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Jian H.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhu L.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhang W.,Nanjing Academy of Wild Plant | Qi X.,Beijing Forestry University | Jiang J.,Beijing Forestry University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2011

The galactomannan from endosperm of G. sinensis seeds was used as sustained release material in the matrix tablets prepared at different concentration of 5, 10 and 15 % corresponding to formulations of G5, G10 and G15, for the release of theophylline. The drug release behaviors of the systems were investigated, including the swelling and morphological studies and texture analysis. The dissolution tests were conducted in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid and pH 6.8 phosphate buffered saline. The results of release studies demonstrated that G10 with 10 % galactomannan concentration showed a better control of the drug release profiles. The percents of cumulative drug released in 24 h were 98.8, 90.2 and 83.4 % for G5, G10 and G15, respectively. All the systems exhibited the typical morphological behavior of a swellable matrix. Results of texture analysis on the swollen tablets confirmed that diffusion drug release mechanism played the major role in G10 and G15 systems while the drug delivery kinetic towards an erosion/relaxation mechanism for G5 matrix tablets.


Jian H.-L.,Beijing Forestry University | Liao X.-X.,South China University of Technology | Zhu L.-W.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhang W.-M.,Nanjing Academy of Wild Plant | Jiang J.-X.,Beijing Forestry University
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2011

A biosurfactant, named tea saponin (TS), was isolated and purified from the defatted seed of Camellia oleifera Abel. The characterization of TS including molecular weight, glycosyl composition, and thermal behavior as well as the surface and foaming properties was conducted. The synergistic interactions of binary systems of CTAB-TS, SDS-TS, and Brij35-TS were investigated. The results show that TS had a weight-average molecular weight of 809.12gmol -1 and contained four aglycones of l-rhamnose, d-galactose, d-glucose, and d-glucuronic acid. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of 2.242mmolL -1 and the minimum surface tension (γ cmc) of 43.5mNm -1 were determined for TS. Synergisms in surface tension reduction efficiency, in mixed micelle formation, and in surface tension reduction effectiveness were observed in CTAB-TS and SDS-TS systems, whereas that was not shown in Brij35-TS mixtures. The mixtures of TS with CTAB and SDS showed synergism in foaming efficiency, but this synergism did not exist in Brij35-TS system with respect to the surface properties. Nevertheless, there appears to be no significant correlation between foam stability and the surface properties. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Jian H.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhu L.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhang W.,Nanjing Academy of Wild Plant | Sun D.,Nanjing Academy of Wild Plant | Jiang J.,Beijing Forestry University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

Galactomannan (G) from Gleditsia sinensis Lam. and xanthan gum (X), as sustained release materials for controlled delivery of theophylline, were mixed in different ratios of 7:3, 5:5, and 3:7 to yield enhanced release-controlling performance. The polysaccharides content of tablets was 10% (w/w), either alone or in mixtures. From in vitro dissolution test, G10% and X10% matrices released 91.4 and 87.7% of drug within 24 h, respectively. The synergistic interactions between galactomannan and xanthan effectively retarded the drug diffusion, and the most sustained drug release (75.5% at 24 h) was found in formulation GX7:3. The drug release data fitted to the kinetic model indicated the anomalous transport mechanism (0.5 < n < 1.0). Additionally, the swelling behavior and morphological changes of the tablets were investigated. The results illustrated the potential of binary mixtures of G. sinensis galactomannan and xanthan as novel sustained release materials for controlled drug delivery. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Bu L.,Beijing Forestry University | Tang Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Xing Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhang W.,Nanjing Academy of Wild Plant | And 2 more authors.
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Furfural residue (FR) is a waste lignocellulosic material with enormous potential for bioethanol production. In this study, bioethanol production from FR after delignification was compared. Hydrophilic variation was measured by conductometric titration to detect the relationship between hydrophilicity and bioethanol production. It was found that ethanol yield increased as delignification enhanced, and it reached up to 75.6% of theoretical yield for samples with 8.7% lignin. The amount of by-products decreased as delignification increased. New inflection points appeared in conductometric titration curves of samples that were partially delignified, but they vanished in the curves of the highly delignified samples. Total charges and carboxyl levels increased after slight delignification, and they decreased upon further delignification. These phenomena suggested some new hydrophilic groups were formed during pretreated delignification, which would be beneficial to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, some newly formed groups may act as toxicant to the yeast during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. © 2014 Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry.


