epistatic QTLs were identified. The phenotypic variation of SD explained by each additive, epistatic QTL and QTL × development interaction ranged from 8.0 to 13.5 %, 0.7 to 3.9 % and 1.3 to 2.8 %, respectively. One major QTL qSD7.1 for SD was tightly linked to the major QTL qHD7.4 for HD, which might be applied to reveal the relationship of SD and HD. By comparing chromosomal positions of these additive QTLs with those previously identified, five additive QTLs qSD1.1, qSD2.1, qSD2.2, qSD4.1 and qSD4.2 might represent novel genes. The best three cross combinations for the development of RIL populations were predicted to improve SD. The selected RILs and the identified QTLs might be applicable to improve the rice pre-harvest sprouting tolerance by the marker-assisted selection approach. Source

Gong J.,Research Institute for Children | Grodsky J.D.,Tulane University | Zhang Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang P.,Research Institute for Children | Wang P.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
Eukaryotic Cell | Year: 2014

The G protein α subunits Gpa1, Gpa2, and Gpa3 mediate signal transduction and are important in the growth and virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. To understand how Gpa1 functions without a conventional Gβ subunit, we characterized a resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 (Ric8) homolog fromC. neoformans, which shares amino acid sequence homology with other Ric8 proteins that exhibit guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity toward Gα. We found that the ric8 mutant was reduced in capsule size and melanin formation, which could be suppressed by cyclic AMP (cAMP) supplementation or by introducing the activated GPA1Q284L allele. Consistent with the fact that Ric8 participates in cAMP signaling to regulate virulence, the ric8 mutant was attenuated in virulence toward mice. Interestingly, disruption of RIC8 also resulted in opposing effects on pheromone signaling, as the ric8 mutant showed reduced mating but an enhanced ability to induce the pheromone response in the mating partner. To identify Ric8 functional mechanisms, we examined the interactions between Ric8 and the three Gα proteins. Ric8 interacted with Gpa1 and Gpa2, but not Gpa3. The presence of Gpa1Q284L negatively affected its interaction with Ric8, whereas the activated Gpa2Q203L allele abolished the interaction. Collectively, these findings suggest that Ric8 functions as a GEF to facilitate the activation of Gpa1-cAMP signaling and to promote Gpa2, affecting mating efficiency. Our study highlights the distinct and conserved characteristics associated with G protein signaling and contributes to our overall understanding of how G protein α subunits function with or without a canonical Gβ partner in C. neoformans. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Wu M.-S.,Nanjing University | Wu M.-S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu Z.,Nanjing University | Shi H.-W.,Nanjing University | And 2 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

This paper describes a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) imaging platform for simultaneous detection of cancer biomarkers based on a closed bipolar electrode (BPE) array. It consists of two separated channel arrays: detection channel array and sensing channel array, which are connected by a group of parallel ITO BPEs on a glass substrate. Besides, two parallel ITO strips are fabricated at the two sides of BPE array and employed as driving electrodes. After Au films are electrochemically deposited on the cathodes of the BPE array, nanobioprobes including biorecognition elements (aptamer or antibody) and a novel electrochemical tag, which is synthesized by doping thionine in silica nanoparticles (Th@SiO2 NPs), are introduced into the cathodes by immunoreaction or DNA hybridization. The Th@SiO2 coupled nanobioprobes as both recognition probes and signal amplification indicators could mediate the ECL signals of Ru(bpy)3 2+/tripropylamine (TPA) on the anodes of BPE array through faradaic reaction due to the charge neutrality of BPE. Thus, multiplex detection of cancer biomarkers (adenosine triphosphate (ATP), prostate-specific antigen (PSA),fetoprotein (AFP) and thrombin) is realized by forming specific sensing interfaces onto the cathodic poles of BPEs in different sensing channels and reported by the ECL images of the Ru(bpy)3 2+/TPA system on the anodic poles of BPEs in detection channels. The results demonstrate that this visual ECL platform enables sensitive detection with excellent reproducibility, which may open a new door toward the development of simple, sensitive, cost-effective, and high throughput detection methods on biochips. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Cao S.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Hu Z.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Zheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lu B.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2010

The effect of heat treatment (38°C, 12. h in air) and salicylic acid (SA, 1 mM) either separately or combined, on internal browning (IB) in cold-stored peach fruit (Prunus persica Batsch) was investigated. The results showed that heat combined with SA treatment was the most effective method of alleviating IB in peach fruit during cold storage at 0°C. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase were significantly induced, while lipoxygenase activity was decreased by heat combined with an SA treatment. In addition, the combined treatment increased the levels of polyamines including putrescine, spermidine and spermine. These results suggest that the combination of heat and SA treatment may be a useful technique to alleviate IB in cold-stored peach fruit and the reduction in IB by the combined treatment may be due to the induction of antioxidant enzymes and increase in polyamine levels. © 2010. Source

Zhao F.-J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhao F.-J.,Rothamsted Research | Zhu Y.-G.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment | Meharg A.A.,Queens University of Belfast
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Rice is a major source of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in the human diet because paddy rice is efficient at accumulating As. Rice As speciation is dominated by iAs and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Here we review the global pattern in rice As speciation and the factors causing the variation. Rice produced in Asia shows a strong linear relationship between iAs and total As concentration with a slope of 0.78. Rice produced in Europe and the United States shows a more variable, but generally hyperbolic relationship with DMA being predominant in U.S. rice. Although there is significant genotypic variation in grain As speciation, the regional variations are primarily attributed to environmental factors. Emerging evidence also indicates that methylated As species in rice are derived from the soil, while rice plants lack the As methylation ability. Soil flooding and additions of organic matter increase microbial methylation of As, although the microbial community responsible for methylation is poorly understood. Compared with iAs, methylated As species are taken up by rice roots less efficiently but are transported to the grain much more efficiently, which may be an important factor responsible for the spikelet sterility disorder (straight-head disease) in rice. DMA is a weak carcinogen, but the level of ingestion from rice consumption is much lower than that of concern. Questions that require further investigations are identified. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Xu W.,Nanjing Medical University | Xu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu S.,Nanjing Medical University | Chen B.,Nanjing Medical University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: MicroRNAs regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and involved in diverse biological and pathological processes, including tumorigenesis. Rs11614913 in miR-196a2 and rs2910164 in miR-146a are shown to associate with increased/decreased cancer risk. We performed a meta-analysis to systematically summarize the possible association. Methodology/Principal Findings: We assessed published studies of the association between these microRNA polymorphisms and cancer risk from eleven studies with 16,771 subjects for miR-196a2 and from ten studies with 15,126 subjects for miR-146a. As for rs11614913, the contrast of homozygote (TT vs CC: OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.85-0.99, Pheterogeneity = 0.45), allele (T vs C: OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92-0.99, Pheterogeneity = 0.61) and recessive model (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.84-0.97, Pheterogeneity = 0.50) produced statistically association. Subgroup analysis by ethnicity, statistically significantly decreased cancer risks were found among Asians for allele contrast (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.90-0.99, Pheterogeneity = 0.74) and the recessive genetic model (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.82-0.98, Pheterogeneity = 0.85). According to subgroup analysis by tumor types, the protective effect of C/T polymorphism was only found in breast cancer under allele contrast (T vs C: OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.88-0.99, Pheterogeneity = 0.26). For rs2910164, no significant associations were found among overall analysis model with relatively large heterogeneity. Through the stratified analysis, heterogeneity decreased significantly. In the subgroup analyses by cancer types, the C allele of rs2910164 was associated with protection from digestive cancer in allele contrast (C vs G: OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.96, Pheterogeneity = 0.51). Conclusions/Significance: Our meta-analysis suggests that the rs11614913 most likely contributes to decreased susceptibility to cancer, especially in Asians and breast cancer. Besides, the C allele of the rs2910164 might be associated with a protection from digestive cancer. © 2011 Xu et al. Source

Zeng L.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2014

We report that bi-layer copper and polystyrene cylinders can cloak steady current. We fabricated two hollow cylinders, the one made of copper, and the other made of polystyrene. Two hollow copper and polystyrene cylinders nested concentric bi-layer hollow copper and polystyrene cylinders. The background media are made of aluminum. Theory and experiment demonstrated that the electric potential gradients are parallel and equal outside the outer circle, the iso-potential lines are parallel outside the outer circle, and the electric potential is zero in the inner circle. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Miao W.,Hainan University | Wang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

The soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae Kleb causes Verticillium wilt in a wide range of crops including cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). To date, most upland cotton varieties are susceptible to V. dahliae and the breeding for cotton varieties with the resistance to Verticillium wilt has not been successful. Hpa1Xoo is a harpin protein from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae which induces the hypersensitive cell death in plants. When hpa1Xoo was transformed into the susceptible cotton line Z35 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, the transgenic cotton line (T-34) with an improved resistance to Verticillium dahliae was obtained. Here, we describe the related research approach, such as Western blot, Southern blot, immuno-gold labeling, evaluation of resistance to Verticillium dahliae, and how to detect the micro-hypersensitive response and oxidative burst elicited by harpin Xoo in plant tissue. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Zheng E.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhou X.,Nanjing Southeast University
Mechanism and Machine Theory | Year: 2014

