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München, Germany

Stoelzle-Feix S.,Nanion Technologies GmbH
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

A successful robotic approach of the patch clamp technique is based on planar patch clamp chips where a glass pipette, as used in conventional patch clamping, is replaced by a thin planar glass sheet with a small hole in the middle. Automated patch clamp (APC) systems utilizing this chip design offer higher throughput capabilities and ease of use and thus have become common in basic research, drug development, and safety screening. Further development of existing devices and introduction of new systems widen the range of possible experiments and increase throughput. Here, two features with different areas of applications that meet the needs of drug discovery researchers and basic researchers alike are described. The utilized system is a medium throughput APC device capable of recording up to eight cells simultaneously. The temperature control capability and the possibility to perform recordings not only in the voltage clamp but also in the current clamp mode are described in detail. Since eight recordings can be generated in parallel without compromising data quality, reliable and cost-effective and time-effective screening of compounds against ion channels using voltage clamp and current clamp electrophysiology can be performed. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Moparthi L.,Lund University | Survery S.,Lund University | Kreir M.,Nanion Technologies GmbH | Kreir M.,Jacobs University Bremen | And 5 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

We have purified and reconstituted human transient receptor potential (TRP) subtype A1 (hTRPA1) into lipid bilayers and recorded single-channel currents to understand its inherent thermo- and chemosensory properties as well as the role of the ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) of the N terminus in channel behavior. We report that hTRPA1 with and without its N-terminal ARD (Δ1-688 hTRPA1) is intrinsically cold-sensitive, and thus, cold-sensing properties of hTRPA1 reside outside the N-terminal ARD. We show activation of hTRPA1 by the thiol oxidant 2-((biotinoyl)amino)ethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSEA-biotin) and that electrophilic compounds activate hTRPA1 in the presence and absence of the N-terminal ARD. The nonelectrophilic compounds menthol and the cannabinoid Δ9- tetrahydrocannabiorcol (C16) directly activate hTRPA1 at different sites independent of the N-terminal ARD. The TRPA1 antagonist HC030031 inhibited cold and chemical activation of hTRPA1 and Δ1-688 hTRPA1, supporting a direct interaction with hTRPA1 outside the N-terminal ARD. These findings show that hTRPA1 is an intrinsically cold- and chemosensitive ion channel. Thus, second messengers, including Ca2+, or accessory proteins are not needed for hTRPA1 responses to cold or chemical activators. We suggest that conformational changes outside the N-terminal ARD by cold, electrophiles, and nonelectrophiles are important in hTRPA1 channel gating and that targeting chemical interaction sites outside the N-terminal ARD provides possibilities to fine tune TRPA1-based drug therapies (e.g., for treatment of pain associated with cold hypersensitivity and cardiovascular disease).

Steller L.,Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research | Kreir M.,Nanion Technologies GmbH | Salzer R.,TU Dresden
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

The single-molecule selectivity and specificity of the binding process together with the expected intrinsic gain factor obtained when utilizing flow through a channel have attracted the attention of analytical chemists for two decades. Sensitive and selective ion channel biosensors for high-throughput screening are having an increasing impact on modern medical care, drug screening, environmental monitoring, food safety, and biowarefare control. Even virus antigens can be detected by ion channel biosensors. The study of ion channels and other transmembrane proteins is expected to lead to the development of new medications and therapies for a wide range of illnesses. From the first attempts to use membrane proteins as the receptive part of a sensor, ion channels have been engineered as chemical sensors. Several other types of peptidic or nonpeptidic channels have been investigated. Various gating mechanisms have been implemented in their pores. Three technical problems had to be solved to achieve practical biosensors based on ion channels: the fabrication of stable lipid bilayer membranes, the incorporation of a receptor into such a structure, and the marriage of the modified membrane to a transducer. The current status of these three areas of research, together with typical applications of ion-channel biosensors, are discussed in this review. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Grimm C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Barthmes M.,Nanion Technologies GmbH | Wahl-Schott C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology | Year: 2014

TRPML3 belongs to the MCOLN (TRPML) subfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels comprising three genes in mammals. Since the discovery of the pain sensing, capsaicin- and heat-activated vanilloid receptor (TRPV1), TRP channels have been found to be involved in regulating almost all kinds of our sensory modalities. Thus, TRP channel members are sensitive to heat or cold; they are involved in pain or osmosensation, vision, hearing, or taste sensation. Loss or mutation of TRPML1 can cause retina degeneration and eventually blindness in mice and men (mucolipidosis type IV). Gain-of-function mutations in TRPML3 cause deafness and circling behavior in mice. A special feature of TRPML channels is their intracellular expression. They mostly reside in membranes of organelles of the endolysosomal system such as early and late endosomes, recycling endosomes, lysosomes, or lysosome-related organelles. Although the physiological roles of TRPML channels within the endolysosomal system are far from being fully understood, it is speculated that they are involved in the regulation of endolysosomal pH, fusion/fission processes, trafficking, autophagy, and/or (hormone) secretion and exocytosis. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

Mahendran K.R.,Jacobs University Bremen | Kreir M.,Nanion Technologies GmbH | Weingart H.,Jacobs University Bremen | Fertig N.,Nanion Technologies GmbH | Winterhalter M.,Jacobs University Bremen
Journal of Biomolecular Screening | Year: 2010

A chip-based automated patch-clamp technique provides an attractive biophysical tool to quantify solute permeation through membrane channels. Proteo-giant unilamellar vesicles (proteo-GUVs) were used, to form a stable lipid bilayer across a micrometer-sized hole. Because of the small size and hence low capacitance of the bilayer, single-channel recordings were achieved with very low background noise. The latter allowed, the characterization of the influx of 2 major classes of antibiotics-cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones- through the major Escherichia coli porins OmpF and OmpC. Analyzing the ion current fluctuations in the presence of antibiotics revealed, transport properties that allowed, the authors to determine the mode of permeation. The chip-based setup allows rapid solution exchange and efficient quantification of antibiotic permeation through bacterial porins on a single-molecule level. © 2010 Society for Biomolecular Sciences.

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