Tang Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhu L.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhang W.,Nanjing Academy of Wild Plant | Shang X.,Chunlei Industrial Group Company | Jiang J.,Beijing Forestry University
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

The sequential production of bioethanol and lactic acid from starch materials and lignocellulosic materials was investigated as ethanol fermentation broth (EFB) can provide nutrients for lactic acid bacteria. A complete process was developed, and all major operations are discussed, including ethanol fermentation, broth treatment, lactic acid fermentation, and product separation. The effect of process parameters, including ethanol fermentation conditions, treatment methods, and the amount of EFB used in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), is investigated. Under the selected process conditions, the integrated process without additional chemical consumption provides a 1.08 acid/alcohol ratio (the broth containing 22.4 g/L ethanol and 47.6 g/L lactic acid), which corresponds to a polysaccharide utilization ratio of 86.9 %. Starch ethanol can thus promote cellulosic lactic acid by providing important nutrients for lactic acid bacteria, and in turn, cellulosic lactic acid could promote starch ethanol by improving the profit of the ethanol production process. Two process alternatives for the integration of starch ethanol and cellulosic lactic acid are compared, and some suggestions are given regarding the reuse of yeast following the cellulosic SSF step for lactic acid production. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Jian H.-L.,Beijing Forestry University | Cristhian C.,Lund University | Zhang W.-M.,Nanjing Academy of Wild Plant | Jiang J.-X.,Beijing Forestry University
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2011

The seeds of Gleditsia sinensis Lam., widespread in China, are an important source of galactomannans. G. sinensis gum was extracted from whole seeds using baking, boiling water and acid dehulling pretreatment, respectively. The physicochemical properties of the three isolated G. sinensis gums were studied to evaluate three pretreatment methods. The results illustrated that the properties of G. sinensis gum were significantly influenced by dulling method (p < 0.05) including the yield, M/G ratio, viscosity, chemical composition and molecular weight. Power-law model (σ=k·γ̇n) was applied to the rheological measurements, which indicated that solutions of Gb, Gw and Ga gum behaved as pseudoplastic fluids at the concentration of 0.5% (w/v). The gum obtained by acid pretreatment (Ga) had the lowest yield of 20-24% (w/w). However Ga showed a pronounced shear-thinning behavior and particularly higher viscosity compared with the gums extracted by baking pretreatment (Gb) and boiling water dehulling method (Gw). The mannose to galactose ratios (M/G ratio) for Gb, Gw and Ga were found to be 4.5, 4.4 and 6.9, respectively. The highest molecular weight of 3.31 × 106 Da was observed for the galactomannans of Gb. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Xing Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Ji L.,Beijing Forestry University | Liu Z.-P.,Chunlei Industrial Group Company | Zhang W.-M.,Nanjing Academy of Wild Plant | Jiang J.-X.,Beijing Forestry University
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015

Surfactants are popular additives for the prevention of the inhibitory effect of lignin on cellulolytic enzymes. Saponin is a type of natural surfactant extracted from Gleditsia spp. In this study, the effect of saponin on the high-solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis of furfural residues (FRs) with a lignin content of 45% was investigated. The optimal dosage of Gleditsia saponin (GS) was determined to be 25-fold greater than its critical micelle concentration (CMC; 0.16. g/L). The addition of GS increased the cellulose conversion by up to 52.63% in high-solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis. Due to the addition of GS, a maximum cellulose conversion of 74.88% was achieved after FRs had hydrolyzed for 120. h at a solids loading of 20% (w/w) with 30 filter paper unit (FPU)/g-cellulose. The decrease in cellulose conversion was found to exhibit a linear correlation with an increase in the solids loadings from 20.0% to 27.5% (w/w). The surface structural variations of hydrolytic residues were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the carbonyl groups of lignin facilitated the binding of GS to the surface of lignin, which resulted in a decrease in the adsorption of between the enzyme and lignin. Interestingly, GS could maintain enzymatic activity in the supernatants. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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