The traditional model of a slider-crank mechanism for a closed high speed press system always neglects the flexibility of the crank shaft and considers only one revolute clearance joint between the linkage and the slider. This causes any analysis to have a low accuracy. In this work, a rigid-flexible coupling model of the slider-crank mechanism is described, using the software ADAMS, in which the crank shaft and linkage are treated as flexible bodies, and the effect of the clearance of the joints between the crank shaft and the main linkage, and between the main linkage and the main slider are taken into account. The dynamic response of the mechanism with clearance under no-load and piling conditions is explored for the case of a mechanism with a rigid crank shaft and linkage, and the case with a flexible crank shaft and linkage. The simulation results showed that the dynamic response of the mechanism was greatly influenced by the clearance and the motion of the crank shaft center was characterized by three phases: free flight motion, contact motion and impact motion. The influence of the clearance size, input crank shaft speed, and number of clearance joints on the dynamic response of the mechanism was also investigated. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Zhang N.,Rutgers University | Zhao S.,Rutgers University | Shen Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Mycologia | Year: 2011

The family Magnaporthaceae contains devastating fungal cereal and grass pathogens, such as Magnaporthe oryzae (rice blast fungus, formerly known as M. grisea), M. poae (summer patch pathogen of turf grasses) and Gaeumannomyces graminis (take-all fungus of various cereals and grasses), which are popular model organisms in fungal biology and host-pathogen interaction studies. Despite their ecological and economic importance, the phylogenetic relationships among the constituent species remain ambiguous due to the lack of convincing morphological characters and paucity of molecular data for the majority of the non-model species in the family. In this study our multilocus phylogeny suggests that both Magnaporthe and Gaeumannomyces are polyphyletic genera. The phylogeny also provides insights into fungal biology and pathogenesis. Magnaporthe oryzae formed a basal clade, while M. poae and M. rhizophila formed another well supported clade with G. incrustans and G. graminis. The basal species infect both root and aerial parts of the plant host, while the aerial infection capacity seems to be lost in the taxa of the latter clade. The phylogeny is corroborated by evolution of the anamorphs and a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CPKA) gene. Magnaporthe oryzae produces Pyricularia, while taxa in the latter clade all produce Phialophora-like anamorphs. CPKA is present in animals and many fungal lineages with various functions. In M. oryzae CPKA is essential for the formation of functional appressoria for leaf penetration. In root-infecting G. graminis var. tritici and M. poae however only non-functional CPKA homologous pseudogenes were found in their genomes. The study indicates that anamorphic and ecological features are more informative than the teleomorphic characters in defining monophyletic groups among these taxa. © 2011 by The Mycological Society of America. Source

Xue J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy | Year: 2013

Solar-powered agricultural vehicles facilitate the reduction in the use of fossil fuel, decreasing the emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. This paper assessed the agricultural electric vehicle (AEV) based on photovoltaics in China, taking into consideration three aspects, i.e., power supply mode for AEV, power of AEV, and economy analysis. The power supply mode, whether on-board photovoltaic (PV) system or off-board PV system, is subjected to the size and the power of the designed AEV, but the AEV's power depends on the area of PV panels which affects the initial investment cost of the PV system and the AEV. Three analysis indicators including payback period, net present value, and benefit-cost ratio were taken into consideration when comparing the projects of 10 kW and 30 kW AEVs based on PV system and the respective conventional tractors. Results show that the off-board PV system is more applicable to the AEV, the PV-based AEV with low power is a wise, economical investment, and this type of system is particularly appropriate for rural and remote areas in China, although the initial investment cost is huge for the most of the Chinese farmers. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC. Source

Xue J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

It is a good solution to produce biodiesel by using waste edible oils (WEO), such as waste cooking oils and used frying oils, due to its low cost, disposal problems and potential contamination. Therefore, WEO biodiesels has been gradually produced, and thus applied to study their effects on engine performances and emissions. However, few reviews about these studies have been published to assist understanding and popularization for WEO biodiesels so far. This paper attempts to cite and analyze highly rated journals in scientific indexes about combustion characteristics, engine power, economy, regulated emissions and non-regulated emissions of WEO biodiesels on diesel engine. The use of WEO biodiesels leads to the slight difference in combustion characteristics such as ignition delay, rate of pressure rise, peak pressure and heat release rate, and the substantial reduction in PM, HC and CO emissions accompanying with the imperceptible power loss, the increase in fuel consumption and NOx emission on conventional diesel engines with no or fewer modification, compared to diesel. Although the inconsistent conclusions have been made on CO2 emission of biodiesels from WEO, it reduces greatly from the view of the life cycle circulation of CO2. For non-regulated emissions, the reduction appears for PAH emissions but carbonyl compounds emissions have discordant results for WEO biodiesels. Therefore, WEO biodiesels have the similar combustion characteristics, engine performances and emissions to that of biodiesels from food-grade oils, and the blends of WEO biodiesel with small content by volume could replace the petroleum-based diesel fuel to help in controlling air pollution, encouraging the collection and recycling of waste edible oil to produce biodiesels and easing the pressure on scarce resources to a great extent without significantly sacrificing engine power, economy and emissions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Kale S.D.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Gu B.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Gu B.,Northwest University, China | Capelluto D.G.S.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | And 11 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2010

Pathogens of plants and animals produce effector proteins that are transferred into the cytoplasm of host cells to suppress host defenses. One type of plant pathogens, oomycetes, produces effector proteins with N-terminal RXLR and dEER motifs that enable entry into host cells. We show here that effectors of another pathogen type, fungi, contain functional variants of the RXLR motif, and that the oomycete and fungal RXLR motifs enable binding to the phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P). We find that PI3P is abundant on the outer surface of plant cell plasma membranes and, furthermore, on some animal cells. All effectors could also enter human cells, suggesting that PI3P-mediated effector entry may be very widespread in plant, animal and human pathogenesis. Entry into both plant and animal cells involves lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. Blocking PI3P binding inhibited effector entry, suggesting new therapeutic avenues. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Yin F.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2011

To investigate functions of flgDxoc and flgExoc genes regulated by diffusible signal factor (DSF) in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola(Xoc)Rs105. TheflgDxoc and flgExoc genes were amplified by PCR. We constructed deltaflgDxoc and deltaflgExoc, the deletion mutants from Rs105 by using double crossover method, and determined cell morphology, motility, pathogenicity in host rice and hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost tobacco. We tested the differential expression of flgDxoc and flgExoc gene by reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) between the wide type and deltarpfFxoc (the deletion mutant of rpfFxoc gene, which could not produce DSF). We cloned flgDxoc and flgExoc from genomic DNA of Rs105. PCR and Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the flgDxoc and flgExoc genes were knocked out successfully. Both mutants were non-flagellated and significantly attenuated motility on the 0.3% semi-solid medium. The pathogenicity on rice were obviously attenuated in deltaflgDxoc and deltaflgExoc compared to the wild type. All the changes in mutant could be restored through the complementation. However, there was no significant difference in bacterial growth in MMX medium and induction of HR between mutant (deltaflgDxoc or deltaflgExoc) and the wild type. In addition, the results of RT-PCR demonstrated that the transcription level of flgDxoc and flgExoc were downregulated in deltarpfFxoc. This study showed that expressions of flgDxoc and flgExoc were positively regulated by DSF, and necessary for flagellar hook assembly and flagellar structure in Xoc. Meanwhile, FlgD and FlgE contributed to pathogen's virulence, motility and chemotaxis, but no differences at growth rate in MMX medium and HR in nonhost. In addition, our results provided molecular evidences that the contribution of DSF-type quorum sensing to pathogen's virulence might be, at least partially, dependent on bacterial flagellar in Xoc. Source

Xue J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang L.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Grift T.E.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2012

A novel variable field-of-view machine vision method was developed allowing an agricultural robot to navigate between rows in cornfields. The machine vision hardware consisted of a camera with pitch and yaw motion control. Guidance lines were detected using an image-processing algorithm, employing morphological features in a far, near and lateral field of view, and the robot was guided along these lines using fuzzy logic control.The method was tested while the vehicle successfully traveled through a distance of 30. m towards the end of a crop row in three replications. To evaluate the guidance performance, RTK-GPS data were collected, showing a maximum guidance error of 15.8. mm and stable navigational behavior. © 2012. Source

Yuan B.,Jiangnan University | Wang X.,Jiangnan University | Tang C.,University of Hong Kong | Li X.,Jiangnan University | Yu G.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Water Research | Year: 2015

