Servat A.,French Agency for Food |
Servat A.,Nancy Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife |
Kempff S.,French Agency for Food |
Brogat V.,French Agency for Food |
And 3 more authors.
ATLA Alternatives to Laboratory Animals | Year: 2015
The mouse challenge test still remains the reference method for the potency determination of human and animal inactivated rabies vaccines, and it is still widely used throughout the world. This test suffers from many disadvantages - it is expensive and time consuming, uses a large number of mice, causes significant animal distress, and suffers from high variability. Recently, the European Pharmacopoeia has recognised the use of a serological potency assay (SPA) as an alternative method to the challenge test. This new test is based on the determination of rabies neutralising antibody titres in vaccinated mice, by using the modified Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (mRFFIT). With the objective of adopting this new method for the batch release of inactivated rabies vaccines, we evaluated its performance on a large collection of rabies vaccines currently assessed in our laboratory. The Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test (FAVNt) was used in parallel with the mRFFIT, and the results were compared to the mouse challenge test. Our results demonstrate that the SPA is capable of estimating the potency of vaccines formulated with a potency margin well above the minimum of 1IU/dose. For low potency vaccines, this new method demonstrated some limitations, due to the recurrent invalidation of the assay. We have also demonstrated the superior sensitivity of the FAVNt when compared to the mRFFIT, and the importance of minimising the risk of detecting non-responders in vaccinated mice. © 2015 ATLA.
Richomme C.,Nancy Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife |
Boadella M.,SaBio IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM |
Courcoul A.,University Paris Est Creteil |
Durand B.,University Paris Est Creteil |
And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is increasingly considered as a relevant actor in the epidemiology of animal tuberculosis (TB). Therefore, monitoring TB in wild boar becomes a key tool for establishing comprehensive control schemes for this disease. To estimate the exposure of free living wild boar to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) in France, a bovine-purified protein derivative based ELISA was used to test 2,080 archived serum samples of hunter-harvested animals in 58 French "départements". Two cut-off values were used for diagnostic interpretation: 0.2, recommended by the manufacturer (specificity: 96.43%; sensitivity: 72.6%), and 0.5 (specificity: 100%; sensitivity: 64%). During the same period, at the 0.2 cut-off, global true seroprevalence was 5.9% (IC95%: 4.3%-7.7%) and 76% of the sampled "départements" had seropositive wild boar, including seven cattle TB-free "départements. At the 0.5 cut-off, global true seroprevalence was 2.2% (IC95%: 1.5-3.2) and positive wild boar belonged to 21% of the "départements". All but one of these positive "départements" had reported at least one cattle TB outbreak since 2000. A good consistence between seropositive wild boar and TB outbreaks in cattle was found, especially at the 0.5 cut-off value (the mean distance to the nearest cattle TB outbreak was 13km and 27km for seropositive and seronegative wild boar, respectively; P<0.05). The use of an ELISA to detect MTC antibodies in wild boar has permitted the description of the geographic distribution of MTC contact in wild boar in France. Our results suggest that the ELISA could be used as a first screening tool to conduct TB surveillance in wild boar at a population level. High-risk wild boar populations (e.g. overabundant) could be tested and if identified positive by ELISA they should be surveyed in detail by combining pathology and culture. © 2013 Richomme et al.
Hendrikx P.,French Agency for Food |
Gay E.,Lyon Laboratory |
Chazel M.,Lyon Laboratory |
Moutou F.,Maisons Alfort Laboratory for Animal Health |
And 5 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2011
The purpose of this study was to develop a standardized tool for the assessment of surveillance systems on zoonoses and animal diseases. We reviewed three existing methods and combined them to develop a semi-quantitative assessment tool associating their strengths and providing a standardized way to display multilevel results. We developed a set of 78 assessment criteria divided into ten sections, representing the functional parts of a surveillance system. Each criterion was given a score according to the prescription of a scoring guide. Three graphical assessment outputs were generated using a specific combination of the scores. Output 1 is a general overview through a series of pie charts synthesizing the scores of each section. Output 2 is a histogram representing the quality of eight critical control points. Output 3 is a radar chart representing the level reached by ten system attributes. This tool was applied on five surveillance networks. © Cambridge University Press 2011.
Sevila J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Sevila J.,Nancy Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife |
Sevila J.,National Veterinary School of Toulouse |
Sevila J.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole |
And 11 more authors.
Acta Theriologica | Year: 2014
The recent increase in interactions between wildlife and domestic animals has heightened the risks of transmission of pathogens between wildlife, livestock, and humans. Our objective was to better understand how the spatial behavior of wildlife impacts their exposure to pathogens. We carried out a 5-year serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydia abortus in a roe deer population (Capreolus capreolus) living in a rural landscape and monitored using GPS technology. We tested whether the apparent seroprevalence of these pathogens was related to the characteristics of roe deer’s home range, indirectly reflecting the probability of contact between deer and domestic hosts (cats for T. gondii and ruminants for C. abortus). We controlled for the effects of temperature and rainfall, as local weather can affect pathogen survival in the environment. Overall, apparent seroprevalences were 43.7 and 15.8 % for T. gondii (N = 135) and C. abortus (N = 133), respectively. The apparent seroprevalence to T. gondii increased with the proportion of human dwellings (a proxy of cat presence) within the roe deer’s core home range and was higher during mild and wet years. This result illustrates how the spatial behavior of wild animals can modulate their exposure to pathogens through the degree of spatial overlap with a domestic host. By contrast, apparent seroprevalence to C. abortus increased with the annual number of frosty days but not with the proportion of meadows occupied by domestic ruminants within the core home range. This suggests that the cycle of C. abortus in wild animals could be somewhat independent from that in livestock. © 2014, Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland.
Robardet E.,Nancy Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife |
Picard-Meyer E.,Nancy Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife |
Dobrostana M.,Institute of Food Safety |
Jaceviciene I.,National Food and Veterinary Risk Assessment Institute of Lithuania |
And 8 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2016
Rabies is a fatal zoonosis that still causes nearly 70, 000 human deaths every year. In Europe, the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was developed in the late 1970s and has demonstrated its effectiveness in the eradication of the disease in Western and some Central European countries. Following the accession of the three Baltic countries—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—to the European Union in 2004, subsequent financial support has allowed the implementation of regular ORV campaigns since 2005–2006. This paper reviews ten years of surveillance efforts and ORV campaigns in these countries resulting in the near eradication of the disease. The various factors that may have influenced the results of vaccination monitoring were assessed using generalized linear models (GLMs) on bait uptake and on herd immunity. As shown in previous studies, juveniles had lower bait uptake level than adults. For the first time, raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were shown to have significantly lower bait uptake proportion compared with red foxes. This result suggests potentially altered ORV effectiveness in this invasive species compared to the red foxes. An extensive phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the North-East European (NEE) rabies phylogroup is endemic in all three Baltic countries. Although successive oral vaccination campaigns have substantially reduced the number of detected rabies cases, sporadic detection of the C lineage (European part of Russian phylogroup) underlines the risk of reintroduction via westward spread from bordering countries. Vaccine induced cases were also reported for the first time in non-target species (Martes martes and Meles meles). © 2016 Robardet et al.