Since the concept of the osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) was introduced in 2008, it has attracted growing interests for its potential applications in wastewater treatment and reclamation; however, the fouling mechanisms of forward osmosis (FO) membrane especially the development of biofouling layer in the OMBR are not yet clear. Here, the fouled FO membranes were obtained from the OMBRs on days 3, 8 and 25 in sequence, and then the structure and growing rule of the biofouling layer formed on the FO membrane samples were in-situ characterized by multiple fluorescence labeling and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). CLSM images indicated that the variations in abundance and distribution of polysaccharides, proteins and microorganisms in the biofouling layer during the operation of OMBRs were significantly different. Before the 8th day, their biovolume dramatically increased. Subsequently, the biovolumes of β-d-glucopyranose polysaccharides and proteins continued increasing and leveled off after 8 days, respectively, while the biovolumes of α-d-glucopyranose polysaccharides and microorganisms decreased. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) played a significant role in the formation and growth of biofouling layer, while the microorganisms were seldom detected on the upper fouling layer after 3 days. Based on the results obtained in this study, the growth of biofouling layer on the FO membrane surface in the OMBR could be divided into three stages. Initially, EPS was firstly deposited on the FO membrane surface, and then microorganisms associated with EPS located in the initial depositing layer to form clusters. After that, the dramatic increase of the clusters of EPS and microorganisms resulted in the quick growth of biofouling layer during the flux decline of the OMBR. However, when the water flux became stable in the OMBR, some microorganisms and EPS would be detached from the FO membrane surface. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Zhou D.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2011

Previously, seventeen extracellular polysaccharide-associated mutants of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) were acquired from our randomly Tn5-inserted mutant library. To know the Tn5-inserted genes of these mutants and their contribution to EPS production and virulence in rice, in this study, we first identified and characterized the Tn5-targeted genes in these mutants and then inoculated them in susceptible rice for virulence assessment. Tn5 transposon was inserted in genes of the gum, xan and wxoc clusters in the majority of EPS-reduced mutants. Of the EPS-reduced mutants, three were due to the Tn5 insertion in Xoryp_4217, Xoryp 2488 and Xoryp_0918 genes, respectively. In six EPS-increased mutants, three were in mutagenesis in fimO, pilY and xopQ genes, respectively, resulting in higher EPS production than the wild-type strain RS105. Other three were because of the mutation in Xoryp2392, Xoryp_4221 and Xoryp_3511 genes. Interestingly, XocORF-3511 only exists in X. oryzae but not in other Xanthomomas species. Virulence assays in rice showed that the less EPS production by the mutant, the weaker the virulence in rice. However, those mutants in higher EPS production did not increase virulence significantly in rice compared to that by the wild-type strain. Our findings will help further understand the metabolic pathways for EPS synthesis in Xoc and the specific roles of EPS-associated genes in Xoc-rice interactions. Source

Lou Y.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Zhou W.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Ren L.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2012

As one of the important problems in global change, elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation induced by the depletion of stratospheric ozone layer has received more and more attentions around the world. Field experiment was conducted to investigate CH 4 emission as affected by elevated UV-B radiation. The field experiment was designed with two UV-B radiation levels, i.e. ambient (A, control) and elevated (E, 14.4kJm -2d -1, simulating 25% stratospheric ozone depletion), and performed at the Station of Agricultural Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China. Two rice cultivars were tested in this experiment, including herbicide resistant transgenic rice (japonica line B2) and its parent conventional rice (japonica cv Xiushui 63). The transgenic line of japonica rice B2 contained bar gene with herbicide Basta resistance. CH 4 emission was determined by the closed chamber method at 10-day interval during rice growing period in a loamy clay paddy soil. The results indicated that, elevated UV-B radiation significantly decreased tiller number and the biomass of straw and root in rice. Elevated UV-B radiation had no effect on seasonal dynamics of CH 4 flux in paddy field. Compared with control, elevated UV-B radiation significantly increased CH 4 emission in the paddy soil. CH 4 emission was higher in parent rice than transgenic rice. It is suggested that planting herbicide resistant transgenic rice will be helpful in mitigating CH 4 emission from paddy fields under elevated UV-B radiation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Lou Q.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Lou Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Iovene M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Spooner D.M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 2 more authors.
Chromosoma | Year: 2010

Comparative genetic linkage mapping using a common set of DNA markers in related species is an important methodology in plant genome research. Here, we demonstrate a comparative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping strategy in plants. A set of 13 bacterial artificial chromosome clones spanning the entire length of potato chromosome 6 was used for pachytene chromosome-based FISH mapping in seven distantly related Solanum species including potato, tomato, and eggplant. We discovered one paracentric inversion and one pericentric inversion within specific lineages of these species. The comparative FISH mapping data revealed the ancestral structure of this chromosome. We demonstrate that comparative FISH mapping is an efficient and powerful methodology to study chromosomal evolution among plant species diverged for up to 12 million years. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Cao X.F.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology / Zhongguo sheng tai xue xue hui, Zhongguo ke xue yuan Shenyang ying yong sheng tai yan jiu suo zhu ban | Year: 2010

Based on the distribution records of Flaveria bidentis in China, and by using five ecological niche models (GARP, Maxent, ENFA, Bioclim, and Domain), 32 eco-geographical variables were chosen to simulate the potential suitable distribution area of F. bidentis in the country, and the simulation precision of the models was assessed by the method of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Among the models adopted, Maxent model had the best simulation precision. Its prediction showed that the potential suitable distribution area of F. bidenti in this country accounted for 7. 5% of the total, with the central and southern Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin, Henan, Shandong, Anhui, and Jiangsu having high potential invasion risk. Source

Cheng C.,Texas A&M University | Gao X.,Texas A&M University | Gao X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Feng B.,Texas A&M University | And 3 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

Temperature fluctuation is a key determinant for microbial invasion and host evasion. In contrast to mammals that maintain constant body temperature, plant temperature oscillates on a daily basis. It remains elusive how plants operate inducible defenses in response to temperature fluctuation. Here we report that ambient temperature changes lead to pronounced shifts of the following two distinct plant immune responses: pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Plants preferentially activate ETI signaling at relatively low temperatures (10-23C), whereas they switch to PTI signaling at moderately elevated temperatures (23-32C). The Arabidopsis arp6 and hta9hta11 mutants, phenocopying plants grown at elevated temperatures, exhibit enhanced PTI and yet reduced ETI responses. As the secretion of bacterial effectors favours low temperatures, whereas bacteria multiply vigorously at elevated temperatures accompanied with increased microbe-associated molecular pattern production, our findings suggest that temperature oscillation might have driven dynamic co-evolution of distinct plant immune signaling responding to pathogen physiological changes. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Nashun B.,University of Tokyo | Yukawa M.,University of Tokyo | Liu H.,University of Tokyo | Liu H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Development | Year: 2010

Histone H2A has several variants, and changes in chromatin composition associated with their replacement might involve chromatin structure remodeling. We examined the dynamics of the canonical histone H2A and its three variants, H2A.X, H2A.Z and macroH2A, in the mouse during oogenesis and pre-implantation development when genome remodeling occurs. Immunocytochemistry with specific antibodies revealed that, although H2A and all variants were deposited in the nuclei of fullgrown oocytes, only histone H2A.X was abundant in the pronuclei of one-cell embryos after fertilization, in contrast with the low abundance of histone H2A and the absence of H2A.Z. The decline in H2A and the depletion of H2A.Z and macroH2A after fertilization were confirmed using Flag epitope-tagged H2A, H2A.Z and macroH2A transgenic mouse lines. Microinjection experiments with mRNA encoding the Flag-tagged proteins revealed a similar pattern of nuclear incorporation of the H2A variants. Fusion protein experiments using H2A, H2A.Z and macroH2A fused with the C-terminal 23 amino acids of H2A.X showed that the C-terminal amino acids of H2A.X function specifically to target this variant histone into chromatin in embryos after fertilization and that the absence of H2A.Z and macroH2A from the chromatin is required for normal development. These results suggest that global changes in the composition of histone H2A variants in chromatin play a role in genome remodeling after fertilization. Source

He Y.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang J.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chen J.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Shen J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2012

The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), an important insect pest of rice in China, has developed resistances to several classes of insecticides in field. In order to investigate multiple resistance mechanisms, synergistic tests were conducted with the Ruian (RA) population and Lianyungang (LYG) population, two representative populations to different insecticides. Results showed that diethyl maleate (DEM), S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) and piperonyl butoxide (PBO), had no significant synergistic or inhibitory effect on the high level of resistance to monosultap (313.4-fold) and moderate level to chlorpyrifos (36.9-fold) in Ruian field population from the year 2011 (RA11). DEF significantly synergized the activity of triazophos in RA11 population (536.8-fold), with synergism ratio of 1.92. DEF and PBO significantly suppressed 43.3% and 40.4% of resistance to fipronil in RA11 population (48.4-fold), respectively, with the synergistic ratios of 1.76 and 1.69. When pretreated with PBO, the activity of deltamethrin against RA11 population were significantly synergized, with synergism ratio of 9.57, and with reducing resistance levels from 152.5- to 15.9-fold. The results of this study indicated that resistance to several classes of insecticide among the field populations of C. suppressalis might be provided by the combination of the multiple resistance mechanisms. Metabolic resistance mechanism might be the major reason for the evolution for resistance to deltamethrin and fipronil, while resistance to monosultap, triazophos and chlorpyrifos is not associated with metabolic resistance. © 2012 . Source

Wu P.,Zhejiang University | Shou H.,Zhejiang University | Xu G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lian X.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2013

Rice is one of the most important cereal crops feeding a large segment of the world's population. Inefficient utilization of phosphate (Pi) fertilizer by the plant in rice production increases cost and pollution. Developing cultivars with improved Pi use efficiency is essential for the sustainability of agriculture. Pi uptake, translocation and remobilization are regulated by complex molecular mechanisms through the functions of Pi transporters (PTs) and other downstream Pi Starvation Induced (PSI) genes. Expressions of these PSI genes are regulated by the Pi Starvation Response Regulator (OsPHR2)-mediated transcriptional control and/or PHO2-mediated ubiquitination. SPX-domain containing proteins and the type I H+-PPase AVP1 involved in the maintenance and utilization of the internal phosphate. The potential application of posttranscriptional regulation of PT1 through OsPHF1 for Pi efficiency is proposed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Wang Y.,Petrochina | Xiao Z.,Petrochina | Wu L.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Current Organic Chemistry | Year: 2013

Heterogeneous catalysts based on supported metal nanoparticles are commonly used in many industrially relevant catalytic reactions. This review examines the existing literature of several types of the supported-metal nanoparticle heterogeneous catalysts. Specifically, this review includes: (i) a brief overview of the catalysts from the immobilization of metal nanoparticles on mesoporous silica materials, oxide and carbon nanotube (ii) an introduction of the existing strategies presented, e.g., the utilization of porous inorganic shell to cap metals nanoparticles to prevent aggregation during catalytic reaction, then (iii) a summary of the catalysts including metal nanoparticles encapsulated in hollow shells, which provide the thermal and chemical stability of metal nanoparticles during catalytic reactions. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Guo Y.S.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology / Zhongguo sheng tai xue xue hui, Zhongguo ke xue yuan Shenyang ying yong sheng tai yan jiu suo zhu ban | Year: 2011

By using light emitting diode (LED) to accurately modulate spectral energy distribution, and with fluorescent light as the control, this paper studied the effects of light quality on the seedlings growth and physiological characteristics of rice cultivars 'Wuyunjing 7' and 'Kangyou 63'. Light quality had significant effects on the seedlings growth, and there existed differences at different growth stages. Blue LED inhibited the height growth significantly, and increased the leaf soluble protein content of 'Wuyunjing 7' and the healthy index of the two rice cultivars at five-leaf stage. Red LED increased the stem diameter and healthy index at three-leaf stage and the leaf soluble sugar and starch contents at five-leaf stage significantly. Red-blue LED increased the root number, stem diameter, healthy index, root activity, and root soluble sugar content at three-leaf stage and the fresh mass, dry mass, healthy index, and leaf soluble sugar and sucrose contents at five-leaf stage significantly. Yellow LED increased the plant height and leaf pigment content at initial growth stage. Overall, red-blue LED was more beneficial to the culture of strong rice seedlings. Source

Bai B.X.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology / Zhongguo sheng tai xue xue hui, Zhongguo ke xue yuan Shenyang ying yong sheng tai yan jiu suo zhu ban | Year: 2011

A slow infiltration experiment with different hydraulic loads (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 cm per week) of domestic wastewater was conducted in a 'Zhonglin 2001' poplar plantation to study the effects of the wastewater slow infiltration on the growth of the plantation. Comparing with the control (0 cm), the other five treatments increased the soil organic matter, total N, total P, total K, and Na+ contents in the plantation averagely by 1.940 g x kg(-1), 0.115 g x kg(-1), 0.029 g x kg(-1), 1.454 g x kg(-1) and 0.030 g x kg(-1), respectively. At lower hydraulic loads (3-12 cm per week), the poplar biomass growth and the N, P and Na+ contents in different poplar organs averagely increased by 17.583 t x hm(-2) x a(-1), 3.086 g x kg(-1), 0.645 g x kg(-1), and 0.121 g x kg(-1), with the maximum (36.252 t x hm(-2) x a(-1), 13.162 g x kg(-1), 5.137 g x kg(-1), and 0.361 g x kg(-1), respectively) at hydraulic loads 6-12 cm per week. The further increase of the hydraulic load decreased the poplar biomass growth and the N, P and Na+ contents in different poplar organs. The K content in different poplar organs decreased with increasing hydraulic load. Treating with domestic wastewater increased the leaf length, decreased the leaf asymmetry, and delayed leaf-falling. At high hydraulic load (15 cm per week), the higher soil Na+ and water contents would threat the poplar growth. The proper domestic wastewater hydraulic loads for the growth of poplar 'Zhonglin 2001' plantation would be 3-12 cm per week. Source

Cao S.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Hu Z.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Zheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yang Z.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Lu B.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The effect of benzo-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), at 0.2. g/l, on antioxidant enzymes, radical-scavenging activity and decay development in strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) fruit, was investigated. The results showed that BTH treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. The treatment increased the contents of phenolic and anthocyanin in strawberry fruit, as well as radical-scavenging capacity, expressed as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide radical values and reducing power. The treatment also decreased the development of decay compared to control fruit. These results indicated that BTH might increase the disease resistance of strawberry fruits by enhancing their antioxidant systems and their free radical-scavenging capabilities. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Cao S.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Yang Z.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Hu Z.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization | Zheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The feasibility of 0.2gl-1 benzo-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH) to improve the efficacy of Pichia membranefaciens in controlling postharvest blue mould decay in peach fruit was investigated. Our results showed that biocontrol activity of P. membranefaciens against blue mould caused by Penicillium expansum in peach fruit could be enhanced by addition of 0.2gl-1 BTH. The combination of P. membranefaciens and BTH resulted in a more effective control of blue mould than individual treatment of P. membranefaciens or BTH alone. The combined treatment had a synergistic effect on the induction of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities, which induced stronger disease resistance in fruit than BTH or yeast alone, and resulted in a lower lesion diameter and disease incidence of blue mould decay in peaches. Furthermore, the combined treatment did not impair the quality parameters including fruit firmness and contents of total soluble solids, titratable acidity and vitamin C of peach fruit after 6days of storage at 20°C. These results suggested that the use of BTH may be an effective method to improve the biological activity of P. membranefaciens. © 2010. Source

Ploger S.,Free University of Berlin | Stumpff F.,Free University of Berlin | Penner G.B.,University of Saskatchewan | Schulzke J.-D.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | And 5 more authors.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2012

Butyrate production in the large intestine and ruminant forestomach depends on bacterial butyryl-CoA/acetate-CoA transferase activity and is highest when fermentable fiber and nonstructural carbohydrates are balanced. Gastrointestinal epithelia seem to use butyrate and butyrate-induced endocrine signals to adapt proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation to the growth of the bacterial community. Butyrate has a potential clinical application in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; ulcerative colitis). Via inhibited release of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 13 and inhibition of histone deacetylase, butyrate may contribute to the restoration of the tight junction barrier in IBD by affecting the expression of claudin-2, occludin, cingulin, and zonula occludens poteins (ZO-1, ZO-2). Further evaluation of the molecular events that link butyrate to an improved tight junction structure will allow for the elucidation of the cofactors affecting the reliability of butyrate as a clinical treatment tool. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences. Source

Tian D.-Q.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Pan X.-Y.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yu Y.-M.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang W.-Y.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: Anthurium andraeanum is one of the most popular tropical flowers. In temperate and cold zones, a much greater risk of cold stress occurs in the supply of Anthurium plants. Unlike the freeze-tolerant model plants, Anthurium plants are particularly sensitive to low temperatures. Improvement of chilling tolerance in Anthurium may significantly increase its production and extend its shelf-life. To date, no previous genomic information has been reported in Anthurium plants.Results: Using Illumina sequencing technology, we generated over two billion base of high-quality sequence in Anthurium, and demonstrated de novo assembly and annotation of genes without prior genome information. These reads were assembled into 44,382 unigenes (mean length = 560 bp). Based on similarity search with known protein in the non-redundant (nr) protein database, 27396 unigenes (62%) were functionally annotated with a cut-off E-value of 10-5. Further, DGE tags were mapped to the assembled transcriptome for gene expression analysis under cold stress. In total, 4363 differentially expressed genes were identified. Among these genes, 292, 805 and 708 genes were up-regulated after 1-h, 5-h and 24-h cold treatment, respectively. Then we mapped these cold-induced genes to the KEGG database. Specific enrichment was observed in photosynthesis pathway, metabolic pathways and oxidative phosphorylation pathway in 1-h cold-treated plants. After a 5-h cold treatment, the metabolic pathways and oxidative phosphorylation pathway were significantly identified as the top two pathways. After 24-h cold treatment, mRNA surveillance pathway, RNA transport pathway and plant-pathogen interaction pathway were significantly enriched. Together, a total of 39 cold-inducible transcription factors were identified, including subsets of AP2/ERF, Zinc figure, NAC, MYB and bZIP family members.Conclusion: Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for Anthurium plants, and demonstrate its digital gene expression profiling under cold conditions using the assembled transcriptome data for reference. These data provides a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies under abiotic conditions for Anthurium plants. © 2013 Tian et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Wan K.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Se pu = Chinese journal of chromatography / Zhongguo hua xue hui | Year: 2012

An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in beef jerky by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography (SPE-HPLC). The HAAs were eluted from an Extrelut NT 20 SPE column with 60 mL dichlormethane (containing 5% toluene), and then the extract was purified with a propylsulfonic acid silica (PRS) column and a C18 SPE column, and finally, the HAAs were stored in a methanol-ammonia solution. The separation was achieved by using a TSK-gel ODS-80 column and a gradient elution with the mobile phases of acetonitrile and 0.05 mol/L acetic acid-ammonium acetate buffer (pH 3.5). The identification and quantitative analysis of the HAAs fraction were carried out using an HPLC system with ultraviolet-fluorescence detectors. The results showed that the correlation coefficients of the 10 HAAs were all above 0.999 and the limits of detection were in the range from 0.02 to 2.46 ng/g. The recoveries of the 10 HAAs spiked in beef samples were 61.69% - 101.81% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 0.28% and 7.81%. 1-Methyl-9H-pyrido[4,3-b] indole (Harman) and 9H-pyrido [4,3-b]indole (Norharman) were detected in all beef jerky, and the total HAAs content of beef jerky were between 16.65 and 60.38 ng/g. This method is with wide linear range and high sensitivity, and is enough for the analysis of the HAAs in actual meat samples. Source

Hu J.,Nanjing Southeast University | Hu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhao L.,Nanjing Southeast University
ICIC Express Letters | Year: 2011

This paper describes our experience of designing two simulation models of disease progression response to anthrax attacks. The first model is the compartment-B model, which has 22 states, and the second one is the Incubation-Prodromal-Fulminant (IPF) model, which has 9 states. We establish two simulation models using system dynamics, and examine a series of simulated cases to see the deviation of the death rate, the stabilization time and the medicine demand produced by the two models from the actual data when some external factors change. We get some meaningful conclusions. For example, we can reduce the deaths through increasing the treatment rate and detecting the anthrax attack early, and increasing treatment capacity is not more cost-effective at the margin to reduce the death rate. This study provides insights for emergency decision-makers to cope with the anthrax attack. © ICIC International 2011. Source

Xu H.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology | Xu H.,Nanjing University | Yu G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yang L.,Nanjing University | Jiang H.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2013

Enhanced knowledge on the binding of heavy metal (HM) with dissolved organic matter (DOM) is essential for understanding the toxicity and migration of HMs. In this study, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) and parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis were combined to characterize the metal binding properties of DOMs, which were respectively extracted from macrophyte- and algal-dominant sediments (named MDOM and ADOM) in a eutrophic shallow lake. 2D absorption COS revealed that MDOM exhibited more HM binding sites (193, 195, 196, 199, 201, 203, 205, 207, 208, 212, 217nm) than ADOM (201, 205nm). PARAFAC analysis identified one protein- and two humic-like components from all titrated samples, with each component exhibiting different binding behaviors. The modified Stern-Volmer model showed that PARAFAC-derived components in MDOM had higher conditional stability constants (logKM) than in ADOM, suggesting that macrophyte-dominant sediments might play a more important role in the detoxification of HMs. Meanwhile, low binding abilities of Zn(II)-DOM complexes indicated that the toxicity of zinc in eutrophic lakes should not be overlooked. More aromatic functional groups and binding sites were suggested to be responsible for the high binding ability. 2D-COS was a better approach than PARAFAC analysis for exploring HM-DOM interaction. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Yan J.,University of Kentucky | Yan J.,Purdue University | Gu Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jia X.,University of Kentucky | And 6 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2012

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other endogenous small RNAs act as sequence-specific regulators of the genome, transcriptome, and proteome in eukaryotes. The interrogation of small RNA functions requires an effective, widely applicable method to specifically block small RNA function. Here, we report the development of a highly effective technology that targets specific endogenous miRNAs or small interfering RNAs for destruction in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that the expression of a short tandem target mimic (STTM), which is composed of two short sequences mimicking small RNA target sites, separated by a linker of an empirically determined optimal size, leads to the degradation of targeted small RNAs by small RNA degrading nucleases. The efficacy of the technology was demonstrated by the strong and specific developmental defects triggered by STTMs targeting three miRNAs and an endogenous siRNA. In summary, we developed an effective approach for the destruction of endogenous small RNAs, thereby providing a powerful tool for functional genomics of small RNA molecules in plants and potentially animals. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. Source

Song C.,Iowa State University | Song C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yang B.,Iowa State University
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | Year: 2010

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae depends on a type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effectors into host cells for its ability to cause bacterial blight of rice. AU type III (T3) effectors with known function in X. oryzae pv. oryzae belong to a family of transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors. However, other, non-TAL-related effector genes are present in the genome, although their role in virulence and their mode of action have yet to be elucidated. Here, we report the generation of mutants for 18 non-TAL T3 effector genes and the identification of one that contributes to the virulence of strain PXO99A. XopZPXO99 encodes a predicted 1,414-amino-acid protein of unknown function. PXO99A contains two identical copies of the gene due to a duplication of 212 kb in the genome. Strains with knockout mutations of one copy of XopZPXO99 did not exhibit any visible virulence defect. However, strains with mutations in both copies of XopZ PXO99 displayed reduced virulence in terms of lesion length and bacterial multiplication compared with PXO99A. The introduction of one genomic copy of XopZPXO99 restores the mutant to full virulence. Transient expression of XopZPXO99 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves suppresses host basal defense, which is otherwise induced by a T3SS mutant of PXO99A suggesting a role for XopZPXO99 in interfering with host innate immunity during X. oryzae pv. oryzae infection. XopZ PXO99-related genes are found in all Xanthomonas spp. whose genomic sequences have been determined, suggesting a conserved role for this type of effector gene in pathogenesis of Xanthomonas spp. Our results indicate that XopZPXO99 encodes a novel T3 effector and contributes virulence to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains for bacterial blight of rice. © 2010 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

Huang W.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Huang W.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Siemann E.,Rice University | Wheeler G.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Ecology | Year: 2010

1. Invasive plants often have novel biotic interactions in their introduced ranges. These interactions, including less frequent herbivore attacks, may convey a competitive advantage over native plants. Invasive plants may vary in defence strategies (resistance vs. tolerance) or in response to the type of herbivore (generalists vs. specialists), but no study to date has examined this broad set of traits simultaneously. 2. Here, we examined resistance and tolerance of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) populations from the introduced and native ranges to generalist (Cnidocampa flavescens) and specialist herbivores (Gadirtha inexacta) in the native range. 3. In a field common-garden test of resistance, caterpillars of each species were raised on plants from native and invasive populations. We found the specialist grew larger on and consumed more mass of invasive plant populations than native populations, while the generalist showed the same performance between them. The results were consistent with our laboratory bioassay using excised leaves. Chemical analyses showed that the invasive plants had lower tannin content and higher ratio of carbohydrate to protein than those of their native counterparts, suggesting that plants from invasive populations have altered chemistry that has a larger impact on specialist than on generalist resistance. 4. To test for differences in herbivore tolerance, plants were first defoliated by specialist or generalist herbivory and then allowed to regrow for 100 days in a field common garden. We found that plants from invasive populations had greater herbivore tolerance than native populations, especially for tolerance to generalists. They also grew more rapidly than native counterparts in the absence of herbivory. 5. Synthesis. The results of these experiments indicate that differences in selective pressures between ranges have caused dramatic reductions in resistance to specialist herbivores and those changes in plant secondary chemistry likely underlie these differences. The greater tolerance of invasive populations to herbivory appears to at least partly reflect an increase in growth rate in the introduced range. The greater tolerance to generalist herbivores suggests the intriguing possibility of selection for traits that allow plants to tolerate generalist herbivores more than specialist herbivores. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Ecological Society. Source

Cui H.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology / Zhongguo sheng tai xue xue hui, Zhongguo ke xue yuan Shenyang ying yong sheng tai yan jiu suo zhu ban | Year: 2011

FACE platform was applied to study the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on wheat grain yield and quality under two nitrogen (N) application rates. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and applying N increased the grain yield, spike number, grain number per spike, and biomass significantly, but elevated CO2 concentration had no significant effects on harvest index (HI). Under elevated CO2 concentration, there was a significant decrease in the protein, gliadin, gluteinin, and glutein contents of the grain and the sedimentation value of the flour, and a significant increase in the starch and its components contents of the grain; under N application, an inverse was observed. The dough stability time and the dough viscosity characteristics, such as peak viscosity, final viscosity, and setback value, increased significantly under elevated CO2 concentration and high N application rate. The interaction of atmospheric CO2 concentration and N application rate had significantly positive effects on wheat grain yield and biomass, but less effect on grain quality. Therefore, with elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration in the future, maintaining a higher N application level would benefit wheat grain yield and paste characteristics, and mitigate the decline of grain quality. Source

Gaidenko T.A.,University of California at Davis | Bie X.,University of California at Davis | Bie X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Baldwin E.P.,University of California at Davis | Price C.W.,University of California at Davis
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2012

The stressosome is a 1.8-MDa cytoplasmic complex that conveys environmental signals to the αB stress factor of Bacillus subtilis. A functionally irreducible complex contains multiple copies of three proteins: the RsbRA coantagonist, RsbS antagonist, and RsbT serine-threonine kinase. Homologues of these proteins are coencoded in different genome contexts in diverse bacteria, forming a versatile sensing and transmission module called RST after its common constituents. However, the signaling pathway within the stressosome itself is not well defined. The N-terminal, nonheme globin domains of RsbRA project from the stressosome and are presumed to channel sensory input to the C-terminal STAS domains that form the complex core. A conserved, 13-residue α-helical linker connects these domains. We probed the in vivo role of the linker using alanine scanning mutagenesis, assaying stressosome output in B. subtilis via a σB-dependent reporter fusion. Substitutions at four conserved residues increased output 4- to 30-fold in unstressed cells, whereas substitutions at four nonconserved residues significantly decreased output. The periodicity of these effects supports a model in which RsbRA functions as a dimer in vivo, with the linkers forming parallel paired helices via a conserved interface. The periodicity further suggests that the opposite, nonconserved faces make additional contacts important for efficient stressosome operation. These results establish that the linker influences stressosome output under steady-state conditions. However, the stress response phenotypes of representative linker substitutions provide less support for the notion that the N-terminal globin domain senses acute environmental challenge and transmits this information via the linker helix. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Batt P.J.,Curtin University Australia | Liu A.,Nanjing Agricultural University
British Food Journal | Year: 2012

Purpose: This paper aims to explore the factors impacting and influencing the consumer's decision to purchase honey in a retail store. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from shopping mall intercepts in Perth, Western Australia, using a structured questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the principal constructs which most influence the consumer's decision to purchase. On the basis of the ways in which honey was consumed within the household, cluster analysis was utilised to group the respondents into meaningful segments. Findings: In Perth, Western Australia, honey is primarily consumed as a spread or a sweetener on breakfast cereals and porridge. However, honey is also used as a marinade, in cakes and cookies and as a beverage. According to the way in which honey is consumed in the household, five clusters were identified. In purchasing honey from a retail store, exploratory factor analysis revealed three principal constructs which were most influential in the consumer's decision to purchase: brand reputation, origin and value for money. Ethnicity was found to have a significant influence on the way in which honey was consumed in the household and the importance of the three constructs extracted. Originality/value: This is one of the few studies that find a significant difference between Anglo Saxon and Asian consumers of honey. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

Huang H.,Shaanxi Academy of Environmental Science | Bai W.,Shaanxi Academy of Environmental Science | Bai W.,Shaanxi University of Science and Technology | Dong C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2015

An ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor for human papillomavirus (HPV) detection was developed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and differential pulse voltammetry. A capture probe was immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode modified with graphene/Au nanorod/polythionine (G/Au NR/PT). Two auxiliary probes were designed and used to long-range self-assemble DNA nanostructure. The target DNA can connect DNA structure to the capture probe on the electrode surface. [Ru(phen)3]2+ was selected as a redox indicator for amplifying electrochemical signal significantly. Enhanced sensitivity was obtained through combining the excellent electric conductivity of G/Au NR/PT architecture and the long-range self-assembly DNA nanostructure with the multi-signal amplification. The DNA biosensor displayed excellent performance for HPV DNA detection over the range from 1.0×10-13 to 1.0×10-10mol/L with a detection limit of 4.03×10-14mol/L. Furthermore, the proposed method can also be used for the detection of HPV DNA in human serum samples and provides a potential application of DNA detection in clinic research. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Huang P.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

The insulin growth factor 1/phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10/Akt/forkhead box (IGF-1/PTEN/Akt/FoxO) signaling pathway reportedly exhibits gastroprotective effects by reducing water immersion and restraint stress (WRS)-induced gastric mucosal cell apoptosis. We examined the expression and localization of IGF-1, PTEN, Akt, and FoxO proteins, caspase-3 activity, and the number of apoptotic cells in the duodenal mucosa of rats subjected to WRS to confirm whether the IGF-1/PTEN/Akt/FoxO signaling pathway has a role in the duodenal mucosa. The results indicated that WRS enhanced cell apoptosis in the duodenal mucosa. In addition, in normal rats, PTEN was found mainly in the cellular cytoplasm of the duodenal glands and lamina propria of villi. IGF-1 and total Akt were observed in the cellular cytoplasm of the duodenal glands. In addition, total Akt was found in the cellular cytoplasm of the myenteric plexus. FoxO3a and FoxO4 were primarily concentrated in the cellular cytoplasm of the lamina propria. Specifically, PTEN, FoxO3a and FoxO4 were also localized in the cellular cytoplasm of lamina propria of restituted villi in the duodenal mucosa of rat subjected to WRS. In addition, messenger RNA transcript levels of IGF-1, PTEN, Akt1, Akt2, FoxO3, and FoxO4 were upregulated in the duodenal mucosa, with a peak between the 4th and 8th day after 7 h of WRS. Furthermore, the results also suggested that Akt3 messenger RNA transcript levels in the duodenal mucosa of rats after WRS showed no significant differences compared with those in the non-WRS group. Collectively, our results implied that the IGF-1/ PTEN/Akt/FoxO signaling pathway was effective in regulating cellular apoptosis in the duodenal mucosa of rats after WRS. Source

Hui L.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2010

To investigate the kinds and characteristics of spiroplasma in honeybees, as well as to study the taxonomy and transmission of honeybee spiroplasma under natural conditions. We examined the morphology of spiroplasma isolates by dark field and transmission electron microscopy and studied the biological characteristics by using conventional culture-dependent methods and molecular biology and serological methods. Three spiroplasma isolates were obtained from healthy Apis mellifera. All isolates exhibited helicity during their growth phase, with one isolate (MF0905) being shorter and having less helicity. This isolate also differed from the other two (MF0903 and MF0904) in having larger colonies with an irregular margin instead of being round. In addition, isolate MF0905 could not hydrolyze arginine whereas MF0903 and MF0904 could. All three isolates could use glucose and D-fructose as a carbon source but did not hydrolyse urea. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rDNA, ITS and the rpoB gene showed that MF0903 and MF0904 had a close relationship with Spiroplasma melliferum, and MF0905 was close to S. clarkii. Serological studies including the growth inhibition test, metabolic inhibition test and deformation test gave the same result as the phylogenetic analysis. The spiroplasma isolate MF0905 might be S. clarkii and other two isolates were S. melliferum. This result indicated that Spiroplasma melliferum is not the only spiroplasma species in honeybees in China. Source

Lin X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li S.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zou Y.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology
IET Control Theory and Applications | Year: 2014

Up to now, the potential assumption of most existing results for finite-time stability and finite-time boundedness of switched linear systems is that each subsystem should be finite-time stable or finite-time bounded. If any one subsystem of switched systems is not finite-time stable or finite-time bounded, the previous results may not be true anymore. In this paper, finite-time stability and finite-time boundedness of switched linear systems with subsystems that are not finite-time stable or finite-time bounded are discussed. Sufficient conditions are given under which switched linear systems with subsystems that are not finite-time stable or finite-time bounded is guaranteed to be still finite-time stable or finite-time bounded. The results also show the effect of the switching signals on finite-time stability and finite-time boundedness of switched linear systems. Moreover, finite-time L 2-gain of switched linear systems with subsystems which are not finite-time bounded is also given to measure its disturbance tolerance capability in the fixed time interval. A numerical example is employed to verify the efficiency of the proposed method. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2014. Source

Pan Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2013

The aims of this study were to find out the pathogen causing high mortality of the crawfish population in Anhui over the past years. To provide the strategy for controlling the spread of the disease, an investigation was conducted to trace the origin of the pathogen. Crawfish samples were tested by nested PCR, to diagnose the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). Healthy crawfish were inoculated with the supernatant of tissue homogenates. The viral suspension was purified using sucrose density gradients. The gill samples infected with purified virus were then subject to the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The possible sources, including pond water, feedstuff, crabs, water plants, were investigated. Crawfish samples and commercial feeds exhibited all positive for WSSV. Challenge model on healthy crawfish recovered similar symptoms as the naturally infected ones on 7 to 9 days after inoculation. The viral particles were observed under TEM. Our findings indicated that WSSV was the causative agent that led to high mortality in the crawfish population in this area. These results demonstrated that the exotic viruses are derived from the regions where the frozen feeds were contaminated with WSSV-infected shell debris. Source

Tan M.-p.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Water stress is known to alter cytosine methylation, which generally represses transcription. However, little is known about the role of methylation alteration in maize under osmotic stress. Here, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) was used to screen PEG- or NaCl-induced methylation alteration in maize seedlings. The sequences of 25 differentially amplified fragments relevant to stress were successfully obtained. Two stress-specific fragments from leaves, LP166 and LPS911, shown to be homologous to retrotransposon Gag-Pol protein genes, suggested that osmotic stress-induced methylation of retrotransposons. Three MSAP fragments, representing drought-induced or salt-induced methylation in leaves, were homologous to a maize aluminum-induced transporter. Besides these, heat shock protein HSP82, Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 2, Lipoxygenase, casein kinase (CK2), and dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB) factor were also homologs of MSAP sequences from salt-treated roots. One MSAP fragment amplified from salt-treated roots, designated RS39, was homologous to the first intron of maize protein phosphatase 2C (zmPP2C), whereas - LS103, absent from salt-treated leaves, was homologous to maize glutathione S-transferases (zmGST). Expression analysis showed that salt-induced intron methylation of root zmPP2C significantly downregulated its expression, while salt-induced demethylation of leaf zmGST weakly upregulated its expression. The results suggested that salinity-induced methylation downregulated zmPP2C expression, a negative regulator of the stress response, while salinity-induced demethylation upregulated zmGST expression, a positive effecter of the stress response. Altered methylation, in response to stress, might also be involved in stress acclimation. © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source

Shen Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2014

In this paper, we propose a weighted modularity QW based on the similarity of weights on edges and a threshold coefficient ζ to evaluate the equivalence of edge weights. Simulations on benchmark networks and real networks show that optimization on the modularity enable us to obtain groups of nodes within which the edge weights are distributed uniformly but at random between them. The communities can reveal the uniform connections (stable relationships measured by the similarity of weights on edges) between nodes or some similarity between nodes' functions. Furthermore, with the dynamical moving of ζ, we observe that optimization on the QW allows for the discovering of a special hierarchical organization which reveals different levels of uniform connections between nodes in networks. The substructures revealed by the hierarchical organization enable us to obtain more information of networks, and give a potential way for partly remedying the intrinsic resolution problem of modularity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Aniwashi J.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2011

The interaction between rare-earth ions and DNA from Bashibai sheep was studied by microcalorimetry and electrochemistry. The DNA chain was found to have four to five binding sites for rare-earth ions. The binding affinity was about 10-10 M. It was also found that smaller ions caused more heat to be released in the process of binding and bound more readily to the nucleic acid chain. This is attributed to the enhanced ability of polarization of smaller ions and reduced steric hindrance compared to larger ions. The electrochemistry results show that rare-earth ions could be inserted into the DNA helix, producing a new complex with electrochemically active groups. The rare-earth ions and DNA complex reached equilibrium after a 90-min incubation at room temperature. Source

Lu Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Bing du xue bao = Chinese journal of virology / [bian ji, Bing du xue bao bian ji wei yuan hui] | Year: 2011

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the important pathogens causing serious economic losses to swine industry worldwide. PRRSV is genetically and pathologically heterogenous. PRRSV NT0801 strain was isolated in a pig farm with clinical signs and had high pathogenesis in piglets. But its NSP2 gene did not have 30 amino acids deletion as highly pathogenic JXA1 strain. To elucidate the genetic characteristics of PRRSV NT0801 strain, the full-length genome of NT0801 isolate was sequenced and analyzed. The results showed that the genome of PRRSV NT0801 was 15439bp in length, including 29nt Poly(A) tail. Compared with the highly pathogenic JXA1 strain, it had the nucleotide sequence identity of 96.7%, amino acid sequence homology of 97.2% and 98.5% in GP3 and GP5, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that NT0801 isolate was located between the traditional strain and the highly pathogenic strain. But no obvious recombination signal was observed, compared with other PRRSV isolates with different virulence. The alignment of amino acid sequence of NT0801 with other PRRSV isolates demonstrated that three out of nine sites, being consistent with the highly pathogenic strain, were different from those in highly pathogenic while same as those in traditional strains and JXA1 vaccine strain. And one out of 9 sites was same as that of JXA1 vaccine strain exclusively, two out of 9 sites were different from all the strains. These results indicated that PRRSV NT0801 strain is closely related to highly pathogenic PRRSV, although there has no 30 amino acids deletions in NSP2 region. The epidemic PRRSV strains variation results from the gene mutation. It should be useful for studying on the virulence genes located in different ORFs of PRRSV in the future. Source

Two new species of the Rhyacophila anatina Species Group, R. coalita n. sp. and R. bicaudata n. sp. are described, diagnosed and illustrated. Rhyacophila coalita n. sp. is somewhat similar to R. yipung SCHMID and R. elongata KIMMINS in the male genitalia, but can be distinguished from them by the deep incision at the apex of the dorsal process of the aedeagus, fused anal sclerites, and a pair of membranous bulbs at the middle of the aedeagus. Rhyacophila bicaudata n. sp. is similar to R. triangularis SCHMID in male genitalia, but can be diagnosed by the longer preanal appendages, the slightly incised posteroventral margins of preanal appendages, and a gradually narrowed apicodorsal lobe of segment IX. © Copyright 2016 Magnolia Press. Source

Qun W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yongle L.,Nanjing University of Finance and Economics | Siqi Y.,University of Technology, Sydney
Land Use Policy | Year: 2015

Land grant premiums and land tax revenues have become two major sources of fiscal revenue for city governments in China. This type of fiscal revenue strategy for city governments is generally referred to as "land finance", and it has drawn increasing research attention in recent years. This paper explores the institutional causes of the "land finance" strategy of city governments in China. We first analyze the institutional foundation of "land finance" (including China's urban land use system and land expropriation system). We then propose two hypotheses about the institutional causes of "land finance". The first hypothesis is that the current system of fiscal decentralization is a major reason city governments choose the "land finance" fiscal strategy. The second hypothesis is that under the current personnel control system, which uses local economic performance as the most important indicator for evaluating local government officials, the competition between city governments to promote local economic growth is another major reason city governments choose the "land finance" fiscal strategy. We test the hypotheses by estimating econometric models using data for 31 provincial-level regions for the period 1999-2008. The empirical results suggest that fiscal decentralization and competition between city governments to promote economic growth are two major causes of "land finance". © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Zhao Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2012

To elucidate the biological functions of a two-component system RpfCxoc/RpfGxoc in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc). Based on the genome template from Xoc wild-type strain Rs105, the rpfCxoc and rpfGxoc genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The in-frame deletion mutations of rpfCxoc, rpfGxoc and rpfGCxoc (rpfCxoc and rpfGxoc double genes) were performed by the suicide vector pK18mobsacB, and determined diffusible signal factor (DSF) biosynthesis, pathogenicity in host rice, biofilm, extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production and cell morphology. rpfCxoc and rpfGxoc were cloned from the genomic DNA of Rs105. PCR analysis demonstrated that the rpfCxoc, rpfGxoc and rpfGCxoc genes were in-frame deleted successfully. Compared to the wild-type strain Rs105, DSF were overproduced in deltarpfCxoc and deltarpfGCxoc, but DSF production was remarkably decreased in deltarpfGxoc. The DSF production of these mutants was restored by introducing the complemented cosmid pUFR-rpfCxoc, pUFR-rpfGxoc and pUFR-rpfGCxoc, respectively. Subsequent experimental results indicated that mutation of rpfCxoc, rpfGxoc and rpfGCxoc resulted in pathogenicity loss of Xoc in host rice, and decreased biosynthesis level of EPS at 34.1%-48.5% compared to that of Rs105. In L medium (Tryptoen, 10 g/L; yeast extract, 5 g/L; sodium chloride, 5 g/L; D-glucose, 1 g/L; pH7.0) , Rs105 was growing at planktonic pattern, but the mutation of rpfCxoc and rpfGxoc led to Xoc cell aggregation at the wall of the flaks at the air-liquid interfaces, and deltarpfGxoc generated reticulation biofilm at the bottom of the flaks. But deltarpfGCxoc only generated reticulation biofilm at the bottom of the flaks. The two-component system RpfCxoc/RpfGxoc modulated DSF biosynthesis, EPS production and biofilm dispersal of Xoc, which was required for the pathogenicity of Xoc in host rice. Source

He H.,International Rice Research Institute | He H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Serraj R.,International Rice Research Institute | Serraj R.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

Reproductive stage drought stress results in dramatic reduction of spikelet fertility and grain yield of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.). The hypothesis investigated here is that spikelet sterility under pre-anthesis drought is triggered by deficient plant water status that inhibits peduncle elongation, panicle exsertion and anther dehiscence. A set of 45 rice genotypes was grown in an upland field under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions. Irrigation was applied using a drip irrigation system, and the drought stress treatment was initiated differentially for each genotype at 10-15 days before heading. Drought stress substantially reduced grain yield, and the average yield in the drought treatment was only 20% of that of the control. Peduncle elongation rate (PER) was significantly inhibited by drought, simultaneously with the decrease of plant water status parameters. Yield was highly associated with spikelet fertility (r= 0.74***), PER (r= 0.47***), leaf water potential (LWP) (r= -0.4**), and peduncle water potential (PWP) (r= -0.38**). The sensitivity of anther dehiscence to drought stress, as determined by the anatomic structure of anther walls, did not differ among genotypes. Path analysis revealed that spikelet fertility and PER had a major positive effect on yield, while peduncle length and LWP had negative effects. PWP had a small direct effect, but had a high negative indirect effect on yield through spikelet fertility reduction. PER had a high and positive indirect effect on yield under drought through spikelet fertility. It is concluded that PER is key parameter that affects rice yield through the regulation of spikelet fertility by plant water status under drought. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Wang Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011

Pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes deliver diverse arrays of virulence or avirulence molecules, defined here as effectors, into the host cells. Effectors enable parasitic colonization by manipulating classes of biochemical, physiological, and morphological processes. An effective strategy to modulate host defense circuitry is to suppress their programmed cell death (PCD) response. Here, we describe a method for analyzing whether effectors function to suppress PCD in yeast. We use Bax and H(2)O(2) to induce cell death and mimic some PCD features that naturally appear during the development of multicellular Saccharomyces cerevisiae colonies and assay whether plant pathogen effectors can inhibit the process. This technology provides an assay to test whether individual effectors can suppress PCD. Source

Bian G.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2010

To investigate the change of Clostridium cluster IV community in the colon of piglets from 7 to 35 days of age, and its correlation with butyrate concentration. Three litters of neonatal piglets were used. One piglet from each litter was sacrificed randomly at the age of 7, 14, 21 (weaning day), 24 and 35 days, digestive samples in the colon were collected. The concentration of volatile fatty acid (VFA) was determined by gas chromatography. 16S rRNA gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR were used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of Clostridium cluster IV community. Similarity analysis of DGGE profile revealed that samples from piglets at the age of 7 days formed a coherent cluster with indices above 90%, no significant changes in Clostridium cluster IV community were found around weaning period. Real-time PCR analysis showed that 16S rRNA gene copies of total bacteria in the colon of piglets decreased significantly 3 days after weaning, this tendency was in accordance with the changes in concentration of total VFA and butyrate in colon, while there was no significant difference in copies of Clostridium cluster IV group. Sequencing analysis indicated that Clostridium cluster IV group in the colon of piglets were dominated by Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Subdoligranulum variabile and other uncultured bacteria. Changes in Clostridium cluster IV community in the colon of piglets were found from the age of 7 days to 14 days, while there was no significant difference during the weaning transition. Source

Chen J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chen J.,Washington State University | Dodson M.V.,Washington State University | Jiang Z.,Washington State University
International Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

In the present study, mature adipocytes from pig-derived visceral and intramuscular adipose depots were isolated, purified, and allowed to undergo dedifferentiation and redifferentiation in vitro. During the redifferentiation process at days 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8, we observed that both visceraland intramuscular adipose-derived progeny cells possessed a similar capacity to accumulate lipid. However, at days 10, 12, 14, and 16, the latter progeny cells accumulated lipid much faster-the content almost doubled at day 16 (P < 0.05). Such faster potential of lipid accumulation in the intramuscular adipose-derived progeny cells was then supported by higher expressions of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBP-α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) at all these nine time points, and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase homolog 1 (DGAT1), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) at some time points (P < 0.05). These preliminary data suggest that adipose depot differences exist with respect to ability of purified cells of the adipose lineage to redifferentiate and form viable lipid-assimilating cells in vitro. Therefore, our present study might provide a foundation to develop tools for biomedical and agricultural applications, as well as to determine the regulation of depot-specific cells of the adipose lineage. Further studies with more animals will validate and expand our results. © Ivyspring International Publisher. Source

Cui X.-S.,Chungbuk National University | Sun S.-C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Kang Y.-K.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Kim N.-H.,Chungbuk National University
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2013

MicroRNA is a short RNA molecule expressed in eukaryotic cells that is involved in multiple processes, including translational repression, target degradation and gene silencing. However, its specific role(s) in these processes remains largely unknown, especially in terms of germ cell development. The present study identified a microRNA, namely miR-335-5p, that is involved in mouse oocyte meiosis. MiR-335-5p was highly expressed in oocytes, but levels decreased markedly shortly after fertilisation. Microinjection of miR-335-5p or its inhibitor into oocytes resulted in a higher proportion of 2-cell-like MII oocytes and oocytes at the germinal vesicle breakdown and/or MI stage, indicating failure of asymmetric oocyte division. This may be due to regulation of actin because perturbation of miR-335-5p resulted in reduced expression of actin nucleator Daam1, a member of the Formin family. Moreover, injection of miR-335-5p or its inhibitor resulted in aberrant spindle morphology, namely an elongated spindle and multiple poles spindle. After injection of oocytes, levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) decreased, suggesting that miR-335-5p may regulate spindle formation via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Overexpression and inhibition of miR-335-5p had no effect on embryo development. Together, the results of the present study indicate that miR-335-5p is a novel regulator expressed in oocytes that is involved in cytoskeleton dynamics. © 2013 CSIRO. Source

Zhang Y.-M.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

This chapter covers the procedure of mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in an F2 breeding design. I describe genetic design, general methods and software, and several commonly used approaches. The genetic design section includes F2 population construction. Widely used methods and software are introduced in the section of general methods and software. Finally, composite interval mapping, penalized maximum likelihood, and empirical Bayes are described in detail. Some issues related to the F2 design are discussed. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Min Yang Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chen J.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Metallomics | Year: 2013

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate plant growth and development by silencing gene expression at post-transcriptional level. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs are the regulators of plant response to environmental stresses. Also, genome-wide profiling of small RNAs reveals that many miRNAs are in response to heavy metals. Identification of the targets of metal-regulated miRNAs demonstrated that most of the target genes are involved in diverse metabolic pathways including sulphate allocation and assimilation, phytohormone signalling, antioxidation, and miRNA biogenesis. Thus, the high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs provides a powerful tool for mining a number of known and unknown miRNAs in plants in response to metal stress. Here, we discuss recent studies focusing on the newly identified miRNAs and their potential targets in plants and propose a new scenario involving plant tolerance to metal toxicity as part of the dynamic network that defines the potential roles of miRNAs in plant adaptation to heavy metal stress. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Ye W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ma W.,University of California at Riverside
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2016

Filamentous eukaryotic pathogens including fungi and oomycetes are major threats of plant health. During the co-evolutionary arms race with the hosts, these pathogens have evolved a large repertoire of secreted virulence proteins, called effectors, to facilitate colonization and infection. Many effectors are believed to directly manipulate targeted processes inside the host cells; and a fundamental function of the effectors is to dampen immunity. Recent evidence suggests that the destructive oomycete pathogens in the genus Phytophthora encode RNA silencing suppressors. These effectors play an important virulence role during infection, likely through their inhibitory effect on host small RNA-mediated defense. © 2016. Source

Lin X.,Nanjing Agricultural University
IET Control Theory and Applications | Year: 2016

Stability of switched non-linear systems is addressed from an output-to-state point of view. By virtue of the integrability of the outputs of switched non-linear systems, instead of Lyapunov function, the convergence of the solutions to a set is obtained. Hence, the difficulties of constructing Lyapunov function for switched non-linear systems can be avoided. Under the condition that the switched non-linear system is detectable, the conclusion that the switched nonlinear system is asymptotically stable can be reached. Two cases that switched non-linear systems with multiple output channels or a common output channel are discussed. Numerical examples are presented to verify the proposed method. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2016. Source

Mo G.X.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research / "Dong wu xue yan jiu" bian ji wei yuan hui bian ji | Year: 2013

As important traditional Chinese medicine materials, medicinal animals have been highly appreciated due to their strong bioactivities. Among these, medicinal insects have been thought to be significant, especially in preventing and treating modern diseases and tumors. Some of the most famous medicinal insects, such as horseflies, blister beetles and American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) have been well known due to their reported effects in anti-thrombosis and fighting cancer. In general, identifying the medicinal functions and active components of medicinal insects has been a gradual processes. Originally, these medicinal insects were collected from open fields and usually their whole bodies were adopted. But, currently, most medicinal insects are under large-scale artificial propagations and only their purified active components are in use. In this article, we reviewed the historical process of the application of the horsefly in traditional Chinese medicine and tried to provide useful references for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicines via discussing the interrelationship between traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine. Source

Pan D.,Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics | Ying R.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2013

Agricultural eco-efficiency which combines both economic and environmental performance is an effective tool for agricultural sustainability analysis. Taking China's 30 provinces as case regions, We applied a SBM model of DEA to measure the agricultural eco-efficiency from 1998 to 2009. The SBM model of DEA is non-radical, non-oriented and considers the agricultural non-point source pollution as an undesirable output in the calculating process which is different from the other existing models. Fertilizer, animal, labor, machine, sown area and water consumption were considered as input indicators, provincial agricultural output value and agricultural non-point source pollution were considered as desirable output indicaor and undesirable output indicaor respectively. The main results are summarized as follows:(1)Agricultural eco-efficiency in China during 1998-2009 is 0. 499 which is very low, this implies China's agricultural economic rapid growth is at the expense of natural resources destruction and agriculture environmental pollution, the coordination task of agricultural economic growth and environmental protection and resource saving is very difficult in China; (2)Agricultural eco-efficiency of Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Hainan is equal to one, this demonstrates that these four provinces have efficiency of resources utilization and environment protection for their agricultural economy, but the agricultural eco- efficiency of the other 26 provinces are below one showing that most provinces in China have inefficiency of resources utilization and environment protection for their agricultural economy; (3)Moreover, in order to promote agricultural eco- efficiency in these 26 provinces, the inputs optimization and outputs optimization were designed based on optimization principles. The optimization results show that agricultural output value(agricultural desirable output) has no congestion in all provinces, so the agricultural eco-inefficiency is mostly attributed to inputs and undesirable output. China has enormous potential on the reduction of agricultural non-point source pollution and on the decrease of resource inputs to improve the agricultural eco-efficiency. The eco-efficiency optimization provides deeper insights into the causes of eco-inefficiency and gives further implications on resource and environment protection strategies in China. Our results also showed that the SBM model could be used as a useful tool to reflect the eco-efficiency in a defined region and help governments at various levels to find the most optimized solutions in improving their eco-efficiencies. Source